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Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science & Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
LITERATURE SEARCH
ISD 353: Business Research Methods
Class: SCM, BIT, Marketing, IB & Hospitality
www.knust.edu.gh
Purpose or Relevance of Searching:
-To narrow down to relevant articles needed
for your study
-To have an overview of the research trend
in a field
www.knust.edu.gh
Tools needed
-Excel
-Reference Managers; i.e. Mendeley, Mendeley Web Importer,
Zotero, etc.
Links:
https://www.mendeley.com/download-desktop-new/
https://www.zotero.org/
After installing Mendeley desktop, be sure to install the
MS Word plugin and the Web importer under the “Tools”
menu. You can visit youtube to lean how to use each of these
tool.
-VOSviewer: Link: https://www.vosviewer.com/
www.knust.edu.gh
Where to search
https://www.scopus.com/
https://www.sciencedirect.com/
https://www.emerald.com/insight/
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/
https://www.tandfonline.com/
https://journals.sagepub.com/
https://www.jstor.org/
https://www.ebsco.com/products/research-databases?f%5B0%5D=market%3A1
https://scielo.org/
https://scholar.google.com/
www.knust.edu.gh
Search Strategies:
-Use keywords and their alternatives, or truncated words
-Use wild cards where relevant and applicable:
Character Description Example
* Matches any number of characters.
You can use the asterisk (*) anywhere
in a character string.
wh* finds what, white,
and why, but not
awhile or watch.
? Matches a single alphabet in a specific
position.
b?ll finds ball, bell,
and bill.
[ ] Matches characters within the
brackets.
b[ae]ll finds ball and
bell, but not bill.
www.knust.edu.gh
Search Strategies Conti…
Character Description Example
! Excludes characters inside the brackets. b[!ae]ll finds bill and bull,
but not ball or bell.
Like “[!a]*” finds all items
that do not begin with
the letter a.
- Matches a range of characters. Remember
to specify the characters in ascending
order (A to Z, not Z to A).
b[a-c]d finds bad, bbd,
and bcd.
# Matches any single numeric character. 1#3 finds 103, 113, and
123.
www.knust.edu.gh
Search Strategies Conti….
-Use filters if available on the search database (such as
searching within specific journals, subject areas, time/year
range, article type, etc.)
www.knust.edu.gh
Retrieving Search Results:
-First select the articles you want to download;
-then, indicate the format (e.g. csv, BibTex, RIS, Mendeley, Zotero
RDF, plain text, etc.)
-now you can view articles in excel (csv format only), Mendeley
(RIS and Mendeley only), or with Zotero (RIS, BibTex, and Zotero
RDF only)
-For visualisation (bibliometric networks), use VOS viewer, or
Excel
www.knust.edu.gh
Retrieving Search Results:
-Sort for duplicates and remove them; read titles to remove
irrelevant publications, and read abstracts to further exclude
irrelevant publications
-Settle on final list of articles and then you can download them
searching with the article title in google scholar search and then
downloading with sci-hub (link: https://sci-hub.st/ ). It would be
helpful to install the sci-hub addon in your browser
Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science & Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
Instructor: Dominic Essuman (PhD)
Dept. Supply Chain & Information Systems
Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology, Kumasi
Email: dominic.essuman@knust.edu.gh
@2021
ISD 353: Business Research Methods
Class: SCM, BIT, Marketing, IB & Hospitality
Lecture 4:
Theory, Concepts, Conceptual/Theoretical Framework, &
Hypothesis
www.knust.edu.gh
By the end of this lecture you should
• appreciate what theory is and why it’s important
• understand concepts, conceptual/theoretical
framework, and hypotheses
• know how to develop ‘basic’
conceptual/theoretical frameworks, theories, and
hypotheses
Learning Outcomes
www.knust.edu.gh
Read and make personal notes from these articles (COMPULSORY):
1. Crittenden, V. L., & Peterson, R. A. (2011). Ruminations about making a theoretical
contribution. AMS Review, 1(2), 67-71.
2. Imenda, S. (2014). Is there a conceptual difference between theoretical and
conceptual frameworks?. Journal of Social Sciences, 38(2), 185-195.
Further reading:
1. Sutton, R. I., & Staw, B. M. (1995). What theory is not. Administrative Science
Quarterly, 371-384.
2. DiMaggio, P. J. (1995). Comments on" What theory is not". Administrative Science
Quarterly, 40(3), 391-397.
3. Weick, K. E. (1995). What theory is not, theorizing is. Administrative Science
Quarterly, 40(3), 385-390.
4. Corley, K. G., & Gioia, D. A. (2011). Building theory about theory building: what
constitutes a theoretical contribution? Academy of Management Review, 36(1), 12-32
Reading assignment
www.knust.edu.gh
No standard definition for theory.
Consider the following questions:
• Why do happy people tend to live longer?
• Why are Ghanaians, compared to Americans, less entrepreneurial?
• Countries with more natural resources are poorer. Why?
• How does supply chain integration affect profitability?
• When does supply chain integration lead to competitive advantage?
• What level of attention to learning achieves optimal academic performance?
• What accounts for differences in job performance?
A well-thought-through, logically-based explanations (i.e., answers) to questions
of these nature constitute theory.
What is (not) theory
www.knust.edu.gh
Some useful descriptions of theory (see Crittenden & Peterson, 2011):
• A statement that postulates ordered relationships among natural phenomena
• An explanation or model used to account for observations
• An explanation of why and how a particular natural phenomenon occurs
A statement of concepts and their interrelationships that normally shows how,
why, or when such relationships occur.
What is (not) theory
www.knust.edu.gh
Components of theory or building blocks of theory
(development):
• WHAT: concepts/constructs/variables
• HOW: how are the concepts in the theory related?
• WHY: the underlying dynamics/mechanisms that connect
the concepts in the theory in a particular way (HOW)
• WHO, WHERE, WHEN. Conditions that place limitation on
the propositions generated from a theoretical model.
What is (not) theory
www.knust.edu.gh
WHAT: Religiosity, resilience
HOW: Nature of the relationship between religiosity and resilience. Possibilities:
• I expect religiosity to enhance resilience or
• I expect religiosity to reduce resilience or
• I expect low and extreme religiosity to lower resilience
WHY: the logical arguments underlying any of the possibilities in HOW
WHO, WHERE, WHEN: the context, instance, or condition (e.g., early career
employees, Africa, poor people) under which any of the possibilities in HOW may
(not) occur.
What is (not) theory
Religiosity Resilience
Example:
www.knust.edu.gh
What is not theory (Sutton & Staw,1995):
• References
• Diagram (e.g., conceptual/theoretical framework)
• Data/facts/evidence
• List of variables/constructs
• Hypothesis (bridge theory and data)
What is (not) theory
www.knust.edu.gh
• Theories enable us to organize our thought, generate coherent
explanations and improve our predictions (Hambrick, 2007).
• In the absence of ‘good’ theory, data is useless; evidence could mean
anything and everything.
• Productive organizations/societies are those that value and apply
theory.
• It is only when we understand how, why, when/where things work that
we can deal with them effectively and efficiently.
• Thus, theory should inform practice and vice versa.
Why should we care about theory?
www.knust.edu.gh
• Concepts (Merriam Webster online dictionary)
• Something conceived in the mind: thought, notion
• An abstract or generic idea generalized from particular
instances.
• They are the WHAT aspect (or building blocks) of theory
• They represent the abstract ideas within a theory
• E.g. Gender, learning process, God, age, weight, income,
profit, performance, poverty, social capital, innovation,
cyber crime, insecurity, marriage, family size.
Concepts
www.knust.edu.gh
Concepts that can be conceptually defined are called
constructs; they can be observed directly (e.g., skin color,
weight) or indirectly (e.g., life satisfaction, intelligence)
Concepts/constructs that can vary or be allowed to vary are
called variables.
• This is done through measurement, which first requires us
to define a concept in a way that enables it to vary across
elements within a particular population.
Concepts
www.knust.edu.gh
Researchers think about these two terms differently. Let’s
consider these terms as follows:
Theoretical framework is a model (i.e., a representation of
something) derived from (an existing) theory. It “is the application of a
theory, or a set of concepts drawn from one and the same theory, to offer
an explanation of an event, or shed some light on a particular
phenomenon or research problem” (Imenda, 2014, p. 189). E.g.
A model linking IT resource to profitability can be termed theoretical
framework as both concepts and the logic connecting them might fit well
within a single theory, e.g., resource-based theory or dynamic capability
theory.
Conceptual vs theoretical frameworks
www.knust.edu.gh
Conceptual framework is a model derived from concepts. It captures the
use of related concepts, often drawn from different theories, to explain or
predict a particular phenomenon. E.g.
IT resource  attention to competitor actions  profitability
The above model is developed based on the integration of two theories:
Resource based theory (RBT) and attention-based view of the firm (ABV).
IT resource and profitability are drawn from RBT while attention to
competitor actions and profitability are drawn from ABV.
Conceptual vs theoretical frameworks
www.knust.edu.gh
Summary (Imenda, 2014):
Conceptual vs theoretical frameworks
www.knust.edu.gh
Direct/main effect framework focuses on the direct, casual link between
two concepts. E.g.
Basic conceptual/theoretical frameworks
IT resource Profitability
Independent variable:
IT resource
Dependent variable:
Profitability
www.knust.edu.gh
Mediation effect framework focuses on the indirect, casual link between
two concepts. E.g. The solid path is a mediation or indirect effect path.
Basic conceptual/theoretical frameworks
IT resource Profitability
Attention to
competitor
actions
Independent variable:
IT resource
Dependent variable:
Profitability
Mediating variable:
attention to competitor
actions
www.knust.edu.gh
Moderation effect framework focuses on the boundaries of or conditions
underlying a particular casual link between two or more concepts. The model
below is a moderating model. The solid paths capture moderating effect.
Basic conceptual/theoretical frameworks
IT resource Profitability
Competitive
intensity
Firm industry
(service vs.
manufacturing)
Independent variable:
IT resource
Dependent variable:
Profitability
Moderating variables:
firm industry,
competitive intensity
www.knust.edu.gh
Correlational framework focuses on the association between two
concepts. E.g.
Basic conceptual/theoretical frameworks
Innovation Profitability
There is no dependent variable or independent
variables.
We only occur about whether the two concepts move
together in the same or opposite direction
www.knust.edu.gh
• Hypotheses are derived from theories
• They bridge theory and data
• They are (logic-backed) guesses, expectations, predictions
• They represent testable, verifiable, or falsifiable statements or
propositions informed by a particular theory or theories. E.g.,
• IT resource is positively related to profitability
• IT resource enhances profitability through attention to competitor
actions
• CEO gender affects firm environment performance
Hypothesis
www.knust.edu.gh
Further reading:
• Null versus alternate hypotheses
• Direct versus non-directional hypotheses
Hypothesis
www.knust.edu.gh
• Crittenden, V. L., & Peterson, R. A. (2011). Ruminations about making a theoretical
contribution. AMS Review, 1(2), 67-71.
• Corley, K. G., & Gioia, D. A. (2011). Building theory about theory building: what
constitutes a theoretical contribution? Academy of Management Review, 36(1), 12-32.
• Imenda, S. (2014). Is there a conceptual difference between theoretical and conceptual
frameworks?. Journal of Social Sciences, 38(2), 185-195.
• Sutton, R. I., & Staw, B. M. (1995). What theory is not. Administrative Science
Quarterly, 371-384.
• Hambrick, D. C. (2007). The field of management’s devotion to theory: Too much of a
good thing? Academy of Management Journal, 59(6), 1346–1352
Key References
www.knust.edu.gh
Research methodology: choosing and
justifying
Next Lecture

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Lecture 4 - Literature search - Theory - Concepts - Model - Hypothesis.pptx

  • 1. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology, Kumasi, Ghana LITERATURE SEARCH ISD 353: Business Research Methods Class: SCM, BIT, Marketing, IB & Hospitality
  • 2. www.knust.edu.gh Purpose or Relevance of Searching: -To narrow down to relevant articles needed for your study -To have an overview of the research trend in a field
  • 3. www.knust.edu.gh Tools needed -Excel -Reference Managers; i.e. Mendeley, Mendeley Web Importer, Zotero, etc. Links: https://www.mendeley.com/download-desktop-new/ https://www.zotero.org/ After installing Mendeley desktop, be sure to install the MS Word plugin and the Web importer under the “Tools” menu. You can visit youtube to lean how to use each of these tool. -VOSviewer: Link: https://www.vosviewer.com/
  • 5. www.knust.edu.gh Search Strategies: -Use keywords and their alternatives, or truncated words -Use wild cards where relevant and applicable: Character Description Example * Matches any number of characters. You can use the asterisk (*) anywhere in a character string. wh* finds what, white, and why, but not awhile or watch. ? Matches a single alphabet in a specific position. b?ll finds ball, bell, and bill. [ ] Matches characters within the brackets. b[ae]ll finds ball and bell, but not bill.
  • 6. www.knust.edu.gh Search Strategies Conti… Character Description Example ! Excludes characters inside the brackets. b[!ae]ll finds bill and bull, but not ball or bell. Like “[!a]*” finds all items that do not begin with the letter a. - Matches a range of characters. Remember to specify the characters in ascending order (A to Z, not Z to A). b[a-c]d finds bad, bbd, and bcd. # Matches any single numeric character. 1#3 finds 103, 113, and 123.
  • 7. www.knust.edu.gh Search Strategies Conti…. -Use filters if available on the search database (such as searching within specific journals, subject areas, time/year range, article type, etc.)
  • 8. www.knust.edu.gh Retrieving Search Results: -First select the articles you want to download; -then, indicate the format (e.g. csv, BibTex, RIS, Mendeley, Zotero RDF, plain text, etc.) -now you can view articles in excel (csv format only), Mendeley (RIS and Mendeley only), or with Zotero (RIS, BibTex, and Zotero RDF only) -For visualisation (bibliometric networks), use VOS viewer, or Excel
  • 9. www.knust.edu.gh Retrieving Search Results: -Sort for duplicates and remove them; read titles to remove irrelevant publications, and read abstracts to further exclude irrelevant publications -Settle on final list of articles and then you can download them searching with the article title in google scholar search and then downloading with sci-hub (link: https://sci-hub.st/ ). It would be helpful to install the sci-hub addon in your browser
  • 10. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology, Kumasi, Ghana Instructor: Dominic Essuman (PhD) Dept. Supply Chain & Information Systems Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology, Kumasi Email: dominic.essuman@knust.edu.gh @2021 ISD 353: Business Research Methods Class: SCM, BIT, Marketing, IB & Hospitality Lecture 4: Theory, Concepts, Conceptual/Theoretical Framework, & Hypothesis
  • 11. www.knust.edu.gh By the end of this lecture you should • appreciate what theory is and why it’s important • understand concepts, conceptual/theoretical framework, and hypotheses • know how to develop ‘basic’ conceptual/theoretical frameworks, theories, and hypotheses Learning Outcomes
  • 12. www.knust.edu.gh Read and make personal notes from these articles (COMPULSORY): 1. Crittenden, V. L., & Peterson, R. A. (2011). Ruminations about making a theoretical contribution. AMS Review, 1(2), 67-71. 2. Imenda, S. (2014). Is there a conceptual difference between theoretical and conceptual frameworks?. Journal of Social Sciences, 38(2), 185-195. Further reading: 1. Sutton, R. I., & Staw, B. M. (1995). What theory is not. Administrative Science Quarterly, 371-384. 2. DiMaggio, P. J. (1995). Comments on" What theory is not". Administrative Science Quarterly, 40(3), 391-397. 3. Weick, K. E. (1995). What theory is not, theorizing is. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40(3), 385-390. 4. Corley, K. G., & Gioia, D. A. (2011). Building theory about theory building: what constitutes a theoretical contribution? Academy of Management Review, 36(1), 12-32 Reading assignment
  • 13. www.knust.edu.gh No standard definition for theory. Consider the following questions: • Why do happy people tend to live longer? • Why are Ghanaians, compared to Americans, less entrepreneurial? • Countries with more natural resources are poorer. Why? • How does supply chain integration affect profitability? • When does supply chain integration lead to competitive advantage? • What level of attention to learning achieves optimal academic performance? • What accounts for differences in job performance? A well-thought-through, logically-based explanations (i.e., answers) to questions of these nature constitute theory. What is (not) theory
  • 14. www.knust.edu.gh Some useful descriptions of theory (see Crittenden & Peterson, 2011): • A statement that postulates ordered relationships among natural phenomena • An explanation or model used to account for observations • An explanation of why and how a particular natural phenomenon occurs A statement of concepts and their interrelationships that normally shows how, why, or when such relationships occur. What is (not) theory
  • 15. www.knust.edu.gh Components of theory or building blocks of theory (development): • WHAT: concepts/constructs/variables • HOW: how are the concepts in the theory related? • WHY: the underlying dynamics/mechanisms that connect the concepts in the theory in a particular way (HOW) • WHO, WHERE, WHEN. Conditions that place limitation on the propositions generated from a theoretical model. What is (not) theory
  • 16. www.knust.edu.gh WHAT: Religiosity, resilience HOW: Nature of the relationship between religiosity and resilience. Possibilities: • I expect religiosity to enhance resilience or • I expect religiosity to reduce resilience or • I expect low and extreme religiosity to lower resilience WHY: the logical arguments underlying any of the possibilities in HOW WHO, WHERE, WHEN: the context, instance, or condition (e.g., early career employees, Africa, poor people) under which any of the possibilities in HOW may (not) occur. What is (not) theory Religiosity Resilience Example:
  • 17. www.knust.edu.gh What is not theory (Sutton & Staw,1995): • References • Diagram (e.g., conceptual/theoretical framework) • Data/facts/evidence • List of variables/constructs • Hypothesis (bridge theory and data) What is (not) theory
  • 18. www.knust.edu.gh • Theories enable us to organize our thought, generate coherent explanations and improve our predictions (Hambrick, 2007). • In the absence of ‘good’ theory, data is useless; evidence could mean anything and everything. • Productive organizations/societies are those that value and apply theory. • It is only when we understand how, why, when/where things work that we can deal with them effectively and efficiently. • Thus, theory should inform practice and vice versa. Why should we care about theory?
  • 19. www.knust.edu.gh • Concepts (Merriam Webster online dictionary) • Something conceived in the mind: thought, notion • An abstract or generic idea generalized from particular instances. • They are the WHAT aspect (or building blocks) of theory • They represent the abstract ideas within a theory • E.g. Gender, learning process, God, age, weight, income, profit, performance, poverty, social capital, innovation, cyber crime, insecurity, marriage, family size. Concepts
  • 20. www.knust.edu.gh Concepts that can be conceptually defined are called constructs; they can be observed directly (e.g., skin color, weight) or indirectly (e.g., life satisfaction, intelligence) Concepts/constructs that can vary or be allowed to vary are called variables. • This is done through measurement, which first requires us to define a concept in a way that enables it to vary across elements within a particular population. Concepts
  • 21. www.knust.edu.gh Researchers think about these two terms differently. Let’s consider these terms as follows: Theoretical framework is a model (i.e., a representation of something) derived from (an existing) theory. It “is the application of a theory, or a set of concepts drawn from one and the same theory, to offer an explanation of an event, or shed some light on a particular phenomenon or research problem” (Imenda, 2014, p. 189). E.g. A model linking IT resource to profitability can be termed theoretical framework as both concepts and the logic connecting them might fit well within a single theory, e.g., resource-based theory or dynamic capability theory. Conceptual vs theoretical frameworks
  • 22. www.knust.edu.gh Conceptual framework is a model derived from concepts. It captures the use of related concepts, often drawn from different theories, to explain or predict a particular phenomenon. E.g. IT resource  attention to competitor actions  profitability The above model is developed based on the integration of two theories: Resource based theory (RBT) and attention-based view of the firm (ABV). IT resource and profitability are drawn from RBT while attention to competitor actions and profitability are drawn from ABV. Conceptual vs theoretical frameworks
  • 24. www.knust.edu.gh Direct/main effect framework focuses on the direct, casual link between two concepts. E.g. Basic conceptual/theoretical frameworks IT resource Profitability Independent variable: IT resource Dependent variable: Profitability
  • 25. www.knust.edu.gh Mediation effect framework focuses on the indirect, casual link between two concepts. E.g. The solid path is a mediation or indirect effect path. Basic conceptual/theoretical frameworks IT resource Profitability Attention to competitor actions Independent variable: IT resource Dependent variable: Profitability Mediating variable: attention to competitor actions
  • 26. www.knust.edu.gh Moderation effect framework focuses on the boundaries of or conditions underlying a particular casual link between two or more concepts. The model below is a moderating model. The solid paths capture moderating effect. Basic conceptual/theoretical frameworks IT resource Profitability Competitive intensity Firm industry (service vs. manufacturing) Independent variable: IT resource Dependent variable: Profitability Moderating variables: firm industry, competitive intensity
  • 27. www.knust.edu.gh Correlational framework focuses on the association between two concepts. E.g. Basic conceptual/theoretical frameworks Innovation Profitability There is no dependent variable or independent variables. We only occur about whether the two concepts move together in the same or opposite direction
  • 28. www.knust.edu.gh • Hypotheses are derived from theories • They bridge theory and data • They are (logic-backed) guesses, expectations, predictions • They represent testable, verifiable, or falsifiable statements or propositions informed by a particular theory or theories. E.g., • IT resource is positively related to profitability • IT resource enhances profitability through attention to competitor actions • CEO gender affects firm environment performance Hypothesis
  • 29. www.knust.edu.gh Further reading: • Null versus alternate hypotheses • Direct versus non-directional hypotheses Hypothesis
  • 30. www.knust.edu.gh • Crittenden, V. L., & Peterson, R. A. (2011). Ruminations about making a theoretical contribution. AMS Review, 1(2), 67-71. • Corley, K. G., & Gioia, D. A. (2011). Building theory about theory building: what constitutes a theoretical contribution? Academy of Management Review, 36(1), 12-32. • Imenda, S. (2014). Is there a conceptual difference between theoretical and conceptual frameworks?. Journal of Social Sciences, 38(2), 185-195. • Sutton, R. I., & Staw, B. M. (1995). What theory is not. Administrative Science Quarterly, 371-384. • Hambrick, D. C. (2007). The field of management’s devotion to theory: Too much of a good thing? Academy of Management Journal, 59(6), 1346–1352 Key References
  • 31. www.knust.edu.gh Research methodology: choosing and justifying Next Lecture

Editor's Notes

  1. This materials