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CHAPTER 3
Learning Styles
Learning :
 Learning is the process of acquiring new
understanding, knowledge, behaviors,
skills, values attitudes, and preferences.
 Learning is a relatively permanent change
in behavior occurring as a result of
experience.
Two types of learning:
 Observational learning (modeling).
 Operant conditioning.
 1- Observational Learning
 The form of learning in which people
acquire new behaviors by systematically
observing the rewards and punishments
given to others. If the model was rewarded
for behaving as observed, the observer is
motivated to imitate the model.
 2- Operant Conditioning
 The form of learning in which people associate
the consequences of their actions with the actions
themselves, or learning through rewards and
punishments. Behaviors leading to desirable
consequences (positive rewards) tend to be
strengthened & repeated, and those leading to
undesirable consequences (punishment) tend to
be weakened or avoided.
Contingencies of reinforcement:
 Refers to the various relationships between
one’s behavior and the consequences of
that behavior.
 Four contingencies:
 1- Positive reinforcement: the process by which
people learn to perform the acts that lead to desirable /
pleasant outcomes.
 2- Negative reinforcement: the process by which
people learn to perform acts that lead to the removal of
undesired events.
 3- Punishment: decreasing undesirable behavior by
following it with undesirable consequences.
 4- Extinction: the process through which responses
that are no longer reinforced tend to gradually diminish
Organizational practices using reward
and punishment:
 a) Behavior management (OB Mod):
 OB Mod is the practice of altering behavior in
organizations by systematically administering
rewards. In other words, it is the systematic
application of positive reinforcement principles in
organizational settings for the purpose of raising
desirable organizational behaviors.
 b)Discipline:
 Discipline is the process of systematically administering
punishments. One very common practice of discipline
involves using punishment progressively, or progressive
discipline, which means gradually increasing the severity
of punishments for unacceptable behavior.
Disciplinary measures continuum:
 Twelve stages in progressive discipline:
 1. Talk to employee about the problem.
 2. Oral warning.
 3. Written warning.
 4. Coach employee about problem.
 5. Provide special in-house services to help
employee.
 6. Send employee to formal training.
 7. Transfer employee to different department.
 8. Intervene in the situation.
 9. Put the employee on probation.
 10. Withhold portion of merit pay.
 11. Suspend without pay.
 12. Termination.
Principles for using discipline fairly and
effectively:
 Deliver punishment immediately after an undesirable
response occurs.
 Give moderate levels of punishment – not too high or
too low.
 Punish undesirable behavior, not person.
 Use punishment consistently across occasions.
 Punish everyone equally for same infraction.
 Clearly communicate reasons for punishment
while showing dignity and respect.
 Do not follow punishment with non-contingent
rewards to minimize the pain of punishment.

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learning in organizationl behavior

  • 2. Learning :  Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values attitudes, and preferences.  Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior occurring as a result of experience.
  • 3. Two types of learning:  Observational learning (modeling).  Operant conditioning.
  • 4.  1- Observational Learning  The form of learning in which people acquire new behaviors by systematically observing the rewards and punishments given to others. If the model was rewarded for behaving as observed, the observer is motivated to imitate the model.
  • 5.  2- Operant Conditioning  The form of learning in which people associate the consequences of their actions with the actions themselves, or learning through rewards and punishments. Behaviors leading to desirable consequences (positive rewards) tend to be strengthened & repeated, and those leading to undesirable consequences (punishment) tend to be weakened or avoided.
  • 6. Contingencies of reinforcement:  Refers to the various relationships between one’s behavior and the consequences of that behavior.
  • 7.  Four contingencies:  1- Positive reinforcement: the process by which people learn to perform the acts that lead to desirable / pleasant outcomes.  2- Negative reinforcement: the process by which people learn to perform acts that lead to the removal of undesired events.  3- Punishment: decreasing undesirable behavior by following it with undesirable consequences.  4- Extinction: the process through which responses that are no longer reinforced tend to gradually diminish
  • 8. Organizational practices using reward and punishment:  a) Behavior management (OB Mod):  OB Mod is the practice of altering behavior in organizations by systematically administering rewards. In other words, it is the systematic application of positive reinforcement principles in organizational settings for the purpose of raising desirable organizational behaviors.
  • 9.  b)Discipline:  Discipline is the process of systematically administering punishments. One very common practice of discipline involves using punishment progressively, or progressive discipline, which means gradually increasing the severity of punishments for unacceptable behavior.
  • 10. Disciplinary measures continuum:  Twelve stages in progressive discipline:  1. Talk to employee about the problem.  2. Oral warning.  3. Written warning.  4. Coach employee about problem.  5. Provide special in-house services to help employee.  6. Send employee to formal training.
  • 11.  7. Transfer employee to different department.  8. Intervene in the situation.  9. Put the employee on probation.  10. Withhold portion of merit pay.  11. Suspend without pay.  12. Termination.
  • 12. Principles for using discipline fairly and effectively:  Deliver punishment immediately after an undesirable response occurs.  Give moderate levels of punishment – not too high or too low.  Punish undesirable behavior, not person.  Use punishment consistently across occasions.
  • 13.  Punish everyone equally for same infraction.  Clearly communicate reasons for punishment while showing dignity and respect.  Do not follow punishment with non-contingent rewards to minimize the pain of punishment.