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SE 412
Software Inspections, Reviews
and Walkthroughs
Fall 2023
Software Engineering
Outline
● Static V & V techniques; Inspections, Walkthroughs and Reviews.
● How to conduct meetings safely and effectively
● Overview of the software inspection process
About Meetings
for Software Testing & QA
Meetings
Software Inspections, Reviews and Walkthroughs
“Walkthroughs, Reviews and Inspections” are a form of human-
based testing that involves people working together cooperatively.
We begin with a few basic axioms regarding meetings…
Safety Axiom in Meetings
Software Inspections, Reviews and Walkthroughs
First, as we all know, meetings can be terrible…
Ever been to a really BAD meeting?
In order for meetings to be effective, they need to be made safe…
safe to attend, and safe NOT to attend.
Safety Axiom in Meetings - Making Meetings Safe
Software Inspections, Reviews and Walkthroughs
One way to accomplish this is to remove the uncertainty about
what might be covered in a meeting:
➔Publish an agenda and stick to it.
➔Handle “emergency issues” in a way that will not hurt people
who don’t attend the meeting.
➔Be sure people who should attend are identified and explicitly
invited in advance.
➔Gently confront those present who should not attend –
preferably before the meeting starts.
Safety Axiom in Meetings - Making Meetings Safe
Software Inspections, Reviews and Walkthroughs
Another is to establish ground rules for the conduct of
meetings:
➔Establish a no-interruption policy, but also set time limits
for individual speakers so that everyone will be able to
participate.
➔Outlaw personal attacks and put-downs.
➔Finish on time, but schedule a continuation of the
meeting if business isn’t finished.
➔Use a related issues list and ensure follow-up for
important off-topic matters that come up.
Other Axioms in Meetings
Software Inspections, Reviews and Walkthroughs
● Meetings should be as small as possible.
● Keep the agenda short. (A meeting that tries to do too many
things does none well.)
● Identify someone to act as a facilitator.
● Be prepared! (95% of meetings that fail do so because of
inadequate preparation.)
Walkthroughs
Walkthroughs
Software Inspections, Reviews and Walkthroughs
● Usually done in a single meeting.
● Evaluate a software product to
○ Find anomalies (general issues + bugs) & improve the software
product.
○ Consider alternative implementations (at a detailed low-level).
○ Evaluate the conformance to standards and specifications .
● Rather informal.
● No formal training required beforehand.
● Success depends on experience and skills of the team members.
Walkthroughs application and targets
Software Inspections, Reviews and Walkthroughs
● Walkthroughs can be performed at any phase of the software
development process.
● Walkthroughs can be performed on any artifact, for example:
○ SRS document
○ Use Case models
○ Class diagrams
○ Test cases
Walkthroughs application and targets
Software Inspections, Reviews and Walkthroughs
● Walkthroughs can be performed at any phase of the software
development process.
● Walkthroughs can be performed on any artifact, for example:
○ SRS document
○ Use Case models
○ Class diagrams
○ Test cases
Software Inspections
Software Inspection
Overview
● Checklist-based formal approach to uncover errors.
● Intended explicitly for defect detection (not correction).
● Defects may be logical errors & anomalies in the code. For example,
○ An un-initialized variable.
○ Non-compliance with standards.
● Team members require formal training beforehand.
Software Inspection
Overview
● Issues uncovered by inspections can be symptoms of greater issues
that may exist or will exist
● It’s success depends on
○ The properness of the inspection process application,
○ Checks applied;
○ The diligence (i.e. experience and knowledge) of the inspectors.
Software Inspection
Inspection Pre-conditions
○ Precise specification must be available.
○ Team members must be familiar with the organization standards.
○ Inspection will increase costs early in the software processes but the
cost is well justified as shown in many studies.
Software Inspection
Trajectory of Software Development with & without Inspection
Time
No. of
Employees
Plannin
g
Requirement
s Desig
n
Codin
g
Testing
Without Inspection
With Inspection
People & Processes in
Software Inspection for QA
1. Moderator:
• the key person; the coach
• technically competent, but preferably someone working
on a different project
• Trained and experienced in facilitation
2. Coder/Implementer (author/owner)
3. Inspectors
4. Recorder (could be the inspectors themselves or moderator)
5. Reader (could be one reader or the moderator or again the
inspectors themselves)
Software Inspection for QA
The People Involved
Planni
ng
Overview
Individual Planning
Inspection Meeting
Rework
Follow-up
Software Inspection for QA
The Inspection Process
1. Overview (whole team)
• What will be inspected?
• Why are we spending time inspecting such artifact?
• Designation of team roles.
2. Preparation (individual)
• ranked distributions of error types
• checklists of clues on finding errors
Software Inspection for QA
The Inspection Process
3. Inspection Meeting (whole team)
• a “reader” is chosen by the moderator
• every element of logic and every branch is considered
• objective is to find errors
• no specific solution hunting is permitted
• moderator prepares written report within one day
3.Rework (owner / author)
4.Follow-up (moderator)
• if > 5% of material has been reworked, the entire element is
re-inspected
Software Inspection for QA
The Inspection Process
• “Since most modifications are small...they are often erroneously
regarded as trivially simple and handled accordingly; ...However, all
modifications are well worth inspecting...”
• “Human tendency is to consider the ‘fix,’ or correction, to a problem
to be error-free itself. ...The number of bad fixes can be...reduced by
some simple inspection after clean compilation of the fix.”
Software Inspection for QA
Inspecting Modified Code
Properties Inspections Walkthroughs
Formal moderator training Yes No
Definite participant roles Yes No
Who “drives” the process Moderator Owner
Use checklists? Yes No
Formal follow-up Yes No
Rigor level Formal Informal
Software Inspection for QA
Inspections vs Walkthroughs
● Inspections and walkthroughs concentrate on assessing
correctness
● Reviews seeks to ascertain that tolerable levels of quality are
being attained.
● The review team is more concerned with design deficiencies
and deviations from the conceptual model and requirements.
● Reviews do not focus on discovering technical flows but on
ensuring that the design and development fully and accurately
address the needs of the application.
● Reviews is also an informal process.
● No formal training beforehand.
● Success depends on skill and experience of reviewers.
Software Inspection for QA
Inspections and Walkthroughs vs. Reviews
Question?
• Which technique is more of a validation process and which is more
of a verification process?
• Reviews
• Walkthroughs
• Inspections Verification
Verification
Validation
Software Inspection for QA
Inspections and Walkthroughs vs. Reviews
Chapter 2
SE 412 Folder
bit.ly/se412fall2023

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Lecture 2 - software testing SE 412.pptx

  • 1. SE 412 Software Inspections, Reviews and Walkthroughs Fall 2023 Software Engineering
  • 2. Outline ● Static V & V techniques; Inspections, Walkthroughs and Reviews. ● How to conduct meetings safely and effectively ● Overview of the software inspection process
  • 4. Meetings Software Inspections, Reviews and Walkthroughs “Walkthroughs, Reviews and Inspections” are a form of human- based testing that involves people working together cooperatively. We begin with a few basic axioms regarding meetings…
  • 5. Safety Axiom in Meetings Software Inspections, Reviews and Walkthroughs First, as we all know, meetings can be terrible… Ever been to a really BAD meeting? In order for meetings to be effective, they need to be made safe… safe to attend, and safe NOT to attend.
  • 6. Safety Axiom in Meetings - Making Meetings Safe Software Inspections, Reviews and Walkthroughs One way to accomplish this is to remove the uncertainty about what might be covered in a meeting: ➔Publish an agenda and stick to it. ➔Handle “emergency issues” in a way that will not hurt people who don’t attend the meeting. ➔Be sure people who should attend are identified and explicitly invited in advance. ➔Gently confront those present who should not attend – preferably before the meeting starts.
  • 7. Safety Axiom in Meetings - Making Meetings Safe Software Inspections, Reviews and Walkthroughs Another is to establish ground rules for the conduct of meetings: ➔Establish a no-interruption policy, but also set time limits for individual speakers so that everyone will be able to participate. ➔Outlaw personal attacks and put-downs. ➔Finish on time, but schedule a continuation of the meeting if business isn’t finished. ➔Use a related issues list and ensure follow-up for important off-topic matters that come up.
  • 8. Other Axioms in Meetings Software Inspections, Reviews and Walkthroughs ● Meetings should be as small as possible. ● Keep the agenda short. (A meeting that tries to do too many things does none well.) ● Identify someone to act as a facilitator. ● Be prepared! (95% of meetings that fail do so because of inadequate preparation.)
  • 10. Walkthroughs Software Inspections, Reviews and Walkthroughs ● Usually done in a single meeting. ● Evaluate a software product to ○ Find anomalies (general issues + bugs) & improve the software product. ○ Consider alternative implementations (at a detailed low-level). ○ Evaluate the conformance to standards and specifications . ● Rather informal. ● No formal training required beforehand. ● Success depends on experience and skills of the team members.
  • 11. Walkthroughs application and targets Software Inspections, Reviews and Walkthroughs ● Walkthroughs can be performed at any phase of the software development process. ● Walkthroughs can be performed on any artifact, for example: ○ SRS document ○ Use Case models ○ Class diagrams ○ Test cases
  • 12. Walkthroughs application and targets Software Inspections, Reviews and Walkthroughs ● Walkthroughs can be performed at any phase of the software development process. ● Walkthroughs can be performed on any artifact, for example: ○ SRS document ○ Use Case models ○ Class diagrams ○ Test cases
  • 14. Software Inspection Overview ● Checklist-based formal approach to uncover errors. ● Intended explicitly for defect detection (not correction). ● Defects may be logical errors & anomalies in the code. For example, ○ An un-initialized variable. ○ Non-compliance with standards. ● Team members require formal training beforehand.
  • 15. Software Inspection Overview ● Issues uncovered by inspections can be symptoms of greater issues that may exist or will exist ● It’s success depends on ○ The properness of the inspection process application, ○ Checks applied; ○ The diligence (i.e. experience and knowledge) of the inspectors.
  • 16. Software Inspection Inspection Pre-conditions ○ Precise specification must be available. ○ Team members must be familiar with the organization standards. ○ Inspection will increase costs early in the software processes but the cost is well justified as shown in many studies.
  • 17. Software Inspection Trajectory of Software Development with & without Inspection Time No. of Employees Plannin g Requirement s Desig n Codin g Testing Without Inspection With Inspection
  • 18. People & Processes in Software Inspection for QA
  • 19. 1. Moderator: • the key person; the coach • technically competent, but preferably someone working on a different project • Trained and experienced in facilitation 2. Coder/Implementer (author/owner) 3. Inspectors 4. Recorder (could be the inspectors themselves or moderator) 5. Reader (could be one reader or the moderator or again the inspectors themselves) Software Inspection for QA The People Involved
  • 21. 1. Overview (whole team) • What will be inspected? • Why are we spending time inspecting such artifact? • Designation of team roles. 2. Preparation (individual) • ranked distributions of error types • checklists of clues on finding errors Software Inspection for QA The Inspection Process
  • 22. 3. Inspection Meeting (whole team) • a “reader” is chosen by the moderator • every element of logic and every branch is considered • objective is to find errors • no specific solution hunting is permitted • moderator prepares written report within one day 3.Rework (owner / author) 4.Follow-up (moderator) • if > 5% of material has been reworked, the entire element is re-inspected Software Inspection for QA The Inspection Process
  • 23. • “Since most modifications are small...they are often erroneously regarded as trivially simple and handled accordingly; ...However, all modifications are well worth inspecting...” • “Human tendency is to consider the ‘fix,’ or correction, to a problem to be error-free itself. ...The number of bad fixes can be...reduced by some simple inspection after clean compilation of the fix.” Software Inspection for QA Inspecting Modified Code
  • 24. Properties Inspections Walkthroughs Formal moderator training Yes No Definite participant roles Yes No Who “drives” the process Moderator Owner Use checklists? Yes No Formal follow-up Yes No Rigor level Formal Informal Software Inspection for QA Inspections vs Walkthroughs
  • 25. ● Inspections and walkthroughs concentrate on assessing correctness ● Reviews seeks to ascertain that tolerable levels of quality are being attained. ● The review team is more concerned with design deficiencies and deviations from the conceptual model and requirements. ● Reviews do not focus on discovering technical flows but on ensuring that the design and development fully and accurately address the needs of the application. ● Reviews is also an informal process. ● No formal training beforehand. ● Success depends on skill and experience of reviewers. Software Inspection for QA Inspections and Walkthroughs vs. Reviews
  • 26. Question? • Which technique is more of a validation process and which is more of a verification process? • Reviews • Walkthroughs • Inspections Verification Verification Validation Software Inspection for QA Inspections and Walkthroughs vs. Reviews
  • 27. Chapter 2 SE 412 Folder bit.ly/se412fall2023