SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Human Computer Interaction
Lecture 08
Interaction Paradigms
• Agriculture paradigm
• Industrial paradigm
• Computer paradigm
• Sunnyplast
• Pemper
• Zerox
What are Paradigms
• New computing technologies arrive, creating a new
perception of the human—computer relationship,
giving rise to new paradigm shifts
• We can trace some of these shifts in the history of
interactive technologies.
• History of interactive system design provides
paradigms for usable designs
The Initial paradigm
• Batch processing
Impersonal computing
Example Paradigm Shifts
• Batch processing
• Time-sharing
Interactive computing
Example Paradigm Shifts
• Batch processing
• Timesharing
• Networking
???
@#$% !
Community computing
Example Paradigm Shifts
• Batch processing
• Timesharing
• Networking
• Graphical displays
% foo.bar
ABORT
dumby!!!
C…P… filename
dot star… or was
it R…M?
Move this file here,
and copy this to there.
Direct manipulation
Example Paradigm Shifts
• Batch processing
• Timesharing
• Networking
• Graphical display
• Microprocessor
Personal computing
Example Paradigm Shifts
• Batch processing
• Timesharing
• Networking
• Graphical display
• Microprocessor
• WWW
Global information
Example Paradigm Shifts
• Computing everywhere
• Batch processing
• Timesharing
• Networking
• Graphical display
• Microprocessor
• WWW
• Ubiquitous
Computing
Time-Sharing
• 1940s and 1950s – explosive technological growth
• 1960s – need to channel the power
• J.C.R. Licklider at ARPA financed several research
centres in this regard
• Consequences of these research efforts include the
concept of time sharing
• single computer supporting multiple users
• True human-computer interaction was possible
Video Display Units
• More suitable medium than paper or punch cards
• First used in military applications
• 1962 – Sutherland's Sketchpad
• By changing something on the display screen, it was
possible, via sketchpad, to change something in the
computer’s memory.
• computers for visualizing and manipulating data
• Different representations of same data was possible
• Computer was made to speak a more human
language, rather human being forced to speak more
like a computer
Programming toolkits
• 1968 NLS/Augment system demonstration
• Engelbart adopted a new method to develop very powerful
interactive system with relatively impoverished technology
of that time
• the right programming toolkit provides building
blocks to produce complex interactive systems
• The power of programming toolkits is that small,
well-understood components can be composed in
fixed ways in order to create larger tools.
Metaphor
• Relating computing to other real-world activity is
effective teaching technique
• LOGO's turtle dragging its tail
• file management on an office desktop (First time used by
Xerox Alto and Star)
• financial analysis on spreadsheets
• Keyboard use in word processor as a typewriter
• virtual reality – user inside the metaphor
• Problems
• some tasks do not fit into a given metaphor
• Scanning a file for viruses
• cultural bias
• It should not be assumed that a metaphor will apply across national
boundaries(Owl example)
Direct Manipulation
• Designers noted that their products were gaining
popularity as their visual content increased
• 1982 – Shneiderman coined this phrase. He
described
• visibility of objects
• incremental action and rapid feedback
• syntactic correctness of all actions
• replace complex command languages with direct actions
(hence the term “direct” manipulation)
• In 1984 – First Macintosh personal computer
demonstrated the inherent usability of direct
manipulation.
Direct Manipulation
• Direct manipulation for the desktop metaphor
requires files and folders to be made visible
representing underlying files and directories
• The model-world metaphor
• What You See Is What You Get (WYSIWYG)
Hypertext
• 1945 – Vannevar Bush and the memex
• key to success in managing explosion of information
• mid 1960s – Nelson describes hypertext as non-linear
browsing structure
• hypermedia and multimedia
Multimodality
Multimodality
• Mode: a mode is a human communication channel e.g.
Visual, audio or haptic (touch)
• Multimodality means simultaneous use of multiple
channels for input and output
• A multi-modal interactive system is that which relies on
the use of multiple human communication channels.
• We can say that all interactive systems are multimodal
because all use at least two human channels i.e. Visual
and hepatic
Computer Supported Cooperative
Work (CSCW)
• CSCW is collaboration of individuals via computer
• Emerged with the advent of strong computer networks
• CSCW removes bias of single user / single computer
system
Computer Supported Cooperative
Work (CSCW)
• Can no longer neglect the social aspects
• Electronic mail is most prominent success
• A metaphor of conventional mail system
• An example of asynchronous CSCW system
• CSCW systems built to support users working in
groups are referred to as groupware (Ch 19)
The World Wide Web
• Internet is simply a collection of computers linked
together. WWW builds on top of it.
• Hypertext, as originally realized, was a closed
system
• Simple, universal protocols (e.g. HTTP), mark-up
languages (e.g. HTML) and global naming scheme
(URLs) made publishing and accessing easy conceive
• First envisioned by Tim Berners-Lee.
• First text based browser in 1991
• Several graphical browsers in 1993(Mosaic)
Agent-based Interfaces
• Agent?
• People who work on someone’s behalf e.g. estate agents,
travel agents, secret agents etc.
• Software agents?
• Software which act on behalf of users within electronic
world e.g. web crawlers which search the WWW for
documents that user might find interesting, email spam
filtering
• Some agents use artificial intelligence techniques to
learn, called intelligent agents.
• E.g. Eager(performs repeated actions for the user)
• Even some intelligent agents are there that don’t
have a clear embodiment
• Summing function of a Spreadsheet
Ubiquitous Computing
• Based on the idea of moving human-computer
interaction away from the desktop and out into out
everyday lives.
“The most profound technologies are those that disappear.”
Mark Weiser, 1991
• Also called pervasive computing
• Late 1980’s: computer was very apparent
• How to make it disappear?
• Shrink and embed/distribute it in the physical world
• Design interactions that don’t demand our intention
Sensor-based and Context-
aware Interaction
• Embedment of computation even deeper, but
unobtrusively, in our day-to-day life.
• The user is totally unaware of the interaction taking
place.
• Information is gathered from sensors in Environment
• Examples: Washbasin, automatic doors, lights turned on
automatically
• This information can be used to modify explicit
interfaces, do things in background etc.
Sensor-based and Context-aware
Interaction
• Automatic sensing is an imperfect activity. So actions
from these ‘intelligent predictions’ should be made
with caution.
• There are two principles of appropriate intelligence
• Be right as often as possible, and useful when acting on
these predictions
• Do not cause extravagant problems in the event of an action
resulting from a wrong prediction
• The failure of must intelligent systems in past
resulted from following the first principle, but not
the second.

More Related Content

Similar to Lecture # 8.ppt

Human Computer Interaction: Introduction
Human Computer Interaction: IntroductionHuman Computer Interaction: Introduction
Human Computer Interaction: Introduction
chithrajarajan2
 
1.lecture_07_paradigms.ppt
1.lecture_07_paradigms.ppt1.lecture_07_paradigms.ppt
1.lecture_07_paradigms.ppt
Usamajawad3
 
Ubiquitous computing 1.0
Ubiquitous computing 1.0Ubiquitous computing 1.0
Ubiquitous computing 1.0
jan aljan
 
Human Computer Interaction
Human Computer InteractionHuman Computer Interaction
Human Computer Interaction
Jitu Choudhary
 
HCI
HCIHCI
IMD 203 - Ch01
IMD 203 - Ch01IMD 203 - Ch01
IMD 203 - Ch01
ALBAKRI MOHAMMAD
 
HCI_01.ppt
HCI_01.pptHCI_01.ppt
HCI_01.ppt
MuhammadWasayKhan2
 
Human computer interaction Semester 1
Human computer interaction Semester 1Human computer interaction Semester 1
Human computer interaction Semester 1
HARISA MARDIANA
 
The Evolution of Computing.pptx
The Evolution of Computing.pptxThe Evolution of Computing.pptx
The Evolution of Computing.pptx
EdFeranil
 
Human computer interaction -Input output channel
Human computer interaction -Input output channelHuman computer interaction -Input output channel
Human computer interaction -Input output channel
N.Jagadish Kumar
 
The library, the digital and the quest
The library, the digital and the questThe library, the digital and the quest
The library, the digital and the quest
Luis Borges Gouveia
 
cloudcomputingdistributedcomputing-171208050503 (1).pdf
cloudcomputingdistributedcomputing-171208050503 (1).pdfcloudcomputingdistributedcomputing-171208050503 (1).pdf
cloudcomputingdistributedcomputing-171208050503 (1).pdf
ArchanaPandiyan
 
Cloud Computing & Distributed Computing
Cloud Computing & Distributed ComputingCloud Computing & Distributed Computing
Ubiquitous Computing: an Introduction
Ubiquitous Computing: an IntroductionUbiquitous Computing: an Introduction
Ubiquitous Computing: an Introduction
Alessandra Agostini
 
IT115 - U1L1.pptx
IT115 - U1L1.pptxIT115 - U1L1.pptx
IT115 - U1L1.pptx
RicoCombinido
 
Introduction to exploring hci
Introduction to exploring hciIntroduction to exploring hci
Introduction to exploring hci
sawsan slii
 
CIS375 Interaction Designs Chapter2
CIS375 Interaction Designs Chapter2CIS375 Interaction Designs Chapter2
CIS375 Interaction Designs Chapter2
Dr. Ahmed Al Zaidy
 
Interaction design
Interaction designInteraction design
Interaction design
Lakshmi Narasimhan N
 
Psychology Human Computer Interaction
Psychology Human Computer InteractionPsychology Human Computer Interaction
Psychology Human Computer Interaction
Seta Wicaksana
 
CHAPTER 9-EMERGING TRENDS.pptx
CHAPTER 9-EMERGING TRENDS.pptxCHAPTER 9-EMERGING TRENDS.pptx
CHAPTER 9-EMERGING TRENDS.pptx
anror264
 

Similar to Lecture # 8.ppt (20)

Human Computer Interaction: Introduction
Human Computer Interaction: IntroductionHuman Computer Interaction: Introduction
Human Computer Interaction: Introduction
 
1.lecture_07_paradigms.ppt
1.lecture_07_paradigms.ppt1.lecture_07_paradigms.ppt
1.lecture_07_paradigms.ppt
 
Ubiquitous computing 1.0
Ubiquitous computing 1.0Ubiquitous computing 1.0
Ubiquitous computing 1.0
 
Human Computer Interaction
Human Computer InteractionHuman Computer Interaction
Human Computer Interaction
 
HCI
HCIHCI
HCI
 
IMD 203 - Ch01
IMD 203 - Ch01IMD 203 - Ch01
IMD 203 - Ch01
 
HCI_01.ppt
HCI_01.pptHCI_01.ppt
HCI_01.ppt
 
Human computer interaction Semester 1
Human computer interaction Semester 1Human computer interaction Semester 1
Human computer interaction Semester 1
 
The Evolution of Computing.pptx
The Evolution of Computing.pptxThe Evolution of Computing.pptx
The Evolution of Computing.pptx
 
Human computer interaction -Input output channel
Human computer interaction -Input output channelHuman computer interaction -Input output channel
Human computer interaction -Input output channel
 
The library, the digital and the quest
The library, the digital and the questThe library, the digital and the quest
The library, the digital and the quest
 
cloudcomputingdistributedcomputing-171208050503 (1).pdf
cloudcomputingdistributedcomputing-171208050503 (1).pdfcloudcomputingdistributedcomputing-171208050503 (1).pdf
cloudcomputingdistributedcomputing-171208050503 (1).pdf
 
Cloud Computing & Distributed Computing
Cloud Computing & Distributed ComputingCloud Computing & Distributed Computing
Cloud Computing & Distributed Computing
 
Ubiquitous Computing: an Introduction
Ubiquitous Computing: an IntroductionUbiquitous Computing: an Introduction
Ubiquitous Computing: an Introduction
 
IT115 - U1L1.pptx
IT115 - U1L1.pptxIT115 - U1L1.pptx
IT115 - U1L1.pptx
 
Introduction to exploring hci
Introduction to exploring hciIntroduction to exploring hci
Introduction to exploring hci
 
CIS375 Interaction Designs Chapter2
CIS375 Interaction Designs Chapter2CIS375 Interaction Designs Chapter2
CIS375 Interaction Designs Chapter2
 
Interaction design
Interaction designInteraction design
Interaction design
 
Psychology Human Computer Interaction
Psychology Human Computer InteractionPsychology Human Computer Interaction
Psychology Human Computer Interaction
 
CHAPTER 9-EMERGING TRENDS.pptx
CHAPTER 9-EMERGING TRENDS.pptxCHAPTER 9-EMERGING TRENDS.pptx
CHAPTER 9-EMERGING TRENDS.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRMHow to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
Celine George
 
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptxPrésentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
siemaillard
 
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdfHindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Dr. Mulla Adam Ali
 
How to deliver Powerpoint Presentations.pptx
How to deliver Powerpoint  Presentations.pptxHow to deliver Powerpoint  Presentations.pptx
How to deliver Powerpoint Presentations.pptx
HajraNaeem15
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
Wound healing PPT
Wound healing PPTWound healing PPT
Wound healing PPT
Jyoti Chand
 
writing about opinions about Australia the movie
writing about opinions about Australia the moviewriting about opinions about Australia the movie
writing about opinions about Australia the movie
Nicholas Montgomery
 
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental DesignDigital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
amberjdewit93
 
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdfANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
Priyankaranawat4
 
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UPLAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
RAHUL
 
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf IslamabadPIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
AyyanKhan40
 
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold MethodHow to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
Celine George
 
The History of Stoke Newington Street Names
The History of Stoke Newington Street NamesThe History of Stoke Newington Street Names
The History of Stoke Newington Street Names
History of Stoke Newington
 
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docxAdvanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
adhitya5119
 
BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
BBR  2024 Summer Sessions Interview TrainingBBR  2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
Katrina Pritchard
 
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdfLiberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
WaniBasim
 
Reimagining Your Library Space: How to Increase the Vibes in Your Library No ...
Reimagining Your Library Space: How to Increase the Vibes in Your Library No ...Reimagining Your Library Space: How to Increase the Vibes in Your Library No ...
Reimagining Your Library Space: How to Increase the Vibes in Your Library No ...
Diana Rendina
 
Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...
Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...
Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...
National Information Standards Organization (NISO)
 
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
Academy of Science of South Africa
 

Recently uploaded (20)

How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRMHow to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
 
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptxPrésentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
 
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdfHindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
 
How to deliver Powerpoint Presentations.pptx
How to deliver Powerpoint  Presentations.pptxHow to deliver Powerpoint  Presentations.pptx
How to deliver Powerpoint Presentations.pptx
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
 
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
 
Wound healing PPT
Wound healing PPTWound healing PPT
Wound healing PPT
 
writing about opinions about Australia the movie
writing about opinions about Australia the moviewriting about opinions about Australia the movie
writing about opinions about Australia the movie
 
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental DesignDigital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
 
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdfANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
 
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UPLAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
 
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf IslamabadPIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
 
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold MethodHow to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
 
The History of Stoke Newington Street Names
The History of Stoke Newington Street NamesThe History of Stoke Newington Street Names
The History of Stoke Newington Street Names
 
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docxAdvanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
 
BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
BBR  2024 Summer Sessions Interview TrainingBBR  2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
 
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdfLiberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
 
Reimagining Your Library Space: How to Increase the Vibes in Your Library No ...
Reimagining Your Library Space: How to Increase the Vibes in Your Library No ...Reimagining Your Library Space: How to Increase the Vibes in Your Library No ...
Reimagining Your Library Space: How to Increase the Vibes in Your Library No ...
 
Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...
Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...
Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...
 
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
 

Lecture # 8.ppt

  • 1. Human Computer Interaction Lecture 08 Interaction Paradigms
  • 2.
  • 3. • Agriculture paradigm • Industrial paradigm • Computer paradigm • Sunnyplast • Pemper • Zerox
  • 4. What are Paradigms • New computing technologies arrive, creating a new perception of the human—computer relationship, giving rise to new paradigm shifts • We can trace some of these shifts in the history of interactive technologies. • History of interactive system design provides paradigms for usable designs
  • 5. The Initial paradigm • Batch processing Impersonal computing
  • 6.
  • 7. Example Paradigm Shifts • Batch processing • Time-sharing Interactive computing
  • 8. Example Paradigm Shifts • Batch processing • Timesharing • Networking ??? @#$% ! Community computing
  • 9. Example Paradigm Shifts • Batch processing • Timesharing • Networking • Graphical displays % foo.bar ABORT dumby!!! C…P… filename dot star… or was it R…M? Move this file here, and copy this to there. Direct manipulation
  • 10. Example Paradigm Shifts • Batch processing • Timesharing • Networking • Graphical display • Microprocessor Personal computing
  • 11. Example Paradigm Shifts • Batch processing • Timesharing • Networking • Graphical display • Microprocessor • WWW Global information
  • 12. Example Paradigm Shifts • Computing everywhere • Batch processing • Timesharing • Networking • Graphical display • Microprocessor • WWW • Ubiquitous Computing
  • 13. Time-Sharing • 1940s and 1950s – explosive technological growth • 1960s – need to channel the power • J.C.R. Licklider at ARPA financed several research centres in this regard • Consequences of these research efforts include the concept of time sharing • single computer supporting multiple users • True human-computer interaction was possible
  • 14. Video Display Units • More suitable medium than paper or punch cards • First used in military applications • 1962 – Sutherland's Sketchpad • By changing something on the display screen, it was possible, via sketchpad, to change something in the computer’s memory. • computers for visualizing and manipulating data • Different representations of same data was possible • Computer was made to speak a more human language, rather human being forced to speak more like a computer
  • 15. Programming toolkits • 1968 NLS/Augment system demonstration • Engelbart adopted a new method to develop very powerful interactive system with relatively impoverished technology of that time • the right programming toolkit provides building blocks to produce complex interactive systems • The power of programming toolkits is that small, well-understood components can be composed in fixed ways in order to create larger tools.
  • 16. Metaphor • Relating computing to other real-world activity is effective teaching technique • LOGO's turtle dragging its tail • file management on an office desktop (First time used by Xerox Alto and Star) • financial analysis on spreadsheets • Keyboard use in word processor as a typewriter • virtual reality – user inside the metaphor • Problems • some tasks do not fit into a given metaphor • Scanning a file for viruses • cultural bias • It should not be assumed that a metaphor will apply across national boundaries(Owl example)
  • 17. Direct Manipulation • Designers noted that their products were gaining popularity as their visual content increased • 1982 – Shneiderman coined this phrase. He described • visibility of objects • incremental action and rapid feedback • syntactic correctness of all actions • replace complex command languages with direct actions (hence the term “direct” manipulation) • In 1984 – First Macintosh personal computer demonstrated the inherent usability of direct manipulation.
  • 18. Direct Manipulation • Direct manipulation for the desktop metaphor requires files and folders to be made visible representing underlying files and directories • The model-world metaphor • What You See Is What You Get (WYSIWYG)
  • 19. Hypertext • 1945 – Vannevar Bush and the memex • key to success in managing explosion of information • mid 1960s – Nelson describes hypertext as non-linear browsing structure • hypermedia and multimedia
  • 21. Multimodality • Mode: a mode is a human communication channel e.g. Visual, audio or haptic (touch) • Multimodality means simultaneous use of multiple channels for input and output • A multi-modal interactive system is that which relies on the use of multiple human communication channels. • We can say that all interactive systems are multimodal because all use at least two human channels i.e. Visual and hepatic
  • 22. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) • CSCW is collaboration of individuals via computer • Emerged with the advent of strong computer networks • CSCW removes bias of single user / single computer system
  • 23. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) • Can no longer neglect the social aspects • Electronic mail is most prominent success • A metaphor of conventional mail system • An example of asynchronous CSCW system • CSCW systems built to support users working in groups are referred to as groupware (Ch 19)
  • 24. The World Wide Web • Internet is simply a collection of computers linked together. WWW builds on top of it. • Hypertext, as originally realized, was a closed system • Simple, universal protocols (e.g. HTTP), mark-up languages (e.g. HTML) and global naming scheme (URLs) made publishing and accessing easy conceive • First envisioned by Tim Berners-Lee. • First text based browser in 1991 • Several graphical browsers in 1993(Mosaic)
  • 25. Agent-based Interfaces • Agent? • People who work on someone’s behalf e.g. estate agents, travel agents, secret agents etc. • Software agents? • Software which act on behalf of users within electronic world e.g. web crawlers which search the WWW for documents that user might find interesting, email spam filtering • Some agents use artificial intelligence techniques to learn, called intelligent agents. • E.g. Eager(performs repeated actions for the user) • Even some intelligent agents are there that don’t have a clear embodiment • Summing function of a Spreadsheet
  • 26. Ubiquitous Computing • Based on the idea of moving human-computer interaction away from the desktop and out into out everyday lives. “The most profound technologies are those that disappear.” Mark Weiser, 1991 • Also called pervasive computing • Late 1980’s: computer was very apparent • How to make it disappear? • Shrink and embed/distribute it in the physical world • Design interactions that don’t demand our intention
  • 27. Sensor-based and Context- aware Interaction • Embedment of computation even deeper, but unobtrusively, in our day-to-day life. • The user is totally unaware of the interaction taking place. • Information is gathered from sensors in Environment • Examples: Washbasin, automatic doors, lights turned on automatically • This information can be used to modify explicit interfaces, do things in background etc.
  • 28. Sensor-based and Context-aware Interaction • Automatic sensing is an imperfect activity. So actions from these ‘intelligent predictions’ should be made with caution. • There are two principles of appropriate intelligence • Be right as often as possible, and useful when acting on these predictions • Do not cause extravagant problems in the event of an action resulting from a wrong prediction • The failure of must intelligent systems in past resulted from following the first principle, but not the second.

Editor's Notes

  1. Morni ki chal, Shair ki dhar, Chand sa chehra…….