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2016/9/25
Learning How to Learn: Powerful
mental tools to help you
master tough subjects
Coursera
by University of California, San Diego
資管四甲 402401137 蔡亞芸
2016/9/25
Week 1
2016/9/25
Pomodoro technique
Learning video: http://pomodorotechnique.com/
The Pomodoro Technique
A time management method.
Developed by Francesco Cirillo in the late 1980s.
The technique uses a timer to break down work into intervals.
Traditionally 25 minutes in length, separated by short breaks.
2016/9/25
There are six steps in the technique:
1. Decide on the task to be done.
2. Set the pomodoro timer (traditionally to 25 minutes).
3. Work on the task until the timer rings. If a distraction pops into
your head, write it down, but immediately get back on task.
4. After the timer rings, put a checkmark on a piece of paper.
5. If you have fewer than four checkmarks, take a short break (3–5
minutes), then go to step 1.
6. After four pomodoros, take a longer break (15–30 minutes), reset
your checkmark count to zero, then go to step 1.
Pomodoro technique
2016/9/25
Learning mode
In this diffuse mode, the brain makes random
connections in a relaxed fashion.
The focused mode involves a direct approach to solving
problems using rational, sequential, analytical approaches.
2016/9/25
Focused mode
A direct approach to solving problems that you are not
familiar with.
A type of intense concentration you need to work through
a problem, step-by-step.
2016/9/25
Week 2
2016/9/25
Chucking
Chunks or chunking
Chunks can help you understand new concepts.
One of fist steps toward gaining expertise in academic topics is to
create conceptual chunks-mental leaps that unites scattered bits of
information through meaning.
Improvising a new sentence in a new language you are learning
involves the ability to creatively mix together various complex
minichunks and chunks.
2016/9/25
Step 1: Chunking is simply to focus your undivided attention on the
information you want to chunk.
Step 2: Chunking is to understand the basic idea you're trying to chunk,
whether it's understanding a concept such as continental drift, seeing
the connection between the basic elements of the plot for a story,
grasping the economic principle of supply and demand, or
comprehending the essence of a particular type of math problem.
Steps on chucking
2016/9/25
Serotonin is a third diffuse neuromodulatory system that strongly affects
your social life.血清素是第三個發送神經遞質系統→他可以影響社交生活
The amygdala is part of the limbic system which together with
hippocampus is involved in processing memory and decision making as
well as regulating emotional reactions.杏仁核是大腦邊緣系統的一部分,
他與海馬體共同參與記憶和決策的過程
Dopamine signals in relation to unexpected reward
Neurotransmitters
2016/9/25
Deliberate practice.
Test yourself frequently. Using little mini-tests to see whether you're
actually learning the material, or whether you've been fooling yourself,
thinking you're learning when you're actually not.
Recall is actually a form of mini-testing.
Try to avoid depending too much on highlighting, which can fool you
into thinking that the material is going into your brain when it actually
isn't. Mistakes are a good thing to make when you're learning. They
allow you to catch illusions of competence.
Illusions of competence in learning
2016/9/25
Week 3
2016/9/25
1. The cue may be something as simple as seeing the first item in your to
do list.
2. The routine. This is your zombie mode. The routine habitual response
your brain is used to falling into when it receives the cue.
3. The reward. Every habit develops and continues because it rewards
us. It gives us an immediate little feeling of pleasure.
4. The belief. Habits have power because of your belief in them.
Habits
2016/9/25
Procrastination
Procrastination often involves shifting your focus away from something
you find uncomfortable.
General habits of procrastination can negatively impact many aspect of
your life.
The PRODUCT is what triggers the pain that causes you to procrastinate.
It is perfectly normal to start with a negative feelings about learning a
beginning session.
2016/9/25
Procrastination
2016/9/25
Zombie mode
It refers to the relaxed state your mind enters when you are
performing common and habitual tasks. Example of zombie
habitual and habitual behavior include riding a bike, getting
dressed in the morning, and being able to back your car out of
the driveway
2016/9/25
Consolidation
2016/9/25
2016/9/25
Week 4
2016/9/25
Memory
Your working memory is centered out of the prefrontal cortex,
although there are connections to other parts of your brain so
you can access long-term memory.
“Spaced repetition” is the technique help with something into
long-term memory. Involves repeating what you are trying to
retain, but what you want to do is to space this repetition out.
2016/9/25
Overlearning
Continuing to study or practice after you’ve mastered what you
can in the session is called overlearning.
Automatically can indeed be helpful in times of nervousness.
2016/9/25
Metaphor and Analogy
On of the best thing you can not only remember, but to
better understanding a concept is to correct a metaphor and
analogy for it, often the more visual, more better.
Metaphor and analogies, as well as stories can sometime be
useful for getting people out of Einstellung – being block
about thinking of a problem in the wrong way.
2016/9/25
Imposter syndrome
Imposter syndrome involves frequent feeling of inadequacy.
Several behavours of high-achieving women with impostor
syndrome:
• Diligence
• Feeling of being phony
• Use of charm
• Avoiding display of confidence

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Learning how to learn 上課筆記

  • 1. 2016/9/25 Learning How to Learn: Powerful mental tools to help you master tough subjects Coursera by University of California, San Diego 資管四甲 402401137 蔡亞芸
  • 3. 2016/9/25 Pomodoro technique Learning video: http://pomodorotechnique.com/ The Pomodoro Technique A time management method. Developed by Francesco Cirillo in the late 1980s. The technique uses a timer to break down work into intervals. Traditionally 25 minutes in length, separated by short breaks.
  • 4. 2016/9/25 There are six steps in the technique: 1. Decide on the task to be done. 2. Set the pomodoro timer (traditionally to 25 minutes). 3. Work on the task until the timer rings. If a distraction pops into your head, write it down, but immediately get back on task. 4. After the timer rings, put a checkmark on a piece of paper. 5. If you have fewer than four checkmarks, take a short break (3–5 minutes), then go to step 1. 6. After four pomodoros, take a longer break (15–30 minutes), reset your checkmark count to zero, then go to step 1. Pomodoro technique
  • 5. 2016/9/25 Learning mode In this diffuse mode, the brain makes random connections in a relaxed fashion. The focused mode involves a direct approach to solving problems using rational, sequential, analytical approaches.
  • 6. 2016/9/25 Focused mode A direct approach to solving problems that you are not familiar with. A type of intense concentration you need to work through a problem, step-by-step.
  • 8. 2016/9/25 Chucking Chunks or chunking Chunks can help you understand new concepts. One of fist steps toward gaining expertise in academic topics is to create conceptual chunks-mental leaps that unites scattered bits of information through meaning. Improvising a new sentence in a new language you are learning involves the ability to creatively mix together various complex minichunks and chunks.
  • 9. 2016/9/25 Step 1: Chunking is simply to focus your undivided attention on the information you want to chunk. Step 2: Chunking is to understand the basic idea you're trying to chunk, whether it's understanding a concept such as continental drift, seeing the connection between the basic elements of the plot for a story, grasping the economic principle of supply and demand, or comprehending the essence of a particular type of math problem. Steps on chucking
  • 10. 2016/9/25 Serotonin is a third diffuse neuromodulatory system that strongly affects your social life.血清素是第三個發送神經遞質系統→他可以影響社交生活 The amygdala is part of the limbic system which together with hippocampus is involved in processing memory and decision making as well as regulating emotional reactions.杏仁核是大腦邊緣系統的一部分, 他與海馬體共同參與記憶和決策的過程 Dopamine signals in relation to unexpected reward Neurotransmitters
  • 11. 2016/9/25 Deliberate practice. Test yourself frequently. Using little mini-tests to see whether you're actually learning the material, or whether you've been fooling yourself, thinking you're learning when you're actually not. Recall is actually a form of mini-testing. Try to avoid depending too much on highlighting, which can fool you into thinking that the material is going into your brain when it actually isn't. Mistakes are a good thing to make when you're learning. They allow you to catch illusions of competence. Illusions of competence in learning
  • 13. 2016/9/25 1. The cue may be something as simple as seeing the first item in your to do list. 2. The routine. This is your zombie mode. The routine habitual response your brain is used to falling into when it receives the cue. 3. The reward. Every habit develops and continues because it rewards us. It gives us an immediate little feeling of pleasure. 4. The belief. Habits have power because of your belief in them. Habits
  • 14. 2016/9/25 Procrastination Procrastination often involves shifting your focus away from something you find uncomfortable. General habits of procrastination can negatively impact many aspect of your life. The PRODUCT is what triggers the pain that causes you to procrastinate. It is perfectly normal to start with a negative feelings about learning a beginning session.
  • 16. 2016/9/25 Zombie mode It refers to the relaxed state your mind enters when you are performing common and habitual tasks. Example of zombie habitual and habitual behavior include riding a bike, getting dressed in the morning, and being able to back your car out of the driveway
  • 20. 2016/9/25 Memory Your working memory is centered out of the prefrontal cortex, although there are connections to other parts of your brain so you can access long-term memory. “Spaced repetition” is the technique help with something into long-term memory. Involves repeating what you are trying to retain, but what you want to do is to space this repetition out.
  • 21. 2016/9/25 Overlearning Continuing to study or practice after you’ve mastered what you can in the session is called overlearning. Automatically can indeed be helpful in times of nervousness.
  • 22. 2016/9/25 Metaphor and Analogy On of the best thing you can not only remember, but to better understanding a concept is to correct a metaphor and analogy for it, often the more visual, more better. Metaphor and analogies, as well as stories can sometime be useful for getting people out of Einstellung – being block about thinking of a problem in the wrong way.
  • 23. 2016/9/25 Imposter syndrome Imposter syndrome involves frequent feeling of inadequacy. Several behavours of high-achieving women with impostor syndrome: • Diligence • Feeling of being phony • Use of charm • Avoiding display of confidence