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LEAN STRATEGIES FOR
IT SUPPORT ORGANIZATIONS
Scrum Gathering 2011
Seattle
Roger Brown
CSC, CST Moonrise Consulting, San Jose,
CA
Peter Green
Agile Coach and Trainer, Adobe Systems,
Inc.
With assistance from
Jonathan Snyder, Adobe Systems,
Inc.
CAN IT SERVICES BE AGILE?
2
LEAN PRINCIPLES
3
Minimize the time from order to cash
2. Map
the
Value
Stream
3.
Create
Flow
4.
Establish
Pull
5. Seek
Perfectio
n
1.
Identify
Value
The five-step thought process for
guiding the implementation of lean
techniques is easy to remember,
but not always easy to achieve
- lean.org
IDENTIFY VALUE
Specify value from the
standpoint of the end customer
by product family.
2. Map
the
Value
Stream
3.
Create
Flow
4.
Establish
Pull
5. Seek
Perfectio
n
1.
Identify
Value
SOURCES OF VALUE FOR ENTERPRISE SYSTEMS
$ Useful functionality
$ High system reliability
$ Quick system
response
$ High quality
$ Ease of use
$ Good support
MAP THE VALUE STREAM
Identify all the steps in the value
stream for each product family,
eliminating whenever possible
those steps that do not create
value.
2. Map
the
Value
Stream
3.
Create
Flow
4.
Establish
Pull
5. Seek
Perfectio
n
1.
Identify
Value
Product
Definition
Product
Development
Product
Delivery
THE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT VALUE STREAM
Scrum practitioners have focused on these
activities
Product
Backlog
Creation and
Release
Planning
Development
and Testing
during Sprints
Frequent
Releases to
Production
Sprints
? ?
EXPANDING THE VALUE STREAM
Where does the
Product Vision
come from?
Scrum
Where does the
Product go after
delivery?
Product
Discovery
Product
Definition
Product
Development
Product
Delivery
Product
Operation
Innovation Games
Pragmatic Marketing
Customer
Development
DevOps
Who is missing?
Leading edge Agile approaches
Mainstream
DEVOPS
Done, done, done
Development Operations
Release
and
Deploy
COMPLETING THE VALUE STREAM
Product
Discovery
Product
Definition
Product
Development
Product
Delivery
Product
Operation
Support
Support is the
interface to the
customer
Now we can start thinking
about optimizing the entire
value stream
Bleeding edge for Agile Enterprises
What Lean/Agile
opportunities an
we find?
Product
WHAT IS SUPPORT?
What is a Service?
 Activities, not tangibles
 Produced and consumed at the same
time
 Customer is a co-producer
 Utility + Warranty
Service
WHAT LEAN PRACTICES HAS YOUR ORG TRIED?
Lean Production Practices Often Applied to Services:
• Reduce average activity time (stop watches!)
• Heavy specialization (silos!)
• Resource Management (offshoring!)
• Stepwise forwarding (your incident record has 10 entries
• Standardization (support scripts!)
Focus is on activity and cost.
Customers are frustrated.
Workers are de-motivated.
THE NEW PERSPECTIVE
Treat Service as a system
and focus on capacity and capability
to achieve flow.
Economies of Scale
Economies of Flow
FINDING FLOW
Make the value-creating steps occur
in tight sequence so the product
will flow smoothly toward the
customer.
2. Map
the
Value
Stream
3.
Create
Flow
4.
Establish
Pull
5. Seek
Perfectio
n
1.
Identify
Value
USER DEMAND
Story
Story
Story
Defect
Story
Refactor
Story
Defect
Story
Where does it
come from?
VALUE DEMAND
Value Demand is the work that originates in
product discovery and improvement.
FAILURE DEMAND
Failure Demand is the work that originates
in product mistakes, mishaps and
misunderstanding.
THE LEAN NO-BRAINERS
18
We know about these from our Agile experience:
- Small batches
- Single piece flow
- Limit Work In Progress
DECENTRALIZED CONTROL
ABOUT VARIABILITY
In general, it is better to reduce the economic consequences of
variability than to try to reduce variability.
- Reinertsen
Manufacturing Development Support
Unit
Unit
Unit
Unit
Unit
Unit
Story
Story
Story
Story
Story
Story
Ticket
Ticket
Ticket
Ticket
Ticket
ESTABLISH PULL
As flow is introduced, let customers
pull value from the next upstream
activity.
Note: customer is the next
downstream process, not just end
2. Map
the
Value
Stream
3.
Create
Flow
4.
Establish
Pull
5. Seek
Perfectio
n
1.
Identify
Value
PULL
22
Push systems overwhelm capacity,
creating turbulence, waste and delay
Pull systems have a steady flow that
provides predictability
Push
♫
Normal Urgent Process Improvement
WI Types:
Design
WIP=2
Test
WIP = 3 Done
Develop
WIP=4
(Prioritized
Backlog)
Doing DoneDoing Done
Bottleneck
Station
Workflow
WIP
Limi
t
WIP
Limi
t
WIP
Limi
t
SIMPLE SOFTWARE KANBAN BOARD
To Do
23
KANBAN
KANBAN
WIP Limits
Visual
Management
Self
Assignment
Prioritization
Incremental Improvement
CADENCE
Sprint 1 Sprint 2 Sprint 3
Decomposition
Scrum for development Lean for operations
SEEK PERFECTION
As value is specified, value streams
are identified, wasted steps are
removed, and flow and pull are
introduced, begin the process again
and continue it until a state of
perfection is reached in which
2. Map
the
Value
Stream
3.
Create
Flow
4.
Establish
Pull
5. Seek
Perfectio
n
1.
Identify
Value
ABOUT PERFECTION
Perfection is never actually
achieved. The notion of perfection
is itself subject to a process of
continuous improvement.
- Jonathan Snyder
When does our process
reach perfection?
REDUCING WASTE
Manufacturing Enterprise System Support
Inventory Stale support requests, planned process improvements,
unreleased fixes
Extra processing Heavy process steps, meetings, work assignments,
manual reporting
Overproduction Standardization of responses, speculative process
changes
Transportation Task switching, issue triage, offshoring, issue
forwarding
Waiting Specialist bottlenecks, batch fixes for a hot patch,
reproducing environments and configurations, queue
escalations
Motion Emergency fixes, handoffs due to specialization, log in
to multiple systems to test or research
Defects Lost knowledge, mis-applied fixes, out-of-date scripts,
Addressing systems instead of root causes, bugs
The Seven Deadly Wastes
LEAN PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT GOALS
Valuable
Product
Usable
Knowledge
Demming
Cycle
• Patterns
• Institutional knowledge
• Knowledge sharing
• Learning Organization
FASTER FEEDBACK
Demming Cycle
EXISTING FEEDBACK LOOPS TO IMPROVE
Product
Discovery
Product
Definition
Product
Development
Product
Delivery
Product
Operation
Support
Help
Desk
Reliability
Configuration
Performance
Compliance
Bugs
Release
Frequency
NEW FEEDBACK LOOPS TO ADD
Product
Discovery
Product
Definition
Product
Development
Product
Delivery
Product
Operation
Support
Learning
Support viewpoint, tools
Low value features
Inefficient features
Supportability features
Feature ideas from customers
Usability issues
Wrong features
Missing features
Customer desires
Emerging problems
Help
Desk
INCREASE CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT
Product
Discovery
Product
Definition
Product
Development
Product
Delivery
Product
Operation
Support
Focus Groups
Customer Representatives
Customer Validation
AGILE ENTERPRISE MANIFESTO
We are uncovering better ways of developing enterprise business
services by doing it and helping others do it. Through this work we
have come to value:
Incentives for quality and value over time and cost
Agile organization over agile project methodology
Knowledge management over tribal memory
Economies of flow over economies of scale
That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the
items on the left more.
- A work in progress by Jonathan Snyder,
Sr. Manager, IT Application Support,
Adobe Systems, Inc.
REFERENCES
Anderson, D. J. (2010). Kanban:
Successful Evolutionary Change for
Your Technology Business. Sequim,
WA: Blue Hole Press.
Beck, K., & al., e. (2001). Manifesto for
Agile Software Development.
Retrieved from agilemanifesto.org:
http://agilemanifesto.org/
Bell, S. C., & Orzen, M. A. (2011). Lean
IT: Enabling and Sustaining Your
Lean Transformation. New York:
Productivity Press.
Grönroos, C. (2007). Service
Management and Marketing:
Customer Management in Service
Competition, 3rd Edition. Hoboken:
J. Wiley.
Humble, J., & Farley, D. (2010).
Continuous Delivery: Reliable
software releases through build, test,
and deployment automation. Boston: 35
Reinertsen, Donald G. (2009). The
Principles of Product Development
Flow: Second Generation Lean
Product Development. Redondo
Beach, CA: Celeritas Publishing.
Seddon, J., & O’Donovan, B. (2009).
Rethinking Lean Service.
http://www.systemsthinking.co.uk/6-
brendan-jul09.asp
Womack, J. P., & Jones, D. T. (1993).
Lean Thinking. New York: Free
Press.
Womack, J. P., Jones, D. T., & Roos, D.
(1990). The Machine that Changed
the World. New York: Macmillian
Publishing Company.

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Lean Strategies for IT Support Organizations

  • 1. LEAN STRATEGIES FOR IT SUPPORT ORGANIZATIONS Scrum Gathering 2011 Seattle Roger Brown CSC, CST Moonrise Consulting, San Jose, CA Peter Green Agile Coach and Trainer, Adobe Systems, Inc. With assistance from Jonathan Snyder, Adobe Systems, Inc.
  • 2. CAN IT SERVICES BE AGILE? 2
  • 3. LEAN PRINCIPLES 3 Minimize the time from order to cash 2. Map the Value Stream 3. Create Flow 4. Establish Pull 5. Seek Perfectio n 1. Identify Value The five-step thought process for guiding the implementation of lean techniques is easy to remember, but not always easy to achieve - lean.org
  • 4. IDENTIFY VALUE Specify value from the standpoint of the end customer by product family. 2. Map the Value Stream 3. Create Flow 4. Establish Pull 5. Seek Perfectio n 1. Identify Value
  • 5. SOURCES OF VALUE FOR ENTERPRISE SYSTEMS $ Useful functionality $ High system reliability $ Quick system response $ High quality $ Ease of use $ Good support
  • 6. MAP THE VALUE STREAM Identify all the steps in the value stream for each product family, eliminating whenever possible those steps that do not create value. 2. Map the Value Stream 3. Create Flow 4. Establish Pull 5. Seek Perfectio n 1. Identify Value
  • 7. Product Definition Product Development Product Delivery THE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT VALUE STREAM Scrum practitioners have focused on these activities Product Backlog Creation and Release Planning Development and Testing during Sprints Frequent Releases to Production Sprints ? ?
  • 8. EXPANDING THE VALUE STREAM Where does the Product Vision come from? Scrum Where does the Product go after delivery? Product Discovery Product Definition Product Development Product Delivery Product Operation Innovation Games Pragmatic Marketing Customer Development DevOps Who is missing? Leading edge Agile approaches Mainstream
  • 9. DEVOPS Done, done, done Development Operations Release and Deploy
  • 10. COMPLETING THE VALUE STREAM Product Discovery Product Definition Product Development Product Delivery Product Operation Support Support is the interface to the customer Now we can start thinking about optimizing the entire value stream Bleeding edge for Agile Enterprises What Lean/Agile opportunities an we find?
  • 11. Product WHAT IS SUPPORT? What is a Service?  Activities, not tangibles  Produced and consumed at the same time  Customer is a co-producer  Utility + Warranty Service
  • 12. WHAT LEAN PRACTICES HAS YOUR ORG TRIED? Lean Production Practices Often Applied to Services: • Reduce average activity time (stop watches!) • Heavy specialization (silos!) • Resource Management (offshoring!) • Stepwise forwarding (your incident record has 10 entries • Standardization (support scripts!) Focus is on activity and cost. Customers are frustrated. Workers are de-motivated.
  • 13. THE NEW PERSPECTIVE Treat Service as a system and focus on capacity and capability to achieve flow. Economies of Scale Economies of Flow
  • 14. FINDING FLOW Make the value-creating steps occur in tight sequence so the product will flow smoothly toward the customer. 2. Map the Value Stream 3. Create Flow 4. Establish Pull 5. Seek Perfectio n 1. Identify Value
  • 16. VALUE DEMAND Value Demand is the work that originates in product discovery and improvement.
  • 17. FAILURE DEMAND Failure Demand is the work that originates in product mistakes, mishaps and misunderstanding.
  • 18. THE LEAN NO-BRAINERS 18 We know about these from our Agile experience: - Small batches - Single piece flow - Limit Work In Progress
  • 20. ABOUT VARIABILITY In general, it is better to reduce the economic consequences of variability than to try to reduce variability. - Reinertsen Manufacturing Development Support Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit Story Story Story Story Story Story Ticket Ticket Ticket Ticket Ticket
  • 21. ESTABLISH PULL As flow is introduced, let customers pull value from the next upstream activity. Note: customer is the next downstream process, not just end 2. Map the Value Stream 3. Create Flow 4. Establish Pull 5. Seek Perfectio n 1. Identify Value
  • 22. PULL 22 Push systems overwhelm capacity, creating turbulence, waste and delay Pull systems have a steady flow that provides predictability Push ♫
  • 23. Normal Urgent Process Improvement WI Types: Design WIP=2 Test WIP = 3 Done Develop WIP=4 (Prioritized Backlog) Doing DoneDoing Done Bottleneck Station Workflow WIP Limi t WIP Limi t WIP Limi t SIMPLE SOFTWARE KANBAN BOARD To Do 23 KANBAN
  • 25. CADENCE Sprint 1 Sprint 2 Sprint 3 Decomposition Scrum for development Lean for operations
  • 26. SEEK PERFECTION As value is specified, value streams are identified, wasted steps are removed, and flow and pull are introduced, begin the process again and continue it until a state of perfection is reached in which 2. Map the Value Stream 3. Create Flow 4. Establish Pull 5. Seek Perfectio n 1. Identify Value
  • 27. ABOUT PERFECTION Perfection is never actually achieved. The notion of perfection is itself subject to a process of continuous improvement. - Jonathan Snyder When does our process reach perfection?
  • 28. REDUCING WASTE Manufacturing Enterprise System Support Inventory Stale support requests, planned process improvements, unreleased fixes Extra processing Heavy process steps, meetings, work assignments, manual reporting Overproduction Standardization of responses, speculative process changes Transportation Task switching, issue triage, offshoring, issue forwarding Waiting Specialist bottlenecks, batch fixes for a hot patch, reproducing environments and configurations, queue escalations Motion Emergency fixes, handoffs due to specialization, log in to multiple systems to test or research Defects Lost knowledge, mis-applied fixes, out-of-date scripts, Addressing systems instead of root causes, bugs The Seven Deadly Wastes
  • 29. LEAN PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT GOALS Valuable Product Usable Knowledge Demming Cycle • Patterns • Institutional knowledge • Knowledge sharing • Learning Organization
  • 31. EXISTING FEEDBACK LOOPS TO IMPROVE Product Discovery Product Definition Product Development Product Delivery Product Operation Support Help Desk Reliability Configuration Performance Compliance Bugs Release Frequency
  • 32. NEW FEEDBACK LOOPS TO ADD Product Discovery Product Definition Product Development Product Delivery Product Operation Support Learning Support viewpoint, tools Low value features Inefficient features Supportability features Feature ideas from customers Usability issues Wrong features Missing features Customer desires Emerging problems Help Desk
  • 34. AGILE ENTERPRISE MANIFESTO We are uncovering better ways of developing enterprise business services by doing it and helping others do it. Through this work we have come to value: Incentives for quality and value over time and cost Agile organization over agile project methodology Knowledge management over tribal memory Economies of flow over economies of scale That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more. - A work in progress by Jonathan Snyder, Sr. Manager, IT Application Support, Adobe Systems, Inc.
  • 35. REFERENCES Anderson, D. J. (2010). Kanban: Successful Evolutionary Change for Your Technology Business. Sequim, WA: Blue Hole Press. Beck, K., & al., e. (2001). Manifesto for Agile Software Development. Retrieved from agilemanifesto.org: http://agilemanifesto.org/ Bell, S. C., & Orzen, M. A. (2011). Lean IT: Enabling and Sustaining Your Lean Transformation. New York: Productivity Press. Grönroos, C. (2007). Service Management and Marketing: Customer Management in Service Competition, 3rd Edition. Hoboken: J. Wiley. Humble, J., & Farley, D. (2010). Continuous Delivery: Reliable software releases through build, test, and deployment automation. Boston: 35 Reinertsen, Donald G. (2009). The Principles of Product Development Flow: Second Generation Lean Product Development. Redondo Beach, CA: Celeritas Publishing. Seddon, J., & O’Donovan, B. (2009). Rethinking Lean Service. http://www.systemsthinking.co.uk/6- brendan-jul09.asp Womack, J. P., & Jones, D. T. (1993). Lean Thinking. New York: Free Press. Womack, J. P., Jones, D. T., & Roos, D. (1990). The Machine that Changed the World. New York: Macmillian Publishing Company.

Editor's Notes

  1. Take audience pulse on How much do you know about Lean? Are you interested in IT, Ops or Support?
  2. Elements of Value to an Enterprise system customer: solve business problems deliver products and service to their customers reduce costs of work reduce effort required to perform their jobs
  3. Ask: What are some sources of value that you can think og? $Useful functionality High system reliability Quick system response High quality Ease of use Good support
  4. DevOps is one name for the growing field of Lean/Agile inspired operations practices. It seeks to break down the wall between Development and Operations so that new product does not pile up unused and the challenges of change risk and compliance can still be addressed. It leverages automation, virtualization and Agile Practices for better communication and continuity between Dev and Ops. Practices include: Automated provisioning Infrastructure as code Continuous deployment Model Driven Automation Deployment rollback Incremental database development Consider thinking of DevOps as a lean approach to Software Developing that solves problems in software development analogous to the Supply Chain Distribution in traditional product development. That is, once you have a product, how do you get it to market? The techniques for producing a product during design and development are usually very different than the techniques used to get the finished product to market. Mostly, the techniques in getting a product to market involve how to efficiently mass produce and deliver the product. In software as a service (including web applications), we have underestimated the complexity of our own supply chain distribution mechanisms. Underestimating this complexity creates waste. DevOps solves much of the complexity by integrating operations practices into the development process itself. Solving problems with automated testing and deployment throughout the software development and delivery process reduces bad variability between software server landscapes and environments, increases consistency and predictability, largely through automation. This way, by the time a solution is ready to go live, the mechanisms to deploy to production are already themselves well tested and proven on the non-production landscapes.
  5. Ask: What are some things that support organizations do? Ask: What are some challenges they have? Ask: What are some opportunities for improvement? Activities: Help Desk Failure Analysis Code updates System Monitoring System Configuration Bug fixing Incident Tracking Challenges: Users expect rapid response to problems More people using more technology means more demand for help More products and versions to support Quarterly $ goals drive tight timelines Fragile, debt-ridden systems Management by time and budget, not value and quality Knowledge gained during emergencies is not retained Staff works in expertise silos Opportunities: Responsive support pleases customers leading to more sales More “supportable” products have lower support costs Higher quality products have lower support costs More efficient and reduced demand saves people cost Fewer production disruptions escalated to development team
  6. Demand flows in unpredictably. How can we process it in a smooth flow? Reduce waste Reduce batch size Process single unit Decentralize control Limit work in progress Be smart about variability
  7. What are some examples? Competitor features New technologies New ideas for products and features Customer requests for new functionality Payback of technical debt
  8. Cup holder story What are some examples: Help requests Code defects Usability problems Building the wrong features Insufficient security, speed, uptime Technical debt to hurry shipment
  9. Another tool you can use to visualize your queues is the Cumulative Flow Diagram… it’s essentially a time lapse Kanban board. WIP = Work in Process LT = Lead Time: average time for an item to go through the development process *click* What you see in the 1 – 9 week range is a lot of work getting developed and tested, and some getting approved, but notice that the slopes of the transition lines are very different. *click* That’s a warning sign that work in process is building up, and you’re getting into a long queue state *click* Then it looks like some WIP limits got hit at week 9, so the rate of things being pulled off the backlog went way down, and everyone worked through their existing queues… note how the work in process got cut by 1/3rd *click* At about week 27 or so, all the slopes are about equal, and the amount of time for an item to make it through the development process is vastly reduced. This is really the goal for your process: items flowing through the system at a consistently high rate, with no build up of queues or work in process.
  10. Hire the right people Respect what they know and how they work Enable continual learning Give individuals autonomy to make decisions Use cross-functional teams where re-work occurs Align decentralized authority with centralized strategy Trust that uncertainty will be met more quickly by knowledgeable, capable people Use explicit policies (team-defined and org-defined) to aid trust in self-organization of teams
  11. In Lean manufacturing, we work hard to eliminate it. In product development we encourage it to spawn innovation. In services, it just is. So we try to make the most of it. Look for patterns to leverage in prioritization and problem solving Know the payoff function and the probability of success Cut your losses
  12. Pull improves work life. Predictability Cadence Flow Quality Learning Pride
  13. Here we have a simple Kanban board. The team has visualized their current work process, where they do some design, some coding, and then some testing. Don’t worry, the scrum coaches are teaching them about TDD, we’ll get to that later in the project! . We can also use the Kanban board to visualize work types such as Urgent work items and Process Improvement items. We have established WIP limits for each of the phases based on the team’s estimate of what skill sets are present on the team. The team has a queue of work to do, which is equivalent to a product backlog. *click* As the team starts working, they pull items from the product backlog onto the board and start doing the design work. Since they’ve established a WIP limit of 2 for design, they’ll hit this pretty quickly. No other work can proceed until the design on these items is done. The team can’t pull in more design items without violating WIP limits. NOTE: In scrum, the iteration is a primary constraint. In Kanban, the WIP limit is the primary constraint. If your scrum team has a hard time adhering to the iteration constraints, it’s likely they’ll struggle adhering to WIP limits. *click* Ok, so the team has gotten the design work done and so they can pull items into the next stage, the develop stage. As we watch items move across the board, eventually we hit another WIP limit in the develop stage, and then quickly hit the WIP limit in Design as well. Again we can’t move any items into these stages to work on them until Develop finishes something. Even if Design finishes one of their items, they can’t push it into the Develop stage because the WIP is full there, and because it’s not a push system. So let’s assume we get one of the items Developed, and test pulls it into their queue. Now the system can begin moving again. *click* Items move through the system until we hit another WIP limit, this time in Test. We are below WIP limits in Develop, and so once these items are done in Design, we can pull them in and start working again. *click* We’re getting close to full capacity for each of our stations, *click* Everybody’s pretty busy, and then *click* Everyone’s queue is full! Traditional managers are ecstatic! 100% utilization! . This also means that we can’t start working on the next item until something gets completed from test and moved into Done. This may be a time of temptation for the team, but they stay strong and help reduce the testing load together and move things into Done. *click* This creates a pull and items quickly move back into the board, and we get to full again. With this simple Kanban, we don’t have a lot of visibility into what the real bottleneck is, and so we are going to add some lanes for actual WIP in a stage and Done in a stage (sometimes referred to as a buffer). *click* We can do the same with Design *click* Now when a little more progress is made in the Develop stage, we see very clearly where the bottleneck is: *click* Test. Now the team can use our agile & lean toolsets to start to tackle the bottleneck.
  14. Lean cadence supports variability in delivery cadence. Development problems are large and need to be decomposed. Lean supports problems are already small but have different expectations of resolution (SLA). This is not to say that Lean cannot be adapted to development.
  15. Goals for an Agile Organization Optimal value delivered to customer Consistent processes Measurable processes Collect usable knowledge Focus Trust Continuous improvement
  16. Inventory: completed bug fixes piling up due to infrequent releases; pushing support staff to 100% utilization leaves no slack for burst capacity or process/system improvement Waiting: support staff that did not get knowledge of new changes can’t help customers efficiently; offshoring goes here too Not sure where these go: * over-specialization in support leads to multiple handoffs within support to get issues resolved. Risk of infinite loops (e.g. ecommerce support -> middleware support -> CRM support -> ecommerce support) * too many issues in the system all at once leads to breakdowns in environment management. Environments get locked down, but the amount of work expected to flow through the system isn’t limited. Therefore, teams rush to get changes done in limited release windows, reducing quality and increasing production issues.
  17. Allows smaller queues Learning is faster and more efficient Reduces noise, revealing weaker signals Improves communications Enhances decentralized control Reduces sense of urgency Promotes alignment