SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 53
Dr. Amina Elahi
Ph.D. (PU)
1. Streptococcus pneumoniae Vaccine
2. Neisseria meningitidis Vaccine
3. Haemophilus influenza Vaccine
4. Salmonella typhi Vaccine
1. Capsular Polysaccharide Vaccines
 The surface of the bacteria is the first thing that is
exposed to the immune system
 Therefore, the surface antigen can serve an excellent
vaccine
1. Capsular Polysaccharide Vaccines
 Moreover, some bacteria have resistance to
phagocytic invasion because these cells have
capsular polysaccharides that resist
phagocytosis
1. Capsular Polysaccharide Vaccines
 For example
◦ The Polysaccharide Capsules of
1. Streptococcus pneumoniae
2. Neisseria meningitides
3. Haemophilus influenza
4. Salmonella typhi
1. Capsular Polysaccharide Vaccines
 Both versions of the vaccine against Streptococcus
pneumoniae contain the capsular polysaccharide of
the bacteria as the immunogen
 One version contains the capsular polysaccharide of
the 23 most prevalent serotypes
1. Pneumococcal Vaccine
 It is recommended for persons
◦ Older than 60 years of age
◦ Adult patients of any age with such chronic diseases as
diabetes and cirrhosis or with compromised spleen function
or splenectomy
1. Pneumococcal Vaccine
 A second version containing the capsular
polysaccharide of 13 pneumococcal serotypes coupled
to a carrier protein (diphtheria toxoid) is available for
the protection of young children who do not respond
well to the unconjugated vaccine
1. Pneumococcal Vaccine
 A second version containing the capsular
polysaccharide of 13 pneumococcal serotypes coupled
to a carrier protein (diphtheria toxoid) is available for
the protection of young children who do not respond
well to the unconjugated vaccine
1. Pneumococcal Vaccine
Two Versions of Vaccines
Bacterial Capsular
polysaccharide
Carrier
Protein
23 Serotypes 13 Serotypes
+
Unconjugated
Vaccines
Conjugated
Vaccines
Bacterial Capsular
polysaccharide
Diphtheria
Toxoid
 A potential problem regarding the use of the
pneumococcal vaccine (or a vaccine against any
organism with multiple serotypes) is that of serotype
replacement
1. Pneumococcal Vaccine
 For invasive disease, serotype replacement is defined
as an increase in the incidence of invasive disease
caused by NVTs (Non-Vaccine Serotypes) following
vaccine introduction
Serotype Replacement
Will the vaccine reduce the incidence of disease caused by the
serotypes in the vaccine but not the overall incidence of
disease because other serotypes that are not in the vaccine will
now cause disease?
In fact, this occurred
1. Pneumococcal Vaccine
 An increase in invasive pneumococcal disease caused
by serotype 19A, a serotype not in the previous
vaccine, was observed
1. Pneumococcal Vaccine
 In view of this, serotype 19A is included in the current
13 serotype vaccine
1. Pneumococcal Vaccine
 Neisseria meningitidis vaccine contains capsular
polysaccharide of four important types
1. Serotype A
2. Serotype C
3. Serotype W-135
4. Serotype Y
2. Neisseria meningitidis vaccine
 Two forms of the vaccine are available:
1. one contains the polysaccharides conjugated to a carrier
protein (diphtheria toxoid)
2. the other contains only the polysaccharides
2. Neisseria meningitidis vaccine
 It is given when there is a high risk of meningitis e.g.,
1. During an outbreak
2. When students enter college and are living in a dormitory
3. When military recruits enter boot camp
4. For travelers to areas where meningitis is hyperendemic
2. Neisseria meningitidis vaccine
 Haemophilus influenzae vaccine contains the
◦Type b polysaccharide
◦Conjugated to diphtheria toxoid or other carrier
protein
3. Haemophilus influenzae Vaccines
 It is given to children between the ages of 2 and 15
months to prevent meningitis
 The capsular polysaccharide alone is a poor
immunogen in young children, but coupling it to a
carrier protein greatly enhances its immunogenicity
3. Haemophilus influenzae Vaccines
 A combined vaccine consisting of this vaccine plus the
diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTP) vaccines is
available
3. Haemophilus influenzae Vaccines
 One of the vaccines against typhoid fever contains the
capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi
4. Salmonella typhi Vaccines
 It is indicated for
◦persons living or traveling in areas where there is a
high risk of typhoid fever
◦for persons in close contact with either infected
patients or chronic carriers
4. Salmonella typhi Vaccines
1. Corynebacterium diphtheriae vaccine contains the
toxoid (formaldehyde-treated exotoxin)
 Toxoid
 a chemically modified toxin from a pathogenic
microorganism, which is no longer toxic but is still
antigenic and can be used as a vaccine
2. Toxoid Vaccines
 Immunization against diphtheria is indicated for every
child and is given in
◦ three doses at 2, 4, and 6 months of age
 with boosters given 1 year later and at intervals thereafter
2. Toxoid Vaccines
2. Clostridium tetani vaccine contains tetanus toxoid
 is given to everyone both early in life
 later as boosters for protection against tetanus
2. Toxoid Vaccines
3. Bordetella pertussis vaccine contains pertussis
toxoid but includes other proteins as well
2. Toxoid Vaccines
1. There are two types of B. pertussis vaccines
1. an acellular vaccine containing purified proteins
2. a vaccine containing whole killed bacteria
3. Purified Protein Vaccines
1. Acellular Vaccine
 is now recommended in the United States
 The principal antigen in the acellular vaccine is
inactivated pertussis toxin (pertussis toxoid), but other
proteins, such as filamentous hemagglutinin and
pertactin, are also required for full protection
3. Purified Protein Vaccines
 Pertussis toxin for the vaccine is
◦ Inactivated Genetically by introducing two amino acid
changes
 that eliminate its toxic (ADP-ribosylating) activity but
retain its antigenicity
3. Purified Protein Vaccines
 Pertussis toxin for the vaccine
◦It is the first vaccine to contain a genetically
inactivated toxoid
3. Purified Protein Vaccines
 The vaccine is indicated for every child as a protection
against whooping cough
 It is usually given in combination with diphtheria and
tetanus toxoids (DTP or DTaP vaccine)
3. Purified Protein Vaccines
2. Bacillus anthracis vaccine contains “protective
antigen” purified from the organism
It is given to persons whose occupations place them
at risk of exposure to the organism
3. Purified Protein Vaccines
1. The vaccine against tuberculosis contains a live,
attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis called
BCG
 in some countries, is recommended for children
at high risk for exposure to active tuberculosis
4. Live, Attenuated Bacterial Vaccines
2. One of the vaccines against typhoid fever contains
live, attenuated S. typhi
 It is indicated for persons living or traveling in areas where
there is a high risk of typhoid fever and for persons in
close contact with either infected patients or chronic
carriers
4. Live, Attenuated Bacterial Vaccines
1. Vibrio cholerae vaccine contains killed organisms
and is given to persons traveling to areas where
cholera is endemic
5. Killed Bacterial Vaccines
2. Yersinia pestis vaccine contains killed organisms and
is indicated for persons at high risk for contracting
plague
5. Killed Bacterial Vaccines
3. The vaccine against typhus contains killed Rickettsia
rickettsiae organisms and is used primarily to
immunize members of the armed forces
5. Killed Bacterial Vaccines
 The vaccine against Q fever contains killed Coxiella
burnetii organisms
is used to immunize those who are at high risk for
being exposed to animals infected with the
organism
5. Killed Bacterial Vaccines
 Antitoxins (immune globulins) can be used for either
the treatment or prevention of certain bacterial
diseases
 The following preparations are available:
Passive Immunity
1. Tetanus antitoxin is used in the
 Treatment of tetanus and
 In its prevention (prophylaxis)
Passive Immunity
 In treatment,
◦ because the goal is to neutralize any unbound toxin to
prevent the disease from getting worse, the antitoxin
should be given promptly
Passive Immunity
 In prevention,
◦the antitoxin is given to inadequately immunized
persons with contaminated (“dirty”) wounds
Passive Immunity
 The antitoxin is made in humans to avoid
hypersensitivity reactions
 In addition to the antitoxin, these people should
receive tetanus toxoid
 This is an example of passive–active immunity
Passive Immunity
The toxoid and the antitoxin should be given at
different sites in the body to prevent the antitoxin
from neutralizing the toxoid
Passive Immunity
2. Botulinum antitoxin is used in the treatment of
botulism
 Because the antitoxin can neutralize unbound toxin to
prevent the disease from progressing, it should be given
promptly
Passive Immunity
 It contains antibodies against botulinum toxins A, B,
and E, the most commonly occurring types
 The antitoxin is made in horses, so hypersensitivity
may be a problem
Passive Immunity
3. Diphtheria antitoxin is used in the treatment of
diphtheria
 The antitoxin can neutralize unbound toxin to prevent the
disease from progressing; therefore, the antitoxin should
be given promptly
Passive Immunity
 The antitoxin is made in horses, so hypersensitivity
may be a problem
Passive Immunity
Thank you

More Related Content

Similar to Lec# 28 (Vaccines).pptx

Similar to Lec# 28 (Vaccines).pptx (20)

vaccine & vaccination.pptx
vaccine & vaccination.pptxvaccine & vaccination.pptx
vaccine & vaccination.pptx
 
Immunization and vaccines
Immunization and vaccinesImmunization and vaccines
Immunization and vaccines
 
Immunity and vaccine technology
Immunity  and  vaccine technologyImmunity  and  vaccine technology
Immunity and vaccine technology
 
Immunizing Agents by Dr. Sookun Rajeev Kumar
Immunizing Agents by Dr. Sookun Rajeev KumarImmunizing Agents by Dr. Sookun Rajeev Kumar
Immunizing Agents by Dr. Sookun Rajeev Kumar
 
Immunization.pptx
Immunization.pptxImmunization.pptx
Immunization.pptx
 
Vaccination
VaccinationVaccination
Vaccination
 
Vaccination ppt
Vaccination pptVaccination ppt
Vaccination ppt
 
Immunity and vaccine (community medicine )
Immunity and vaccine (community medicine )Immunity and vaccine (community medicine )
Immunity and vaccine (community medicine )
 
vaccines vaccination
vaccines vaccinationvaccines vaccination
vaccines vaccination
 
Vaccine
VaccineVaccine
Vaccine
 
immunization-Vaccines,National immunization schedule.pptx
immunization-Vaccines,National immunization schedule.pptximmunization-Vaccines,National immunization schedule.pptx
immunization-Vaccines,National immunization schedule.pptx
 
Vaccines and sera
Vaccines and seraVaccines and sera
Vaccines and sera
 
Vaccine as immunotheraputic agent
Vaccine as immunotheraputic agent Vaccine as immunotheraputic agent
Vaccine as immunotheraputic agent
 
Biologics
BiologicsBiologics
Biologics
 
Nisha revrse vaccinology
Nisha revrse vaccinology Nisha revrse vaccinology
Nisha revrse vaccinology
 
immunization.doc
immunization.docimmunization.doc
immunization.doc
 
Vaccination
VaccinationVaccination
Vaccination
 
immunization IAP 2014 recommendation
immunization IAP 2014 recommendationimmunization IAP 2014 recommendation
immunization IAP 2014 recommendation
 
Vaccination Principle, Types and Application
Vaccination Principle, Types and ApplicationVaccination Principle, Types and Application
Vaccination Principle, Types and Application
 
vaccines-191201151736.pptx
vaccines-191201151736.pptxvaccines-191201151736.pptx
vaccines-191201151736.pptx
 

More from MuhammadAfrazNuman

LEC#3.1 Cell-Mediate ALL THE HPOES ARE d Immunity.pptx
LEC#3.1 Cell-Mediate ALL THE HPOES ARE d Immunity.pptxLEC#3.1 Cell-Mediate ALL THE HPOES ARE d Immunity.pptx
LEC#3.1 Cell-Mediate ALL THE HPOES ARE d Immunity.pptxMuhammadAfrazNuman
 
LEC#1 Immunity. pptxFDF DVF FDFDFFDF DDFDFDD FDFFDFDDFDF
LEC#1 Immunity. pptxFDF DVF FDFDFFDF DDFDFDD FDFFDFDDFDFLEC#1 Immunity. pptxFDF DVF FDFDFFDF DDFDFDD FDFFDFDDFDF
LEC#1 Immunity. pptxFDF DVF FDFDFFDF DDFDFDD FDFFDFDDFDFMuhammadAfrazNuman
 
LEC#0 Antigen-Presenting Cells ALL THE CELLS HAT HAVE.pptx
LEC#0 Antigen-Presenting Cells ALL THE CELLS HAT HAVE.pptxLEC#0 Antigen-Presenting Cells ALL THE CELLS HAT HAVE.pptx
LEC#0 Antigen-Presenting Cells ALL THE CELLS HAT HAVE.pptxMuhammadAfrazNuman
 
WEHH IMMDADA Cellular Immunity AND ALL THE
WEHH IMMDADA Cellular Immunity AND ALL THEWEHH IMMDADA Cellular Immunity AND ALL THE
WEHH IMMDADA Cellular Immunity AND ALL THEMuhammadAfrazNuman
 
Hepatitisfull presenta and full all .pptx
Hepatitisfull presenta and full all .pptxHepatitisfull presenta and full all .pptx
Hepatitisfull presenta and full all .pptxMuhammadAfrazNuman
 
Advances in Virology presentaion #2.pptx
Advances in Virology presentaion #2.pptxAdvances in Virology presentaion #2.pptx
Advances in Virology presentaion #2.pptxMuhammadAfrazNuman
 
LEC#4 Tolerance & Autoimmunity.pptx
LEC#4 Tolerance & Autoimmunity.pptxLEC#4 Tolerance & Autoimmunity.pptx
LEC#4 Tolerance & Autoimmunity.pptxMuhammadAfrazNuman
 
LEC#3 Hypersensitivity (Allergy).pptx
LEC#3  Hypersensitivity (Allergy).pptxLEC#3  Hypersensitivity (Allergy).pptx
LEC#3 Hypersensitivity (Allergy).pptxMuhammadAfrazNuman
 
LEC#7 DNA Replication and Repair.pdf
LEC#7  DNA Replication and Repair.pdfLEC#7  DNA Replication and Repair.pdf
LEC#7 DNA Replication and Repair.pdfMuhammadAfrazNuman
 

More from MuhammadAfrazNuman (12)

LEC#3.1 Cell-Mediate ALL THE HPOES ARE d Immunity.pptx
LEC#3.1 Cell-Mediate ALL THE HPOES ARE d Immunity.pptxLEC#3.1 Cell-Mediate ALL THE HPOES ARE d Immunity.pptx
LEC#3.1 Cell-Mediate ALL THE HPOES ARE d Immunity.pptx
 
LEC#1 Immunity. pptxFDF DVF FDFDFFDF DDFDFDD FDFFDFDDFDF
LEC#1 Immunity. pptxFDF DVF FDFDFFDF DDFDFDD FDFFDFDDFDFLEC#1 Immunity. pptxFDF DVF FDFDFFDF DDFDFDD FDFFDFDDFDF
LEC#1 Immunity. pptxFDF DVF FDFDFFDF DDFDFDD FDFFDFDDFDF
 
LEC#0 Antigen-Presenting Cells ALL THE CELLS HAT HAVE.pptx
LEC#0 Antigen-Presenting Cells ALL THE CELLS HAT HAVE.pptxLEC#0 Antigen-Presenting Cells ALL THE CELLS HAT HAVE.pptx
LEC#0 Antigen-Presenting Cells ALL THE CELLS HAT HAVE.pptx
 
WEHH IMMDADA Cellular Immunity AND ALL THE
WEHH IMMDADA Cellular Immunity AND ALL THEWEHH IMMDADA Cellular Immunity AND ALL THE
WEHH IMMDADA Cellular Immunity AND ALL THE
 
Hepatitisfull presenta and full all .pptx
Hepatitisfull presenta and full all .pptxHepatitisfull presenta and full all .pptx
Hepatitisfull presenta and full all .pptx
 
Advances in Virology presentaion #2.pptx
Advances in Virology presentaion #2.pptxAdvances in Virology presentaion #2.pptx
Advances in Virology presentaion #2.pptx
 
LEC#4 Tolerance & Autoimmunity.pptx
LEC#4 Tolerance & Autoimmunity.pptxLEC#4 Tolerance & Autoimmunity.pptx
LEC#4 Tolerance & Autoimmunity.pptx
 
LEC#3 Hypersensitivity (Allergy).pptx
LEC#3  Hypersensitivity (Allergy).pptxLEC#3  Hypersensitivity (Allergy).pptx
LEC#3 Hypersensitivity (Allergy).pptx
 
LEC#7 DNA Replication and Repair.pdf
LEC#7  DNA Replication and Repair.pdfLEC#7  DNA Replication and Repair.pdf
LEC#7 DNA Replication and Repair.pdf
 
LEC#2 Nucleotides .pdf
LEC#2 Nucleotides  .pdfLEC#2 Nucleotides  .pdf
LEC#2 Nucleotides .pdf
 
LEC#1 INTRODUCTION.pdf
LEC#1 INTRODUCTION.pdfLEC#1 INTRODUCTION.pdf
LEC#1 INTRODUCTION.pdf
 
Saqib PPT.pptx
Saqib PPT.pptxSaqib PPT.pptx
Saqib PPT.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

call girls in Mukherjee Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝...
call girls in Mukherjee Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝...call girls in Mukherjee Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝...
call girls in Mukherjee Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝...saminamagar
 
Jewish Efforts to Influence American Immigration Policy in the Years Before t...
Jewish Efforts to Influence American Immigration Policy in the Years Before t...Jewish Efforts to Influence American Immigration Policy in the Years Before t...
Jewish Efforts to Influence American Immigration Policy in the Years Before t...yalehistoricalreview
 
call girls in West Patel Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service ...
call girls in West Patel Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service ...call girls in West Patel Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service ...
call girls in West Patel Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service ...saminamagar
 
13875446-Ballistic Missile Trajectories.ppt
13875446-Ballistic Missile Trajectories.ppt13875446-Ballistic Missile Trajectories.ppt
13875446-Ballistic Missile Trajectories.pptsilvialandin2
 
RPT ENGLISH YEAR 2 (SK) 2024-2025 by RozayusAcademy.docx
RPT ENGLISH YEAR 2 (SK) 2024-2025 by RozayusAcademy.docxRPT ENGLISH YEAR 2 (SK) 2024-2025 by RozayusAcademy.docx
RPT ENGLISH YEAR 2 (SK) 2024-2025 by RozayusAcademy.docxg63394294
 
call girls in Model Town DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in Model Town  DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️call girls in Model Town  DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in Model Town DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️saminamagar
 
办理约克大学毕业证成绩单|购买加拿大文凭证书
办理约克大学毕业证成绩单|购买加拿大文凭证书办理约克大学毕业证成绩单|购买加拿大文凭证书
办理约克大学毕业证成绩单|购买加拿大文凭证书zdzoqco
 
Make Charity for Poor Students To Strong India
Make Charity for Poor Students To Strong IndiaMake Charity for Poor Students To Strong India
Make Charity for Poor Students To Strong IndiaSERUDS INDIA
 
call girls in Mayapuri DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in Mayapuri DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️call girls in Mayapuri DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in Mayapuri DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️saminamagar
 
Start Donating your Old Clothes to Poor People
Start Donating your Old Clothes to Poor PeopleStart Donating your Old Clothes to Poor People
Start Donating your Old Clothes to Poor PeopleSERUDS INDIA
 
call girls in Mehrauli DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in Mehrauli  DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️call girls in Mehrauli  DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in Mehrauli DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️saminamagar
 
High-Level Thematic Event on Tourism - SUSTAINABILITY WEEK 2024- United Natio...
High-Level Thematic Event on Tourism - SUSTAINABILITY WEEK 2024- United Natio...High-Level Thematic Event on Tourism - SUSTAINABILITY WEEK 2024- United Natio...
High-Level Thematic Event on Tourism - SUSTAINABILITY WEEK 2024- United Natio...Christina Parmionova
 
productionpost-productiondiary-240320114322-5004daf6.pptx
productionpost-productiondiary-240320114322-5004daf6.pptxproductionpost-productiondiary-240320114322-5004daf6.pptx
productionpost-productiondiary-240320114322-5004daf6.pptxHenryBriggs2
 
Call Girls Near Surya International Hotel New Delhi 9873777170
Call Girls Near Surya International Hotel New Delhi 9873777170Call Girls Near Surya International Hotel New Delhi 9873777170
Call Girls Near Surya International Hotel New Delhi 9873777170Sonam Pathan
 
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan: Transforming India Towards a Cleaner Future
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan: Transforming India Towards a Cleaner FutureSwachh Bharat Abhiyan: Transforming India Towards a Cleaner Future
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan: Transforming India Towards a Cleaner FutureAnkitRaj274827
 
call girls in Vasant Kunj DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in Vasant Kunj DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️call girls in Vasant Kunj DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in Vasant Kunj DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️saminamagar
 
Yellow is My Favorite Color By Annabelle.pdf
Yellow is My Favorite Color By Annabelle.pdfYellow is My Favorite Color By Annabelle.pdf
Yellow is My Favorite Color By Annabelle.pdfAmir Saranga
 
In credit? Assessing where Universal Credit’s long rollout has left the benef...
In credit? Assessing where Universal Credit’s long rollout has left the benef...In credit? Assessing where Universal Credit’s long rollout has left the benef...
In credit? Assessing where Universal Credit’s long rollout has left the benef...ResolutionFoundation
 
call girls in Kirti Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in Kirti Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️call girls in Kirti Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in Kirti Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️saminamagar
 
Professional Conduct and ethics lecture.pptx
Professional Conduct and ethics lecture.pptxProfessional Conduct and ethics lecture.pptx
Professional Conduct and ethics lecture.pptxjennysansano2
 

Recently uploaded (20)

call girls in Mukherjee Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝...
call girls in Mukherjee Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝...call girls in Mukherjee Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝...
call girls in Mukherjee Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝...
 
Jewish Efforts to Influence American Immigration Policy in the Years Before t...
Jewish Efforts to Influence American Immigration Policy in the Years Before t...Jewish Efforts to Influence American Immigration Policy in the Years Before t...
Jewish Efforts to Influence American Immigration Policy in the Years Before t...
 
call girls in West Patel Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service ...
call girls in West Patel Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service ...call girls in West Patel Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service ...
call girls in West Patel Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service ...
 
13875446-Ballistic Missile Trajectories.ppt
13875446-Ballistic Missile Trajectories.ppt13875446-Ballistic Missile Trajectories.ppt
13875446-Ballistic Missile Trajectories.ppt
 
RPT ENGLISH YEAR 2 (SK) 2024-2025 by RozayusAcademy.docx
RPT ENGLISH YEAR 2 (SK) 2024-2025 by RozayusAcademy.docxRPT ENGLISH YEAR 2 (SK) 2024-2025 by RozayusAcademy.docx
RPT ENGLISH YEAR 2 (SK) 2024-2025 by RozayusAcademy.docx
 
call girls in Model Town DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in Model Town  DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️call girls in Model Town  DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in Model Town DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
 
办理约克大学毕业证成绩单|购买加拿大文凭证书
办理约克大学毕业证成绩单|购买加拿大文凭证书办理约克大学毕业证成绩单|购买加拿大文凭证书
办理约克大学毕业证成绩单|购买加拿大文凭证书
 
Make Charity for Poor Students To Strong India
Make Charity for Poor Students To Strong IndiaMake Charity for Poor Students To Strong India
Make Charity for Poor Students To Strong India
 
call girls in Mayapuri DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in Mayapuri DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️call girls in Mayapuri DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in Mayapuri DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
 
Start Donating your Old Clothes to Poor People
Start Donating your Old Clothes to Poor PeopleStart Donating your Old Clothes to Poor People
Start Donating your Old Clothes to Poor People
 
call girls in Mehrauli DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in Mehrauli  DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️call girls in Mehrauli  DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in Mehrauli DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
 
High-Level Thematic Event on Tourism - SUSTAINABILITY WEEK 2024- United Natio...
High-Level Thematic Event on Tourism - SUSTAINABILITY WEEK 2024- United Natio...High-Level Thematic Event on Tourism - SUSTAINABILITY WEEK 2024- United Natio...
High-Level Thematic Event on Tourism - SUSTAINABILITY WEEK 2024- United Natio...
 
productionpost-productiondiary-240320114322-5004daf6.pptx
productionpost-productiondiary-240320114322-5004daf6.pptxproductionpost-productiondiary-240320114322-5004daf6.pptx
productionpost-productiondiary-240320114322-5004daf6.pptx
 
Call Girls Near Surya International Hotel New Delhi 9873777170
Call Girls Near Surya International Hotel New Delhi 9873777170Call Girls Near Surya International Hotel New Delhi 9873777170
Call Girls Near Surya International Hotel New Delhi 9873777170
 
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan: Transforming India Towards a Cleaner Future
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan: Transforming India Towards a Cleaner FutureSwachh Bharat Abhiyan: Transforming India Towards a Cleaner Future
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan: Transforming India Towards a Cleaner Future
 
call girls in Vasant Kunj DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in Vasant Kunj DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️call girls in Vasant Kunj DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in Vasant Kunj DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
 
Yellow is My Favorite Color By Annabelle.pdf
Yellow is My Favorite Color By Annabelle.pdfYellow is My Favorite Color By Annabelle.pdf
Yellow is My Favorite Color By Annabelle.pdf
 
In credit? Assessing where Universal Credit’s long rollout has left the benef...
In credit? Assessing where Universal Credit’s long rollout has left the benef...In credit? Assessing where Universal Credit’s long rollout has left the benef...
In credit? Assessing where Universal Credit’s long rollout has left the benef...
 
call girls in Kirti Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in Kirti Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️call girls in Kirti Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in Kirti Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
 
Professional Conduct and ethics lecture.pptx
Professional Conduct and ethics lecture.pptxProfessional Conduct and ethics lecture.pptx
Professional Conduct and ethics lecture.pptx
 

Lec# 28 (Vaccines).pptx

  • 2. 1. Streptococcus pneumoniae Vaccine 2. Neisseria meningitidis Vaccine 3. Haemophilus influenza Vaccine 4. Salmonella typhi Vaccine 1. Capsular Polysaccharide Vaccines
  • 3.  The surface of the bacteria is the first thing that is exposed to the immune system  Therefore, the surface antigen can serve an excellent vaccine 1. Capsular Polysaccharide Vaccines
  • 4.  Moreover, some bacteria have resistance to phagocytic invasion because these cells have capsular polysaccharides that resist phagocytosis 1. Capsular Polysaccharide Vaccines
  • 5.  For example ◦ The Polysaccharide Capsules of 1. Streptococcus pneumoniae 2. Neisseria meningitides 3. Haemophilus influenza 4. Salmonella typhi 1. Capsular Polysaccharide Vaccines
  • 6.  Both versions of the vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae contain the capsular polysaccharide of the bacteria as the immunogen  One version contains the capsular polysaccharide of the 23 most prevalent serotypes 1. Pneumococcal Vaccine
  • 7.  It is recommended for persons ◦ Older than 60 years of age ◦ Adult patients of any age with such chronic diseases as diabetes and cirrhosis or with compromised spleen function or splenectomy 1. Pneumococcal Vaccine
  • 8.  A second version containing the capsular polysaccharide of 13 pneumococcal serotypes coupled to a carrier protein (diphtheria toxoid) is available for the protection of young children who do not respond well to the unconjugated vaccine 1. Pneumococcal Vaccine
  • 9.  A second version containing the capsular polysaccharide of 13 pneumococcal serotypes coupled to a carrier protein (diphtheria toxoid) is available for the protection of young children who do not respond well to the unconjugated vaccine 1. Pneumococcal Vaccine
  • 10. Two Versions of Vaccines Bacterial Capsular polysaccharide Carrier Protein 23 Serotypes 13 Serotypes + Unconjugated Vaccines Conjugated Vaccines Bacterial Capsular polysaccharide Diphtheria Toxoid
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13.  A potential problem regarding the use of the pneumococcal vaccine (or a vaccine against any organism with multiple serotypes) is that of serotype replacement 1. Pneumococcal Vaccine
  • 14.  For invasive disease, serotype replacement is defined as an increase in the incidence of invasive disease caused by NVTs (Non-Vaccine Serotypes) following vaccine introduction Serotype Replacement
  • 15. Will the vaccine reduce the incidence of disease caused by the serotypes in the vaccine but not the overall incidence of disease because other serotypes that are not in the vaccine will now cause disease? In fact, this occurred 1. Pneumococcal Vaccine
  • 16.  An increase in invasive pneumococcal disease caused by serotype 19A, a serotype not in the previous vaccine, was observed 1. Pneumococcal Vaccine
  • 17.  In view of this, serotype 19A is included in the current 13 serotype vaccine 1. Pneumococcal Vaccine
  • 18.  Neisseria meningitidis vaccine contains capsular polysaccharide of four important types 1. Serotype A 2. Serotype C 3. Serotype W-135 4. Serotype Y 2. Neisseria meningitidis vaccine
  • 19.  Two forms of the vaccine are available: 1. one contains the polysaccharides conjugated to a carrier protein (diphtheria toxoid) 2. the other contains only the polysaccharides 2. Neisseria meningitidis vaccine
  • 20.  It is given when there is a high risk of meningitis e.g., 1. During an outbreak 2. When students enter college and are living in a dormitory 3. When military recruits enter boot camp 4. For travelers to areas where meningitis is hyperendemic 2. Neisseria meningitidis vaccine
  • 21.  Haemophilus influenzae vaccine contains the ◦Type b polysaccharide ◦Conjugated to diphtheria toxoid or other carrier protein 3. Haemophilus influenzae Vaccines
  • 22.  It is given to children between the ages of 2 and 15 months to prevent meningitis  The capsular polysaccharide alone is a poor immunogen in young children, but coupling it to a carrier protein greatly enhances its immunogenicity 3. Haemophilus influenzae Vaccines
  • 23.  A combined vaccine consisting of this vaccine plus the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTP) vaccines is available 3. Haemophilus influenzae Vaccines
  • 24.  One of the vaccines against typhoid fever contains the capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi 4. Salmonella typhi Vaccines
  • 25.  It is indicated for ◦persons living or traveling in areas where there is a high risk of typhoid fever ◦for persons in close contact with either infected patients or chronic carriers 4. Salmonella typhi Vaccines
  • 26. 1. Corynebacterium diphtheriae vaccine contains the toxoid (formaldehyde-treated exotoxin)  Toxoid  a chemically modified toxin from a pathogenic microorganism, which is no longer toxic but is still antigenic and can be used as a vaccine 2. Toxoid Vaccines
  • 27.  Immunization against diphtheria is indicated for every child and is given in ◦ three doses at 2, 4, and 6 months of age  with boosters given 1 year later and at intervals thereafter 2. Toxoid Vaccines
  • 28. 2. Clostridium tetani vaccine contains tetanus toxoid  is given to everyone both early in life  later as boosters for protection against tetanus 2. Toxoid Vaccines
  • 29. 3. Bordetella pertussis vaccine contains pertussis toxoid but includes other proteins as well 2. Toxoid Vaccines
  • 30. 1. There are two types of B. pertussis vaccines 1. an acellular vaccine containing purified proteins 2. a vaccine containing whole killed bacteria 3. Purified Protein Vaccines
  • 31. 1. Acellular Vaccine  is now recommended in the United States  The principal antigen in the acellular vaccine is inactivated pertussis toxin (pertussis toxoid), but other proteins, such as filamentous hemagglutinin and pertactin, are also required for full protection 3. Purified Protein Vaccines
  • 32.  Pertussis toxin for the vaccine is ◦ Inactivated Genetically by introducing two amino acid changes  that eliminate its toxic (ADP-ribosylating) activity but retain its antigenicity 3. Purified Protein Vaccines
  • 33.  Pertussis toxin for the vaccine ◦It is the first vaccine to contain a genetically inactivated toxoid 3. Purified Protein Vaccines
  • 34.  The vaccine is indicated for every child as a protection against whooping cough  It is usually given in combination with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP or DTaP vaccine) 3. Purified Protein Vaccines
  • 35. 2. Bacillus anthracis vaccine contains “protective antigen” purified from the organism It is given to persons whose occupations place them at risk of exposure to the organism 3. Purified Protein Vaccines
  • 36. 1. The vaccine against tuberculosis contains a live, attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis called BCG  in some countries, is recommended for children at high risk for exposure to active tuberculosis 4. Live, Attenuated Bacterial Vaccines
  • 37. 2. One of the vaccines against typhoid fever contains live, attenuated S. typhi  It is indicated for persons living or traveling in areas where there is a high risk of typhoid fever and for persons in close contact with either infected patients or chronic carriers 4. Live, Attenuated Bacterial Vaccines
  • 38. 1. Vibrio cholerae vaccine contains killed organisms and is given to persons traveling to areas where cholera is endemic 5. Killed Bacterial Vaccines
  • 39. 2. Yersinia pestis vaccine contains killed organisms and is indicated for persons at high risk for contracting plague 5. Killed Bacterial Vaccines
  • 40. 3. The vaccine against typhus contains killed Rickettsia rickettsiae organisms and is used primarily to immunize members of the armed forces 5. Killed Bacterial Vaccines
  • 41.  The vaccine against Q fever contains killed Coxiella burnetii organisms is used to immunize those who are at high risk for being exposed to animals infected with the organism 5. Killed Bacterial Vaccines
  • 42.  Antitoxins (immune globulins) can be used for either the treatment or prevention of certain bacterial diseases  The following preparations are available: Passive Immunity
  • 43. 1. Tetanus antitoxin is used in the  Treatment of tetanus and  In its prevention (prophylaxis) Passive Immunity
  • 44.  In treatment, ◦ because the goal is to neutralize any unbound toxin to prevent the disease from getting worse, the antitoxin should be given promptly Passive Immunity
  • 45.  In prevention, ◦the antitoxin is given to inadequately immunized persons with contaminated (“dirty”) wounds Passive Immunity
  • 46.  The antitoxin is made in humans to avoid hypersensitivity reactions  In addition to the antitoxin, these people should receive tetanus toxoid  This is an example of passive–active immunity Passive Immunity
  • 47. The toxoid and the antitoxin should be given at different sites in the body to prevent the antitoxin from neutralizing the toxoid Passive Immunity
  • 48. 2. Botulinum antitoxin is used in the treatment of botulism  Because the antitoxin can neutralize unbound toxin to prevent the disease from progressing, it should be given promptly Passive Immunity
  • 49.  It contains antibodies against botulinum toxins A, B, and E, the most commonly occurring types  The antitoxin is made in horses, so hypersensitivity may be a problem Passive Immunity
  • 50. 3. Diphtheria antitoxin is used in the treatment of diphtheria  The antitoxin can neutralize unbound toxin to prevent the disease from progressing; therefore, the antitoxin should be given promptly Passive Immunity
  • 51.  The antitoxin is made in horses, so hypersensitivity may be a problem Passive Immunity
  • 52.