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Introduction to Data Structures
Course Code: CSC 2106
Department of Computer Science
Faculty of Science and Technology
Lecturer No: 1.1 Week No: 1 Semester: Spring 2020-2021
Lecturer: Nazia Alfaz
nazia.alfaz@aiub.edu
Course Title: Data Structure (Theory)
Credit: 3 credit hours
Lecture Outline
1. Mission, Vision & Goals of AIUB and Its Computer Science Department
2. Course Objectives, Importance, Contents & Evaluation
3. Course & Class policies
4. Definition of Data Structures
5. Operations on Data Structures
6. Definition of Algorithm
7. Definition of Program
8. References
Vision & Mission of AIUB
Vision
AMERICAN INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY-BANGLADESH (AIUB) envisions promoting
professionals and excellent leadership catering to the technological progress and
development needs of the country.
Mission
AMERICAN INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY-BANGLADESH (AIUB) is committed to provide
quality and excellent computer-based academic programs responsive to the emerging
challenges of the time. It is dedicated to nurture and produce competent world class
professional imbued with strong sense of ethical values ready to face the competitive
world of arts, business, science, social science and technology.
Goals of AIUB
 Sustain development and progress of the university.
 Continue to upgrade educational services and facilities responsive of the demands
for change and needs of the society.
 Inculcate professional culture among management, faculty and personnel in the
attainment of the institution's vision, mission and goals.
 Enhance research consciousness in discovering new dimensions for curriculum
development and enrichment.
 Implement meaningful and relevant community outreach programs reflective of
the available resources and expertise of the university.
 Establish strong networking of programs, sharing of resources and expertise with
local and international educational institutions and organizations.
 Accelerate the participation of alumni, students and professionals in the
implementation of educational programs and development of projects designed to
expand and improve global academic standards.
Vision & Mission of
Computer Science Department
Vision
Provides leadership in the pursuit of quality and excellent computer education and
produce highly skilled and globally competitive IT professionals.
Mission
Committed to educate students to think analytically and communicate effectively; train
them to acquire technological, industry and research-oriented accepted skills; keep
them abreast of the new trends and progress in the world of information
communication technology; and inculcate in them the value of professional ethics.
Goals of
Computer Science Department
 Enrich the computer education curriculum to suit the needs of the industry- wide
standards for both domestic and international markets.
 Equip the faculty and staff with professional, modern technological and research
skills.
 Upgrade continuously computer hardware's, facilities and instructional materials to
cope with the challenges of the information technology age.
 Initiate and conduct relevant research, software development and outreach
services.
 Establish linkage with industry and other IT-based organizations/institutions for
sharing of resources and expertise, and better job opportunities for students.
Course & Class Policies
 All students are expected to attend all scheduled classes, and to read all assigned
chapters / materials before coming to class.
 Attendance will be taken at the beginning of each class.
 Student joining after 10 minutes of due time is considered late.
 Students with less than 80% attendance will not receive any marks for attendance.
 Students are expected to participate actively in the class. Performance will be
recorded during the classes.
 Be quite during the lecture. Time will be given for queries.
 For both Mid-term and Final-term, there will be 2 quizzes, best one quiz will be
counted for grading.
 No Make-up Quiz will be taken!!!
 During the quiz and viva, if you practice any unfair means, you will be given UW for
the rest of the semester.
 Late during quiz/viva will not be given additional time.
Course & Class Policies
 Students with “F” or “I” in the midterm, must drop (as per policy) the course right
after the mid-term exam (within a week). If you wish to continue with “F” at your own
risk and if you receive “F” in the final, you won’t be allowed to drop the course.
 There is no provision for any bonus marking. If such requests are made, penalty will be
applied.
 Respect your course teacher and your classmates.
Course Objectives
The objective of this course is to introduce the subject of data structures with the
explanation of how data can be stored or manipulated in computer in an optimized way.
An overview of data organization and certain data structures will be covered along with
a discussion of the different operations, which are applied to these data structures.
Here, the space and time complexity will be taken care for different searching or sorting
techniques to deal with data. We also include how these efficient techniques could be
implemented in real life applications.
Importance of the course
 Data structure is required for all areas of computer science – especially for the basic
concept of programming.
 This course will give the basic for the understanding of the courses – Algorithms,
Database, Artificial Intelligence, object-oriented programming, etc.
 This course will give the basic for the understanding of the concepts – Data storage,
converting data into information, manipulation of data, etc.
Course Contents
 Mid-term
 Elementary Data Types & Data
Structure
 Arrays [1D & 2D]
 Pointer, String, Structure
 Stack & Queue
 Application of Stack & Queue
 Searching & Sorting
 Complexity Analysis
 Linked List- Singly Linked List
 Final-term
 Linked Lists [Doubly Linked List]
 Introduction to Trees
 Binary Search Tree
 Heap
 Introduction to Graphs
 Spanning Tree
 Traversing Methods[BFS & DFS]
 Hash Function
Course Evaluation
Mid-term 2 Quizzes (Best One) 15%
40%
Viva 15%
Assignment & Miscellaneous Performance 20%
Attendance 10%
Mid-term Components 40%
Midterm Total 100
Final-term 2 Quizzes (Best One) 15%
60%
Viva 15%
Assignment & Miscellaneous Performance 20%
Attendance 10%
Final-term Components 40%
Final Term Total 100
Grand Total 100
Data & Structures
 What is Data?
o Data means raw facts or information that can be processed to get results.
 What is Structure?
o Some elementary items constitute a unit, and that unit may be considered as a
structure.
o A structure may be treated as a frame where we organize some elementary
items in different ways.
Data Structures
 So, what is Data Structure?
o Data structure is a structure where we organize elementary data items in
different ways and there exits structural relationship among the items so that it
can be used efficiently.
o In other words, a data structure is means of structural relationships of
elementary data items for storing and retrieving data in computer’s memory.
Definition
Elements of a Data Structure
 Usually, elementary data items are the elements of a data structure.
 Types of Elementary data items: Character, Integer, Floating point numbers etc.
 However, a data structure may be an element of another data structure. That
means a data structure may contain another data structure. For example: Array,
Structure, Stack, etc.
 We talk about or study Data Structures in two ways:
o Basic
• Having a concrete implementation. Example: Variable, Pointer, Array etc.
o Abstract Data Types (ADTs):
• ADTs are entities that are definition of data and operation but do not have
any concrete implementation. Example: List, Stack, Queue etc.
Operations on Data Structures
 Basic
o Insertion (addition of a new element in the data structure)
o Deletion (removal of the element from the data structure)
o Traversal (accessing data elements in the data structure)
 Additional:
o Searching (locating a certain element in the data structure)
o Sorting (Arranging elements in a data structure in a specified order)
o Merging (combining elements of two similar data structures)
o Etc.
Algorithm
 Set of instructions that can be followed to perform a task. In other words, sequence
of steps that can be followed to solve a problem.
 To write an algorithm we do not strictly follow grammar of any particular
programming language.
 However, its language may be near to a programming language.
Definition
Parts of an Algorithm
 Each and every algorithm can be divided into three sections:
o First section is input section, where we show which data elements are to be
given or fed to the algorithm as an input.
o The second section is the most important one, which is operational or
processing section. Here we have to do all necessary operations, such as
computation, taking decision, calling other procedures (or algorithms) etc.
o The third section is output, where we display or get the result with the help of
the previous two sections.
Program
 Sequence of instructions of any programming language that can be followed to
perform a particular task.
 Like an algorithm, generally a program has three sections such as input, processing
and output.
 For a particular problem (usually for a complex problem), at first, we may write an
algorithm. Later, the algorithm may be converted into a program.
 In a program usually we use a large amount of data. Most of the cases these data are
not elementary items, where exists structural relationship between elementary data
items.
o That means the program uses data structures.
References
 “Schaum's Outline of Data Structures with C++”. By John R. Hubbard
 “Data Structures and Program Design”, Robert L. Kruse, 3rd Edition, 1996.
 “Data structures, algorithms and performance”, D. Wood, Addison-Wesley, 1993
 “Advanced Data Structures”, Peter Brass, Cambridge University Press, 2008
 “Data Structures and Algorithm Analysis”, Edition 3.2 (C++ Version), Clifford A.
Shaffer, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 January 2, 2012
 “C++ Data Structures”, Nell Dale and David Teague, Jones and Bartlett Publishers,
2001.
 “Data Structures and Algorithms with Object-Oriented Design Patterns in C++”,
Bruno R. Preiss,

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Lecture_01.1.pptx

  • 1. Introduction to Data Structures Course Code: CSC 2106 Department of Computer Science Faculty of Science and Technology Lecturer No: 1.1 Week No: 1 Semester: Spring 2020-2021 Lecturer: Nazia Alfaz nazia.alfaz@aiub.edu Course Title: Data Structure (Theory) Credit: 3 credit hours
  • 2. Lecture Outline 1. Mission, Vision & Goals of AIUB and Its Computer Science Department 2. Course Objectives, Importance, Contents & Evaluation 3. Course & Class policies 4. Definition of Data Structures 5. Operations on Data Structures 6. Definition of Algorithm 7. Definition of Program 8. References
  • 3. Vision & Mission of AIUB Vision AMERICAN INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY-BANGLADESH (AIUB) envisions promoting professionals and excellent leadership catering to the technological progress and development needs of the country. Mission AMERICAN INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY-BANGLADESH (AIUB) is committed to provide quality and excellent computer-based academic programs responsive to the emerging challenges of the time. It is dedicated to nurture and produce competent world class professional imbued with strong sense of ethical values ready to face the competitive world of arts, business, science, social science and technology.
  • 4. Goals of AIUB  Sustain development and progress of the university.  Continue to upgrade educational services and facilities responsive of the demands for change and needs of the society.  Inculcate professional culture among management, faculty and personnel in the attainment of the institution's vision, mission and goals.  Enhance research consciousness in discovering new dimensions for curriculum development and enrichment.  Implement meaningful and relevant community outreach programs reflective of the available resources and expertise of the university.  Establish strong networking of programs, sharing of resources and expertise with local and international educational institutions and organizations.  Accelerate the participation of alumni, students and professionals in the implementation of educational programs and development of projects designed to expand and improve global academic standards.
  • 5. Vision & Mission of Computer Science Department Vision Provides leadership in the pursuit of quality and excellent computer education and produce highly skilled and globally competitive IT professionals. Mission Committed to educate students to think analytically and communicate effectively; train them to acquire technological, industry and research-oriented accepted skills; keep them abreast of the new trends and progress in the world of information communication technology; and inculcate in them the value of professional ethics.
  • 6. Goals of Computer Science Department  Enrich the computer education curriculum to suit the needs of the industry- wide standards for both domestic and international markets.  Equip the faculty and staff with professional, modern technological and research skills.  Upgrade continuously computer hardware's, facilities and instructional materials to cope with the challenges of the information technology age.  Initiate and conduct relevant research, software development and outreach services.  Establish linkage with industry and other IT-based organizations/institutions for sharing of resources and expertise, and better job opportunities for students.
  • 7. Course & Class Policies  All students are expected to attend all scheduled classes, and to read all assigned chapters / materials before coming to class.  Attendance will be taken at the beginning of each class.  Student joining after 10 minutes of due time is considered late.  Students with less than 80% attendance will not receive any marks for attendance.  Students are expected to participate actively in the class. Performance will be recorded during the classes.  Be quite during the lecture. Time will be given for queries.  For both Mid-term and Final-term, there will be 2 quizzes, best one quiz will be counted for grading.  No Make-up Quiz will be taken!!!  During the quiz and viva, if you practice any unfair means, you will be given UW for the rest of the semester.  Late during quiz/viva will not be given additional time.
  • 8. Course & Class Policies  Students with “F” or “I” in the midterm, must drop (as per policy) the course right after the mid-term exam (within a week). If you wish to continue with “F” at your own risk and if you receive “F” in the final, you won’t be allowed to drop the course.  There is no provision for any bonus marking. If such requests are made, penalty will be applied.  Respect your course teacher and your classmates.
  • 9. Course Objectives The objective of this course is to introduce the subject of data structures with the explanation of how data can be stored or manipulated in computer in an optimized way. An overview of data organization and certain data structures will be covered along with a discussion of the different operations, which are applied to these data structures. Here, the space and time complexity will be taken care for different searching or sorting techniques to deal with data. We also include how these efficient techniques could be implemented in real life applications.
  • 10. Importance of the course  Data structure is required for all areas of computer science – especially for the basic concept of programming.  This course will give the basic for the understanding of the courses – Algorithms, Database, Artificial Intelligence, object-oriented programming, etc.  This course will give the basic for the understanding of the concepts – Data storage, converting data into information, manipulation of data, etc.
  • 11. Course Contents  Mid-term  Elementary Data Types & Data Structure  Arrays [1D & 2D]  Pointer, String, Structure  Stack & Queue  Application of Stack & Queue  Searching & Sorting  Complexity Analysis  Linked List- Singly Linked List  Final-term  Linked Lists [Doubly Linked List]  Introduction to Trees  Binary Search Tree  Heap  Introduction to Graphs  Spanning Tree  Traversing Methods[BFS & DFS]  Hash Function
  • 12. Course Evaluation Mid-term 2 Quizzes (Best One) 15% 40% Viva 15% Assignment & Miscellaneous Performance 20% Attendance 10% Mid-term Components 40% Midterm Total 100 Final-term 2 Quizzes (Best One) 15% 60% Viva 15% Assignment & Miscellaneous Performance 20% Attendance 10% Final-term Components 40% Final Term Total 100 Grand Total 100
  • 13. Data & Structures  What is Data? o Data means raw facts or information that can be processed to get results.  What is Structure? o Some elementary items constitute a unit, and that unit may be considered as a structure. o A structure may be treated as a frame where we organize some elementary items in different ways.
  • 14. Data Structures  So, what is Data Structure? o Data structure is a structure where we organize elementary data items in different ways and there exits structural relationship among the items so that it can be used efficiently. o In other words, a data structure is means of structural relationships of elementary data items for storing and retrieving data in computer’s memory. Definition
  • 15. Elements of a Data Structure  Usually, elementary data items are the elements of a data structure.  Types of Elementary data items: Character, Integer, Floating point numbers etc.  However, a data structure may be an element of another data structure. That means a data structure may contain another data structure. For example: Array, Structure, Stack, etc.  We talk about or study Data Structures in two ways: o Basic • Having a concrete implementation. Example: Variable, Pointer, Array etc. o Abstract Data Types (ADTs): • ADTs are entities that are definition of data and operation but do not have any concrete implementation. Example: List, Stack, Queue etc.
  • 16. Operations on Data Structures  Basic o Insertion (addition of a new element in the data structure) o Deletion (removal of the element from the data structure) o Traversal (accessing data elements in the data structure)  Additional: o Searching (locating a certain element in the data structure) o Sorting (Arranging elements in a data structure in a specified order) o Merging (combining elements of two similar data structures) o Etc.
  • 17. Algorithm  Set of instructions that can be followed to perform a task. In other words, sequence of steps that can be followed to solve a problem.  To write an algorithm we do not strictly follow grammar of any particular programming language.  However, its language may be near to a programming language. Definition
  • 18. Parts of an Algorithm  Each and every algorithm can be divided into three sections: o First section is input section, where we show which data elements are to be given or fed to the algorithm as an input. o The second section is the most important one, which is operational or processing section. Here we have to do all necessary operations, such as computation, taking decision, calling other procedures (or algorithms) etc. o The third section is output, where we display or get the result with the help of the previous two sections.
  • 19. Program  Sequence of instructions of any programming language that can be followed to perform a particular task.  Like an algorithm, generally a program has three sections such as input, processing and output.  For a particular problem (usually for a complex problem), at first, we may write an algorithm. Later, the algorithm may be converted into a program.  In a program usually we use a large amount of data. Most of the cases these data are not elementary items, where exists structural relationship between elementary data items. o That means the program uses data structures.
  • 20. References  “Schaum's Outline of Data Structures with C++”. By John R. Hubbard  “Data Structures and Program Design”, Robert L. Kruse, 3rd Edition, 1996.  “Data structures, algorithms and performance”, D. Wood, Addison-Wesley, 1993  “Advanced Data Structures”, Peter Brass, Cambridge University Press, 2008  “Data Structures and Algorithm Analysis”, Edition 3.2 (C++ Version), Clifford A. Shaffer, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 January 2, 2012  “C++ Data Structures”, Nell Dale and David Teague, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2001.  “Data Structures and Algorithms with Object-Oriented Design Patterns in C++”, Bruno R. Preiss,