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Learning in 3D Virtual Worlds
Institute for Information Systems and Computer Media (IICM)
Faculty of Informatics – Graz University of Technology, Austria
Johanna Pirker
Version November 22, 2012
© 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 2
Agenda
• Introduction
• State of the Art
• Application Scenarios
• Future Perspective
© 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 3
About Graz University of Technology 1
Graz
© 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 4
About E-Learning Media Group
• E-Learning
• Adaptive e-learning systems
• Virtual learning environments
• E-Assessment
• Computer-based assessment
• Peer assessment
• Immersive Virtual Environments
• Virtual environment settings
• Virtual 3D World Infrastructure
• Multimedia IR and NLP
• Access to learning repositories
• Pre-processing of content
© 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 5
Dimensions of Learning
(Graham, 2006)
© 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 6
Advantages of E-Learning (1/2)
• Flexible learning possibilities regarding
learning time and place & Learner
convenience (Welsh, Wanberg, Brown, & Simmering,
2003)
• Consistent training possibilities (Welsh,
Wanberg, Brown, & Simmering, 2003)
• Accommodation of different learning styles
and types (Kruse, 2004)
• Cost reduction
© 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 7
Advantages of E-Learning (2/2)
• Learning time reduction
• Learner engagement through interactivity
(Kruse, 2004)
• Development of computer skills
• Improved tracking of activities and mastery
of the material (Welsh, Wanberg, Brown, &
Simmering, 2003)
© 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 8
Drawbacks of conventional
E-Learning tools(1/2)
• Need of technological know-how &
technology infrastructure support
• Implementation and up-front costs
• Cultural acceptance of the use of e-learning
tools or computers at all
• Lack of social interactions and feeling of
isolation
• Self-motivation of learners and organization
necessary
(Kruse, 2004; Welsh, Wanberg, Brown, & Simmering, 2003;
Gütl, 2011)
© 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 9
Drawbacks of conventional
E-Learning tools(2/2)
• Little personal contact to instructors
• Procrastination
• Technical demands such as internet
connections. Those technology-related
problems and interruptions can result in the
increase of the learners’ frustration
• Lack of hands-on experiences
• Lack of possibility for self-regulated learning
• Lack of multiple communication channels
(Welsh, Wanberg, Brown, & Simmering, 2003; Gütl, 2011)
Definition 3D Virtual Worlds
Persistence
Shared space
Socialization
Feeling of presence
Representation of individuals and objects
Immersion
Interactivity
Synchronous (Immediacy)
(Bartle, 2003; Holmström & Jakobsson, 2001; Gütl, 2011)
© 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 10
3D Virtual Worlds
© 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 11
…with Gaming Purpose
• Massively multiplayer online
games (MMOG)
• Social & collaborative game-
based tasks and group activities
(quests)
• Develop knowledge and skills
• World of Warcraft, Guild Wars,..
…focusing on Social Interactions
• Online Virtual Worlds
• Socialization and Collaboration
• Second Life, Open Wonderland,
Open Simulator, …
http://secondlife.com/
http://eu.battle.net/wow
Virtual Worlds with Gaming Purpose
© 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 12
http://youtu.be/LkCNJRfSZBU
Players Motivation
© 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 13
Bartle (2003)
Collaboration in Open Wonderland
© 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 14
• Free
• Open Source
• Collaboration Tools (Whiteboard, Sticky
Notes, Drag-and-drop existing content,.. )
• Extensibility (Java-based , Modules)
• Share Desktop Application
Collaboration in Open Wonderland
© 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 15
Collaboration in Open Wonderland
Advantages of VWs for E-Learning (1/2)
• Provision of different communication channels (both
verbal and non-verbal) for improved understanding
• Activity-based interactions support the motivation
and autonomy of the users
• Increased social awareness
• Feeling of presence in the virtual environment
• Awareness of other avatars, the environment
(Gütl, 2011; De Lucia, Francese, Passero, & Genoveffa Tortora, 2008;
Gütl & Pirker, 2011)
© 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 16
Advantages of VWs for E-Learning (2/2)
• Belonging to a social community which creates a
virtual social space and can positively impact learning
outcome
• Facilitated collaboration through different tools
• Visualizations and simulations of learning content via
2d and 3d artifacts
• Personal motivation through active participation and
co-creation of the world
(Gütl, 2011; De Lucia, Francese, Passero, & Genoveffa Tortora, 2008;
Gütl & Pirker, 2011)
© 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 17
© 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 18
“I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I
do and I understand“
(Confucius)
Application Domain I
Science Education
Collaborative Learning Activities
on
Virtual Experiments
Collaboration with
Center for Educational Computing Initiatives (CECI),
MIT, Cambridege, USA
© 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 19
Motivation
+ Real TEAL Learning Environment and 3D model of the d’Arbeloff
Studio classroom (TEAL Casestudies, 2005)
+ Hands-on experiments!
+ TEALSim Simulation Software
© 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 20
Implementation
© 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 21
© 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 22
Application Domain II
Training Activities
Collaborative Development of a Business Plan
Dreated within the framework of the European Project
Cross Border Virtual Incubator (CBVI)
© 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 23
Motivation
© 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 24
Requirements of Start-up Entrepreneurs
Knowledge &
Skills
BasicKnowledge
ExpertKnowledge
Keycompetences
Social Contacts
Experts
Partnerts
Customers
Investors
Resources
Capital
Infrastructure
Support by conventional e-learning tools
Motivation
© 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 25
Support by 3D Virtual Worlds
Application
© 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 26
The Village
Further Application Domains
Language learning, cultural immersion,
communication scenarios, role-playing scenarios,
collaborative activities, conferences, social groups,
communities, development of models and tools,
virtual campus, virtual exhibition, virtual
(archaeological) history, virtual classroom, virtual
facilities, virtual museum, technical training, virtual
field trip, simulated experiences, safety-focused
lessons, virtual laboratories,…
© 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 27
Learning Spanish at the virtual Gran Via in Madrid (OWL Blog, 2012) Virtual Japanese House (http://youtu.be/BYCNPZkhHy4)
The Future of Virtual Worlds
© 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 28
http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=2124315
References
Bartle, R. (2003). Designing Virtual Worlds. New Riders Games
Belcher, J., Dourmashkin, P., Liao, S.-b., Litster, D., Derby, N., & Olbert, S. (2004). Visualizing Electricity and
Magnetism at MIT. Retrieved 06 22, 2012, from
http://web.mit.edu/8.02t/www/802TEAL3D/teal_tour.htm.
De Lucia, A., Francese, R., Passero, I., & Genoveffa Tortora, G. (2008). Development and evaluation of a virtual
campus on Second Life: The case of SecondDMI. Computer & Education, 52(1), 220-233.
Dori, Y. J., & Belcher, J. (2005). How Does Technology-Enabled Active Learning Affect Undergraduate Students'
Understanding of Electromagnetism Concepts? THE JOURNAL OF THE LEARNING SCIENCES 14(2), pp.
243–279.
Gütl, C. (2011). The Support of Virtual 3D Worlds for Enhancing Collaboration in Learning Settings. In
Techniques for Fostering Collaboration in Online Learning Communities: Theoretical and Practical
Perspectives (pp. 278-299). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
Gütl, C., & Pirker, J. (2011). Implementation and evaluation of a collaborative learning, training and networking
environment for start-up entrepreneurs in virtual 3D worlds. In 14th International Conference on
Interactive Collaborative Learning 2011 (ICL) (pp. 58- 66).
Gütl, C., Scheucher, T., Bailey, P. H., Belcher, J., Santos, F. R., & Berger, S. (2012). Towards an Immersive
Virtual Environment for Physics Experiments Supporting Collaborative Settings in Higher Education. In
Internet Accessible Remote Laboratories: Scalable E-Learning Tools for Engineering and Science
Disciplines (pp. 543-562). IGI Global.
Graham, C. R. (2006). Blended Learning Systems: Definition, current trends, and future directions. In The
Handbook of Blended Learning (pp. 1-21). San Franciso : Pfeiffer.
Holmström, H., & Jakobsson, M. (2001). Using Models in Virtual World Design. In Proceedings of the 34th
Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. Hawaii.
Kruse, K. (2004). The Benefits and Drawbacks of e-Learning. Retrieved 9 2912, 1, from
http://www.corebiztechnology.com/software_article_elearning_d.htm
OWL Blog. (2012). Retrieved 9 1, 2012, from Open Wonderland Blog: http://blogs.openwonderland.org/
OWL Website. (2007). Retrieved 06 20, 2012, from Open Wonderland Website: http://openwonderland.org/
Pirker, J., Berger, S., Gütl, C., Belcher, J., & Bailey, P. H. (2012). Understanding Physical Concepts using an
Immersive Virtual Learning Environment. European Immersive Education Summit [accepted]. Paris.
Welsh, E. T., Wanberg, C. R., Brown, K. G., & Simmering, M. J. (2003, Nov 14). E-learning: emerging uses,
empirical results and future directions. International Journal of Training and Development, pp. 245-258.
© 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 29
© 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 30
Questions & Contact Information
Thank you for your Attention!
Questions are welcome!
Further Information:
Johanna Pirker
jpirker@iicm.edu

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Learning in Virtual Worlds

  • 1. Learning in 3D Virtual Worlds Institute for Information Systems and Computer Media (IICM) Faculty of Informatics – Graz University of Technology, Austria Johanna Pirker Version November 22, 2012
  • 2. © 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 2 Agenda • Introduction • State of the Art • Application Scenarios • Future Perspective
  • 3. © 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 3 About Graz University of Technology 1 Graz
  • 4. © 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 4 About E-Learning Media Group • E-Learning • Adaptive e-learning systems • Virtual learning environments • E-Assessment • Computer-based assessment • Peer assessment • Immersive Virtual Environments • Virtual environment settings • Virtual 3D World Infrastructure • Multimedia IR and NLP • Access to learning repositories • Pre-processing of content
  • 5. © 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 5 Dimensions of Learning (Graham, 2006)
  • 6. © 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 6 Advantages of E-Learning (1/2) • Flexible learning possibilities regarding learning time and place & Learner convenience (Welsh, Wanberg, Brown, & Simmering, 2003) • Consistent training possibilities (Welsh, Wanberg, Brown, & Simmering, 2003) • Accommodation of different learning styles and types (Kruse, 2004) • Cost reduction
  • 7. © 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 7 Advantages of E-Learning (2/2) • Learning time reduction • Learner engagement through interactivity (Kruse, 2004) • Development of computer skills • Improved tracking of activities and mastery of the material (Welsh, Wanberg, Brown, & Simmering, 2003)
  • 8. © 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 8 Drawbacks of conventional E-Learning tools(1/2) • Need of technological know-how & technology infrastructure support • Implementation and up-front costs • Cultural acceptance of the use of e-learning tools or computers at all • Lack of social interactions and feeling of isolation • Self-motivation of learners and organization necessary (Kruse, 2004; Welsh, Wanberg, Brown, & Simmering, 2003; Gütl, 2011)
  • 9. © 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 9 Drawbacks of conventional E-Learning tools(2/2) • Little personal contact to instructors • Procrastination • Technical demands such as internet connections. Those technology-related problems and interruptions can result in the increase of the learners’ frustration • Lack of hands-on experiences • Lack of possibility for self-regulated learning • Lack of multiple communication channels (Welsh, Wanberg, Brown, & Simmering, 2003; Gütl, 2011)
  • 10. Definition 3D Virtual Worlds Persistence Shared space Socialization Feeling of presence Representation of individuals and objects Immersion Interactivity Synchronous (Immediacy) (Bartle, 2003; Holmström & Jakobsson, 2001; Gütl, 2011) © 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 10
  • 11. 3D Virtual Worlds © 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 11 …with Gaming Purpose • Massively multiplayer online games (MMOG) • Social & collaborative game- based tasks and group activities (quests) • Develop knowledge and skills • World of Warcraft, Guild Wars,.. …focusing on Social Interactions • Online Virtual Worlds • Socialization and Collaboration • Second Life, Open Wonderland, Open Simulator, … http://secondlife.com/ http://eu.battle.net/wow
  • 12. Virtual Worlds with Gaming Purpose © 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 12 http://youtu.be/LkCNJRfSZBU
  • 13. Players Motivation © 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 13 Bartle (2003)
  • 14. Collaboration in Open Wonderland © 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 14 • Free • Open Source • Collaboration Tools (Whiteboard, Sticky Notes, Drag-and-drop existing content,.. ) • Extensibility (Java-based , Modules) • Share Desktop Application
  • 15. Collaboration in Open Wonderland © 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 15 Collaboration in Open Wonderland
  • 16. Advantages of VWs for E-Learning (1/2) • Provision of different communication channels (both verbal and non-verbal) for improved understanding • Activity-based interactions support the motivation and autonomy of the users • Increased social awareness • Feeling of presence in the virtual environment • Awareness of other avatars, the environment (Gütl, 2011; De Lucia, Francese, Passero, & Genoveffa Tortora, 2008; Gütl & Pirker, 2011) © 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 16
  • 17. Advantages of VWs for E-Learning (2/2) • Belonging to a social community which creates a virtual social space and can positively impact learning outcome • Facilitated collaboration through different tools • Visualizations and simulations of learning content via 2d and 3d artifacts • Personal motivation through active participation and co-creation of the world (Gütl, 2011; De Lucia, Francese, Passero, & Genoveffa Tortora, 2008; Gütl & Pirker, 2011) © 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 17
  • 18. © 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 18 “I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand“ (Confucius)
  • 19. Application Domain I Science Education Collaborative Learning Activities on Virtual Experiments Collaboration with Center for Educational Computing Initiatives (CECI), MIT, Cambridege, USA © 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 19
  • 20. Motivation + Real TEAL Learning Environment and 3D model of the d’Arbeloff Studio classroom (TEAL Casestudies, 2005) + Hands-on experiments! + TEALSim Simulation Software © 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 20
  • 21. Implementation © 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 21
  • 22. © 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 22
  • 23. Application Domain II Training Activities Collaborative Development of a Business Plan Dreated within the framework of the European Project Cross Border Virtual Incubator (CBVI) © 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 23
  • 24. Motivation © 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 24 Requirements of Start-up Entrepreneurs Knowledge & Skills BasicKnowledge ExpertKnowledge Keycompetences Social Contacts Experts Partnerts Customers Investors Resources Capital Infrastructure Support by conventional e-learning tools
  • 25. Motivation © 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 25 Support by 3D Virtual Worlds
  • 26. Application © 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 26 The Village
  • 27. Further Application Domains Language learning, cultural immersion, communication scenarios, role-playing scenarios, collaborative activities, conferences, social groups, communities, development of models and tools, virtual campus, virtual exhibition, virtual (archaeological) history, virtual classroom, virtual facilities, virtual museum, technical training, virtual field trip, simulated experiences, safety-focused lessons, virtual laboratories,… © 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 27 Learning Spanish at the virtual Gran Via in Madrid (OWL Blog, 2012) Virtual Japanese House (http://youtu.be/BYCNPZkhHy4)
  • 28. The Future of Virtual Worlds © 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 28 http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=2124315
  • 29. References Bartle, R. (2003). Designing Virtual Worlds. New Riders Games Belcher, J., Dourmashkin, P., Liao, S.-b., Litster, D., Derby, N., & Olbert, S. (2004). Visualizing Electricity and Magnetism at MIT. Retrieved 06 22, 2012, from http://web.mit.edu/8.02t/www/802TEAL3D/teal_tour.htm. De Lucia, A., Francese, R., Passero, I., & Genoveffa Tortora, G. (2008). Development and evaluation of a virtual campus on Second Life: The case of SecondDMI. Computer & Education, 52(1), 220-233. Dori, Y. J., & Belcher, J. (2005). How Does Technology-Enabled Active Learning Affect Undergraduate Students' Understanding of Electromagnetism Concepts? THE JOURNAL OF THE LEARNING SCIENCES 14(2), pp. 243–279. Gütl, C. (2011). The Support of Virtual 3D Worlds for Enhancing Collaboration in Learning Settings. In Techniques for Fostering Collaboration in Online Learning Communities: Theoretical and Practical Perspectives (pp. 278-299). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. Gütl, C., & Pirker, J. (2011). Implementation and evaluation of a collaborative learning, training and networking environment for start-up entrepreneurs in virtual 3D worlds. In 14th International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning 2011 (ICL) (pp. 58- 66). Gütl, C., Scheucher, T., Bailey, P. H., Belcher, J., Santos, F. R., & Berger, S. (2012). Towards an Immersive Virtual Environment for Physics Experiments Supporting Collaborative Settings in Higher Education. In Internet Accessible Remote Laboratories: Scalable E-Learning Tools for Engineering and Science Disciplines (pp. 543-562). IGI Global. Graham, C. R. (2006). Blended Learning Systems: Definition, current trends, and future directions. In The Handbook of Blended Learning (pp. 1-21). San Franciso : Pfeiffer. Holmström, H., & Jakobsson, M. (2001). Using Models in Virtual World Design. In Proceedings of the 34th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. Hawaii. Kruse, K. (2004). The Benefits and Drawbacks of e-Learning. Retrieved 9 2912, 1, from http://www.corebiztechnology.com/software_article_elearning_d.htm OWL Blog. (2012). Retrieved 9 1, 2012, from Open Wonderland Blog: http://blogs.openwonderland.org/ OWL Website. (2007). Retrieved 06 20, 2012, from Open Wonderland Website: http://openwonderland.org/ Pirker, J., Berger, S., Gütl, C., Belcher, J., & Bailey, P. H. (2012). Understanding Physical Concepts using an Immersive Virtual Learning Environment. European Immersive Education Summit [accepted]. Paris. Welsh, E. T., Wanberg, C. R., Brown, K. G., & Simmering, M. J. (2003, Nov 14). E-learning: emerging uses, empirical results and future directions. International Journal of Training and Development, pp. 245-258. © 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 29
  • 30. © 2012 - Johanna Pirker23/11/2012 30 Questions & Contact Information Thank you for your Attention! Questions are welcome! Further Information: Johanna Pirker jpirker@iicm.edu