SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare
LAW088
STATEHOOD AND SOVEREIGNTY
State: a political unit composed of people, well-defined
territory and a set of governing institutions.
Differences between common law and civil law
Common law Civil law
Derived from English Law Derived from Roman Law
Refers to case laws Refers to statutes
Adversarial (lawyers play
active role)
Inquisitorial (judges play
active role)
Based on the rights of the
individual
Based on the best interest
of the society
Based on judicial
precedent (first case ever
decided in the court, obeys
doctrine of stare decisis)
Law is codified (decision-
making must be referred
from the constitutions, acts
or other statutes)
Unwritten law Written law
i.e. UK, Australia, Hong
Kong, USA, Canada
i.e. Italy, Spain (French),
Germany, Austria
(German)
Constitutive theory: defines a state as a person of
International law if, and only if, it is recognised as
sovereign by other states.
Declarative theory: four criteria must be met
(permanent population, defined territory, a government,
capacity to enter into relations with other states)
Art. 1 of Montevideo Convention on the Rights and
Duties of States 1933)
- The convention codified the declarative theory
of statehood as accepted to be as part of
customary international law.
- Signed at Montevideo, Uruguay at December
26, 1933.
- Signed by 19 states inc. Paraguay, Brazil, US,
Peru, Argentina.
1) Permanent population
- An aggregate of individuals of both sexes who
live together as a community in spite of the fact
that they may be of different races or creeds.
- There is no specific rule in the number of
population.
- i.e. Naura: 1000 citizens only
2) Defined territory
- Exclusive rights to display activities of the state
within a certain geographical area.
- No rule prescribing on the minimum size of the
territory.
- i.e. Tuvalu (7km2), Naura (21km2)
- Size is not important but must have a clear
territory.
3) A government
- There must be in existence a government
system in the state.
- International law does not prescribe the exact
form of government, except that it must be in
conformity with the right of self-determination of
people.
4) Capacity to enter into relations with other states
- Forms diplomatic ties.
- Negotiate agreements.
- i.e. Malaysia and Israel does not have
diplomatic relationship.
Not matured statehood
1) Republic of Abkhazia
- Near Georgia in Russia.
- Cannot achieve independent.
- No government.
2) Palestine
- Against by Israel.
- Should be a matured statehood.
- Lack of effective control over the claimed
territory (government control – external).
3) Israel
- No accurate border.
- Governed by military.
- Not recognised by international community.
Types of government control
1) Internally
- A government implies capacity to establish and
maintain a legal order in the sense of
constitutional autonomy.
- This means that government focus on the
country and its constitution itself.
2) Externally
- A government has the ability to act
autonomously on the international level without
being dependent on other states within the
international legal order.
- Thus, state of Palestine was not a state due to
lack of effective control over the claimed
territory.
Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare
State sovereignty
- Ability of a state to be independent and free
from control of another state.
- The power of a state to do everything
necessary to govern itself, such as making,
executing and applying laws, imposing an
collecting taxes, making war and peace, and
forming treaties or engaging commerce in with
foreign nations.
- Emerged 350 years ago as a result of the
Treaty of Westphalia.
- Vested in government or other political agency.
Sovereignty in international law
- The legitimate exercise of power and the
interpretation of international law by a state.
- Government possess full control over its own
affairs within a territorial or geographical area
or limit.
Concepts of sovereignty
1) Authority
- The right to command and correlatively the riht
to be obeyed/
- The holder of sovereignty possess authority.
- Not just mere authority but supreme authority.
2) Legitimacy
- A holder of sovereignty derives authority from
some mutually acknowledged source of
legitimacy.
- i.e. from Natural law, a divine mandate,
hereditary law, constitution, international law.
3) Supremacy
- What makes the constitution of superior to the
government.
- i.e. Federal Constitution is a supreme law of
Malaysia.
4) Territoriality
- Principle by which a community is to be
defined.
- Specifies that their membership derives from
their residence within borders.
Types of sovereignty
1) De jure
- “According to the law” (created in respect of
constitutional law).
- The legal right to exercise the power.
- May happen: de jure sovereign may not be able
to command obedience while someone else,
whose identity may or may not be recognised
by law, is actually obeyed.
2) De facto
- “The ability in fact to do so”.
- Government in control.
- Although it may not be legally accepted as
existing.
- Has no legal claim to sovereignty but exercises
necessary force to make and enforce laws.
- i.e. Palestine vs Israel, People’s Republic of
China (mainland China) vs Republic of China
(Taiwan).
Challenges to sovereignty
1) The rise of human rights
- The emergence of human rights affect
sovereignty because these “agreed upon”
principles set clear limits on the authority of
government to act within their borders.
- i.e. in Malaysia, any action taken by
government that is against human rights will be
criticised by people.
2) Economic globalisation
- The growth of multinational organisation has
placed constraints on state ability to direct
development and fashion social, and economic
policy.
- This is because economic globalisation will
increase flow of communications which allows
vital information to be shared between
individuals and corporations around the world.
- The globalisation in economy will promote
some sort like changes in idea of certain way
how economy growth and direction of economy
will be directed by not only government, but
also multinational organisation.
- i.e. Michelin, producer of wheel. They control
over the manufacturing and business of rubber
wheel without any intervention of government.
This is because Michelin has full control over
the sources. Thus, sovereignty is affected.
3) The growth of international organisations/
supranational institutions
- Emerges as significant source of authority that
place limit in state sovereignty.
- Member states transcend national boundaries
or interests to share in the decision-making and
vote on issues pertaining to the wider grouping.
- In today’s world no state can openly disregard
global enactments made by such international
organisations, i.e. UN.
Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare
NON-STATE AS LEGAL ACTORS
- Organisations established not by nation states,
but by certain group of individuals,
businessmen and other societal forces.
- Oppose the characteristics of nation states
which have absolute power of their countries
including borders, sovereignty, religious
matters and ethnics.
- Does not fulfill the requirement of a state.
- But give impact to particular state especially to
the rule-making such as in the country’s
administration.
Classifications of Non-state Actors
1) International Intergovernmental Organisations
(IGOs)
2) International Non-Governmental Organisations
(IGOs)
IGOs
- Non-state actors that are created by nation
states.
- Voluntary organisations of sovereign states.
- Established by treaty or other agreements.
- Usually have a legislative body which creates
legal acts (decisions, resolutions, directives).
- May be classified by scope and by function.
- Play significant role by providing means of
cooperation and multiple channels of
communication among states.
- i.e. United Nations, IMF, WHO, Organisation of
Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).
Functions of IGOs
- Rule making
- Agenda setting
- Information gathering
INGOs
- Private institutions that are independent of the
government.
- Established by certain group of individuals,
businessmen or societal forces.
- i.e. Greenpeace, WWF, Amnesty International
Reasons for INGOs’ emergence
- Role of government increased.
- Government does not respond to the needs of
and demand of the people.
- Pressure from government policies.
- Communication revolution.
Types of INGOs
- Transnational
- Government-organised
- Business and industry
- Donor-dominated
Functions of INGOs
- Provide analysis and expertise, serve as early
warning mechanism and help monitor and
implement international agreements.
- Alerting global network of supporters to
conditions requiring attention (relief suffering).
- Creating emergency response around the
world.
- Mobilising pressure from outside states.
- Enhance public participation within states by
reminding government delegates that they are
being watched.
- Gathering information on local conditions
through contacts around the world.
Advantages of Non-state Actors
1) Helping in solving world crisis
- Crisis Yom Kippur War (Security Council
adopted resolution 338 in 1973)
- Crisis of Iran 1946 (Security Council adopted
resolution 2.
- Solving world hunger (WFP, Stop Hunger Now,
Bread for the World)
2) Gain more trust from the people
3) Diplomatic relation
- Help in the international trade and diplomatic
ties.
- i.e. ASEAN – 10 countries participated in
Southeast Asia.
- United Nations.
4) Have more of a grass roots focus
- Usually focus on specific issue.
- i.e. WFP (food), WWF (wildlife), WHO (health).
- Can find problems and solutions faster than the
government since the government has a lot of
matters to take care of.
- Assisting the government on issues that they
may have overlooked.
Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare
Disadvantages of non-state actors
1) Interference of veto power
- Permanent members of UN (China, Russia,
France, USA, UK).
- i.e. USA has vetoed 32 recommendations
regarding the issue of Israel.
2) Implication of neutral ground
- Principle in ASEAN do not interfere with other
country’s sovereignty.
- i.e. ASEAN towards Myanmar.
- Cannot solve the problem of Rohingya because
practiced the ASEAN principle.
3) Domination of power
- Price determination.
- i.e. OPEC determining and dominating the
price of oil around the world.
@
Advantages of non-state actors
- Specific issues.
- Provide the information.
- Settle economic issue among them.
- Get cooperation through sort of formal
structure.
- They hold the state sovereignty.
Disadvantages of non-state actors
- Plays lesser role in political issue.
- State has to give part of their sovereignty.
- Inequality among the state members.
- The membership is limited.
Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare
UNITED NATIONS
- Successor of the League of Nations.
- Failed to prevent world war.
- Founded in 1945 after the 2nd
world war by 51
countries committed to maintaining
international peace and security, developing
friendly nations, promoting social progress,
better living standards and human rights.
Aim and Objectives
1) To keep peace throughout the world
- Agreements on disarmament i.e. the Non-
Proliferation Treaty (NPT) for nuclear weapons.
- Declaration on Principles of International Law
concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation
among states.
- States shall settle their international disputes by
peaceful means in such a manner that
international peace and security and justice are
not endangered.
2) To develop friendly relations among nations
- Declaration on Principles of International Law
concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation
among States.
- States shall refrain in their international
relations from the threat or use of force against
the territorial integrity or political independence
of any state.
- The duty of states to co-operate with one
another.
3) To help nations work together to improve the
lives of poor people, to conquer hunger,
diseases and illiteracy, and to encourage
respect for each other’s rights and freedoms
- WFP (world hunger – food assistance branch of
the United Nations).
- UN Declaration of Human Rights.
- UNESCO (education, scientific, cultural).
4) To be a centre for harmonising the actions of
nations to achieve these goals.
- Acts as the middleman.
- Might seem to interfere, but actually
paternalistic.
Structure of UN
- 193 state members.
- 2 non-member states (Holy See and Palestine).
- Non-members receive standing invitation to
participate as observers in the sessions and the
work of the General Assembly and maintaining
permanent observer missions at Headquarters.
- Secretariat, General Assembly, Security
Council, ECOSOC (economic and social), ICJ.
1) Secretariat
- Run day-to-day operation.
- Provides administrative task.
- Led by Secretary General (who is appointed by
Security Council for five years).
- Staffs are only answerable to UN, not to the
country they operate (i.e. UNESCO Malaysia).
2) General Assembly
- Main deliberative organ of UN.
- Composed of representatives from all member
states.
- Decide and pass important policies.
- Consider and make recommendations on the
general principles of cooperation for
maintaining internal peace and security,
including disarmament.
- Initiate studies and make recommendations to
promote international political cooperation,
human rights, ecosoc, etc.
- Elect non-permanent members of the Security
Council and members of other UN councils and
organs, recommend the Security Council,
appoint Secretary General.
- Each member has one vote to vote on issues.
3) Security Council
- Five permanent members: China, France, UK,
Russia, USA.
- Ten non-permanent members elected for two-
year terms by the General Assembly.
- Carries out the aim and objectives of UN.
4) ECOSOC
- Responsible for cooperation between states on
economic and social fields.
- i.e. raise standard of living.
- ICJ
- Located in Hague, Netherlands.
- Resolve dispute between states.
- Judges elected by General Assembly and
Security Council for period of nine years.
4) May entertain 1) legal dispute between states
submitted to them, 2) requests for advisory
opinions on legal relations referred to it.
Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare
Contributions of UN
1) Maintaining international peace and security
- There are 16 UN peacekeeping operations
deployed on four continents.
- i.e. UN Military Observer Group in India and
Pakistan and UN Mission in Liberia.
2) Countering terrorism
- Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force
(CTITF) was established in order to ensure
coordination and coherence in UN activities on
counter-terrorism.
- i.e. I-ACT Mission 2015.
3) Protecting human rights
- UN Human Rights Council.
- UN Declaration of Human Rights, the first legal
document in protecting universal human rights
and is generally agreed to be the foundation of
international human rights law.
4) Delivering humanitarian aid
- Helping refugees (UNHCR).
- WFP sends food aid to Syrian refugees.
Challenges of UN
1) Keeping human rights
- LGBT – everyone has different standards of
human rights due to different cultural and
religious beliefs.
2) Insufficient funding
- Salary of the staffs
- Donation
- Refugee crisis, etc.
3) Trying to curb the spread of diseases
- New diseases keep coming in.
- Spread too quickly.
- Could get out of control.
4) Limited supply
5) Enforcing the law
- Veto power.
6) The threat of nuclear weapon
- North Korea withdrew from NPT.
5) Announced on March 2016 that they’re going to
launch their nuclear soon.
7) Keeping countries in a treaty
6) North Korea withdrew from NPT.
7) Seeing it as a mean for countries who already
possess nuclear weapons to keep their
weapons and prevent others from developing it.
8) Biological welfare
8) Killing people with intentional spread of
diseases – for overpopulation.
9) States are not bound to bid by the sanctions
provided by UN.
9) One of UN’s bodies, ICJ, is created to resolve
disputes between states.
10) However, not all states follow the decision of
the court.
11) The sanctions provided by UN are not always
followed.
12) States are not legally binded to follow UN’s
decisions.
13) Therefore it is not effective because these
countries are also a part of the world.
14) i.e. Malaysia do not ratify to some of UN’s
treaties.
10) Outdated structure
15) The permanent members have veto power.
16) Outgrowing number of members, therefore
more states should be able to be permanent
members as well.
17) These other states can only pass non-binding
resolutions.
18) The big five does not seem to have the
intention to give up any power or share it with
more states.
11) Increasing demands
- Not enough peacekeeping troops.
- States are asked to contribute troops for peace-
keeping but it is still not enough.
- 100 peacekeepers had died last year and
dozens have been taken captive.
12) Unreliable funding
- Funded by voluntary contributions.
- Not enough donations.
- WFP had to suspend a food voucher program
serving more than 1.7mil Syrian refugees after
the donors failed to meet their commitments.
- Members owed about $3.5bil for regular
operations and peacekeeping.
Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare
Effectiveness of UN
1) Effective in reducing climate change.
- Kyoto Protocol.
- Kyoto, Japan in 1997.
2) Successful efforts on helping the people in
need
- WFP.
- Developed smartphone application: Share The
Meal, which is very successful.
- All that it takes is a single click and $0.50 will
be donated to Syrian refugees.
Weaknesses of UN
1) Failure to act fast
- i.e. to curb the spread of diseases.
- Too slow until the disease is already
widespread and out of control.
2) Wasting the fund
- Divided into different branches and sub-
organisations, cost a lot of money.
- Huge salaries are paid to international staffs.
- UN is not a business firm which people can
make money out of.
- As a development agency, the fund is
supposed to be channeled to help the poor as
best as they could.
- UN must cut the salary of expats in order to
make the available funding to the program’s
operation and development.
3) Difficult to recruit and retain the right staff
- Senior staffs are guaranteed contracts that can
cost an upwards of $300-500k a year.
- Yet the bulk of the work falls on lower level staff
who are not guaranteed a salary for more than
a few months at a time.
- As a result, each individual response, project
and program must go through long and time-
consuming recruitment processes just to find
the right team.
4) Need to improve its relations
- Have to be more open to working with civil
society as well – local NGOs for example.
Failure to achieve UN’s objectives
1) Terrorism
2) NPT (North Korea, Israel, Pakistan, India)
3) Sri Lanka; The Safe Zone
4) Child Sex Abuse Scandal
5) Veto power of permanent members (one vote
will beat others – i.e. China and Russia vetoed
the attempt to intervene and prevent genocide
in Syria, resulting to 60,000 been killed, with
thousands more displaced).
6) The Cold War
Veto power
- Held by the five permanent members (USA,
UK, France, Russia, People’s Republic of
China).
- Art. 27 of the UN Charter.
- Imbalance of power.
- Misuse of power.
- Ineffective.
- However if no veto or permanent seats
anymore, it will boil up rejection from the big
five.
Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare
GLOBALISATION
- Refers to the shrinking distance among the
continents, a wider geographic senses of
vulnerability, and a worldwide
interconnectedness of important aspects of
human life including religion, migration, war,
finance, trade, diseases, drugs and music.
- The process of increasing the
interconnectedness and interdependence of the
world’s markets and businesses.
- Began with the first movement of people out of
Africa.
- Migrants, merchants, etc.
- Melaka was the center of globalisation.
- Columbus discovered America.
Types of globalisation
1) Economic
- Import and export goods.
- Intensifies competitiveness between states.
- i.e. Apple products are mostly manufactured in
China to save cost (low-skilled labour = cheap
cost).
2) Financial
- NYSE was the centre of the world’s economic
heartbeat. 9/11 attack had shaken the world
until today.
- Sub-prime mortgage crisis – financial crisis in
USA influenced other states because USA is
the largest importer in the world.
- World Bank establishment.
- IMF, OPEC.
3) Political
- Proliferation of international regional
organisations composed of states and the
spread of non-state political actors.
- War in Iraq affected the USA economy (oil).
- Increase in multilateral organisations (IGO) i.e.
UN, EU, Commonwealth, to promote political
ideologies.
4) Military
- USA’s army’s presence in Korean peninsular to
ensure no war will break out between North
and South Korea.
- NATO was deployed in many countries to bring
down regime, i.e. Bosnia and Libya.
5) Criminal/Terrorism
- Use of criminal to achieve objectives (Al-
Qaeda, Abu Sayyaf, drug trafficking,
prostitution, etc).
- Border issues.
Causes of globalisation
1) Human desire to explore
- To look for other resources, economic security,
curiousity, etc.
- Migration to seek better life.
- African ancestors migrated because of
geographical problems, i.e. draught, lack of
food.
2) Transportation
- Improved transportation system, i.e. Air Asia.
3) Spread of empire/political influence
- Cold War – democracy (US) vs communism
(USSR).
4) Technological advancement
- Internet, smartphones.
5) Growth of media
- Global media such as CNN, CNBC, Al-Jazeera
Effects of globalisation
- Political: the decrease of the importance of the
state. (through creation of sub-states such as
EU, ICC, etc, the state losses power of policy-
making and thus sovereignty).
- Global environmental problems like cross-
boundary pollution, over fishing on oceans,
climate changes are solved by discussions.
- More transborder data flow using
communication satellites, internet, mobile
phones, etc.
- ICC and ICJ movements are launched.
- International travel and tourism increases.
Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare
- Worldwide sport events such as FIFA World
Cup and Olympic Games.
- Global standard applications such as patent,
copyright laws, word trade agreement
increases // supranational recognition: patents
authorised by one country are authorised in
another too.
- Immigration between countries increases.
- Cross-cultural contacts grow and cultural
diffusion takes place.
- Increase in the desire to use foreign ideas and
products, adopt new practices and technologies
and be a part of world culture.
- Free trade zones are formed having less or no
tariffs.
Advantages of globalisation
1) Faster economic growth
- Shown to have consistently grown much faster
than those states that try to protect themselves.
- Well-managed economies have grown at rates
that are on average 2.5% higher than states
with economies closed to globalisation.
2) Improved environmental awareness and
accountability
- Positive environmental outcomes.
- By encouraging the use of more efficient, less-
polluting technologies and facilitating
economies’ imports of renewable substitutes for
use in place of scarce domestic natural
resources.
3) Improved technology
- Dramatically reduced costs and prices
changing the way the world communicates,
learns, does business and treats illnesses.
- Decrease in adult illiteracy rates in developing
countries.
4) Resolved international political and economic
tensions
- Increasing interdependence and global
institutions like WTO and World Bank that
manage the settlement of government-to-
government disputes.
- This have enabled international political and
economic tensions to be resolved based on
“rule of approach” rather than which state has
the greater political and economic power.
5) International migration
- Led to greater recognition of diversity and
respect for cultural identities.
- Improves democracy and access to human
rights.
6) Improve living standards and reduce poverty
- Because of faster economic growth.
- i.e. India has cut its poverty rate in half in the
past two decades.
- China has reduced the number of rural poor
from 250mil in 1978 to 34mil in 1999.
- Cheaper imports make wide range of products
to be accessible to more people.
- Through competition, can promote efficiency
and productivity.
7) Improved wealth through the economic gains of
globalisation
- Led to improved access to health care and
clean water.
- Increased life expectancy.
8) Others:
- Decreases the possibility of war.
- Easier and faster transportation.
- Free trade between countries increases.
- Global mass media connects all the people in
the world (i.e. student exchange program).
- As the cultural barriers reduce, the global
village dream becomes more realistic.
- The interdependence of the nation-states
increases.
Disadvantages of globalisation
1) Spread of diseases
- i.e. HIV, AIDS, swine flu, bird flu.
- Spread across borders.
- Greater risk of diseases being transported
unintentionally between nations.
2) Reduce life expectancy
- Because of the diseases such as AIDS (in
some parts of Africa).
3) Introduction of cigarettes and tobacco to
developing countries
- Major adverse health and financial costs
associated.
4) Harming the environment
- Agricultural, forest, mining and fishing
industries exploit inadequate environmental
codes and corrupt behaviour in developing
countries.
- Agricultural seed companies are destroying the
biodiversity of the planet and depriving
subsistence farmers of their livelihood.
- Increased likelihood of economic disruptions in
one nation affecting all nations
Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare
Impacts of globalisation on developing countries
1) Economic
POSITIVE
- Developing countries are able to share the
same economic growth that the developed
countries have.
- i.e. World Bank and IMF encourage developing
countries to go through market reforms and
radical changes through large sum of loans.
- Developing countries have taken the step to
open their market by remoring tariffs and
freeing up their economies.
- Allows developed countries to invest in
developing countries, which in a way helps to
create job opportunities.
NEGATIVE
- Increases the inequality between the rich and
the poor.
- The benefit that globalisation brings is not
universal as the rich are getting richer and the
poor are getting poorer.
- i.e. Africa, which is among the developing
countries, still holds the highest poverty rate.
2) Education
POSITIVE
- Acts as a catalyst to jobs that require higher
skills.
- This demand will allow people to gain higher
education.
- When demand of highly-educated people
increases, the government will somehow be
pushed by the citizens to provide better
education.
- This will cause the education of developing
countries to improve.
NEGATIVE
- Causing globalised competition which forces
many professional, skilled workers who are
highly qualified and educated to migrate to
developed countries because they would want
to benefit from the higher wage rate and the
greater lifestyle prospects that developed
countries offer.
- Leads to decreased skill labour in developing
countries.
3) Health
POSITIVE
- The improvement of living standards and life
expectancy of people in developing countries.
- Means increased fortune of the country.
- With more fortunes, poor nations are able to
supply good health care services and better
sanitation to their people.
NEGATIVE
- Indirectly helps to spread new diseases to
these countries.
- Due to the increase of the number of travelers
that are travelling between countries, which
indirectly causes diseases to spread.
- i.e. H1N1, various influenzas.
Forms of globalisation
- Economic (free trade, open market)
- Financial (consolidate of banks, global
operation, new technologies, universality of
banking)
- Political (role of regional organisations)
- Military (network around the globe)
- Cultural spread (World Cup, K-Pop)
- Environmental (working together to resolve
problems, water, air pollution)
- Criminal (drug and human trafficking)
Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare
GLOBAL HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUES
Human: A member of the homo sapiens species; a man,
woman, or child; a person.
Rights: Things to which you are entitled or allowed;
freedoms that are guaranteed.
Human rights: The rights you have simply because you
are human.
History and origins
- Mooted by Cyrus the Great (600BC).
- All slaves were freed and everyone has the
freedom of religion, regardless of the race.
- It evolved throughout the human history.
- Romans refer it as natural rights.
- Many tried to uphold human rights, but failed
(i.e. World War, tyranny around the world).
- Finally, after WW2 ended, United Nations was
formed in 1945 which among its objectives is to
protect human rights.
- UN Declaration of Human Rights – adopted in
1948 which affirms its objective.
UDHR 1948
- Drafted by representatives of all regions in the
world and encompassed of all legal traditions.
- Formally adopted in 1948.
- The most universal human rights document in
existence.
- Equality, freedom of religion, freedom of
expression.
Types of rights
- Civil rights: Personal liberties, such as freedom
of speech, thought and religion.
- Political rights: Right to vote, voice political
opinions and participate in political process.
- Social rights: Right to healthcare, education
and other social benefits.
Human rights claims that dominate global politics
- Accusations that government are abusing
individuals (crime of genocide).
- Demands by ethnic, racial and religious
communities for autonomy or independence.
- Claims in what is generally regarded as private
life, including rights and obligations within
families, and the demands for equality by
minority groups within unconventional lifestyle.
- Demand by governments for protection against
powerful governments and non-state actors, as
well as the right to economic development.
Situations that violate human rights
- The rights to adequate food, housing,
employment and cultural life are denied.
- Genocide.
- War crime.
- Slavery.
Why are basic human rights violated and suggest
solutions
- Define human rights (the rights you have
simply because you are a human)
- The rights you are entitled to (freedom of
speech, freedom of religion, rights to
education, etc – give examples)
- Whose responsibility is it to protect human
rights – the state
- Who violated human rights – also the state
- Reasons why are these rights violated – the
government itself has broken down/civil war/
there’s no government/ corruption/ greedy over
power/ abuse of power – the police became
more autocratic i.e. detention without….. / the
state of economy/ discrimination –
discriminatory practices of the state
because of race/religion – Africa, the blacks
are the majority but they cannot take the same
bus etc/ government doesn’t want to hold
elections, violate rights to vote as a citizen
- Your solutions and recommendations to curb
these violations – impose sanctions
(sanctions imposed to North Korea recently,
because they threatened to launch their nuclear
weapons- no country can sell or trade with
North Korea at the moment), humanitarian
intervention- of NSA, UN can expel, UN can
suspend membership, bringing the violators
of human rights to the International Criminal
Court, demonstration- attract the attention of
other countries, bring a case to agencies
Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare
Refugees: A person who has been forced to leave their
home and seek refuge elsewhere.
United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of
Refugees
- An international convention that defines who is
a refugee, sets out the rights of the individuals
who are granted asylum, sets out the
responsibilities of nations that grant asylum and
sets out which people do not qualify as
refugees, such as war criminals.
Asylum seeker: A person who is seeking protection as a
refugee and is still waiting to have his or her claim
assessed.
Legal status of refugees
- Refugees are legally entitled to receive the
protection of 147 countries that have
participated in the convention.
- Refugees are allowed to enter and temporarily
stay in these countries.
- There is a distinction between the legal status
of refugee and Internally Displaced Person
(IDP).
- Refugees are those who are forced to leave
their own countries while IDPs are those who
have been force to leave their residents but
have remained in their own countries.
- Stateless people (illegal immigrant) are those
who have no nationality. They can also be
categorised as refugees but only if they fit the
convention’s criteria.
- However, people who leave their homes
because of extreme poverty, famine, or
environmental factors do not qualify as
refugees.
Countries with significant IDP population:
Afghanistan, Africa, Iraq, Indonesia, Pakistan,
Philippines, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan.
Refugees rights under the International Law
- The right to belong to trade unions.
- The right to belong to other non-political non-
profit organisations.
- The right to engage in wage-earning
employment.
- The right to own property.
- The right to practice a profession.
- The right to self-employment.
- Access to housing.
- Access to higher education. // most favourable
- The right to choose their place of residence.
- The right to move freely within a country.
- Free exercise of religion and religious
education.
- Free access to the courts, including legal
assistance.
- Access to elementary education.
- Access to public relief and assistance.
- Protection provided by social security.
- Protection of intellectual property, i.e.
inventions and trade names.
- Protection of literary, artistic and scientific work.
How to address the problem of refugees
1) Local integration
- Granting refugees a permanent right to stay in
the host country.
- However, the government of the host country
would be unwilling.
- Where refugees have integrated locally in
Africa, they often do so through informal “self-
settlement”, with no firm legal status.
2) Resettlement in a third country
- Participant countries agree to take a certain
number of refugees each year.
- However, the number could be as small as nine
countries offer meaning quotes.
- Nine government currently host the bulk of the
refugees who are annually resettled in new
countries (USA, Canada, Finland, Australia,
Sweden, Norway, New Zealand, Denmark,
Netherlands)
3) Repatriation to the country of origin
- Legally, it must only occur when the returnees’
safety can be guaranteed.
- In practice, UNHCR promotes and facilitates
voluntary repatriation through various means:
organising “go-and-see” visits, compiling
updated information on the country, engaging
in peace and reconciliation activities, promoting
housing and property restitution, providing
return assistance and legal aid to returnees.
Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare
GENOCIDE
- A systematic mass murder of an ethnic,
religious, or national group based on
discriminatory preconceptions.
Examples of genocide
Armenian genocide, 1915
- During WW1 by Ottoman empire.
- Many Armenians ran for shelter around Europe
(Armenian Diaspora) because of it.
- Many Armenians were rooted out from their
home and were forced to march in the Syrian
desert and many died.
- To date, Turkey refused to acknowledge this
event as genocide. Instead, they claim that the
Armenians were victims of widespread chaos
and governmental breakdown as the Ottoman
empire collapsed before modern Turkey was
created.
Rwandan genocide, 1994
- Occurred in Rwanda, a poor African country.
- Rwanda consisted of majority of Hutu and a
small group of Tutsi tribe.
- A group of Tutsi rebel invaded the capital of
Rwanda and shot down a plane that carried the
president, who is a Hutu.
- As a retaliation, the Hutus committed mass-
killings of the Tutsis.
Bosnian genocide
- Bosnia was part of the Ottoman (Turkish)
empire until 1978 and then of the Austro-
Hungarian empire until WW1.
- After the war, Serbs and Bosniaks were looking
for independence.
- The Serbs, who were led by Slobodan
Milosevic, cried for Serbs nationalism.
- They considered the Bosnian who were mainly
Muslim as intruders and wanted to clean the
Serbian land from the Bosnian.
United Nations Convention on the Prevention of the
Crime of Genocide (CPPCG)
- Raphael Lemkin, who introduced the term
‘genocide’ presented his essay entitled “Crime
of Barbarity” to the League of Nations.
However, it was rejected.
- However, his genocide idea was accepted as
an offence against the international law and his
idea formed basis of Nuremberg Trial.
- Finally, in 1948, the General Assembly adopted
“Convention on the Prevention and Punishment
of the Crime of Genocide”.
Art 1: Genocide is a crime under the international law.
Art 2: Genocide means killing an ethnic with the intention
to destroy it.
Art 3: UN to enforce the convention in order to prevent
future genocide.
Why CPPCG is not effective?
1) There are countries that do not invoke to
CPPCG
- Khmer Rouge in Cambodia: in power, Khmer
Rouge carried out a radical program that
included isolating the country from all foreign
influences, closing major facilities such as
schools, hospitals and factories, abolishing
banks and currency, outlawing all religions,
confiscating all public properties and relocating
people from urban areas to collective farms
where forced labour was widespread. The
purpose of this policy was to turn Cambodians
into “Old People” through agricultural labour.
- The regime killed 1.7mil people in Cambodia as
no one invoked to the convention even after it
has been established.
2) No machinery to govern the CPPCG
- A permanent body is inexistent and should be
made to monitor the implementation of the
convention, and require states to issue reports
on their compliance with the convention.
- This would make it more effective.
3) Only a small number of countries ratified to
CPPCG
- It had the status of 146 parties.
- Only 41 countries signed the convention.
- It is only about 21% which is not even half.
- Countries that have signed: Australia, Belgium,
Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Philippines,
Russia and others.
Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare
EUROPEAN UNION
- A politico-economic union of 28 member states
that are primarily located in Europe.
- Operates through a system of supranational
institutions and intergovernmental-made
decisions by member states.
- Consists of European Parliament, Council of
European Union, European Commission, Court
of Justice of European Union, European
Central Bank and Court of Auditors.
Aims
- To introduce European citizenship. (protection
of fundamental human rights and freedoms)
- To ensure freedom, security and justice (co-
operation in the field of justice and home
affairs)
- To promote economic and social progress (help
people earn enough money and get treated
fairly)
- To develop Europe as an area of freedom,
security and justice (help Europeans to live in
safety, without the threat of war)
- To maintain and build on established EU laws
(make laws that protect people’s rights in the
member countries)
- To speak for EU on the international scene (by
working as a group the EU hopes that Europe
will be listened to more by other countries)
Objectives
- To bring its member states closer together with
respect of human rights and democracy
(common style of passport, common rules
about fair trading with each other, common
agreements about law enforcement, and other
agreements)
- To promote peace, the Union's values and the
well-being of its people
Principles
Art 1-4 of the Constitution
- Guarantees the free movement of persons,
goods, services and capital within the Union
and strictly prohibits any discrimination on
grounds of nationality.
Art 1-5 of the Constitution
- Stated the obligation to respect the national
identities and the fundamental political and
constitutional structures of the member states.
Art 1-6 of the Constitution
- Lays down the principle of the primacy of the
law of EU over the law of member states. This
principle has been recognised to be the basic
principle and a key aspect of the functioning of
the Union.
Article 1-7 of the Constitution
- Confers on the EU legal personality. Following
the merger of the European Community and
the EU, the new Union will therefore have the
right to conclude international agreements.
Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare
Four main developments of EU
1) From economic to political union
- What began as a purely economic union has
evolved into an organisation spanning policy
areas, from development aid to environment. A
name change from the EEC to the European
Union (EU) in 1993 reflected this.
- The EU is based on the rule of law: everything
that it does is founded on treaties, voluntarily
and democratically agreed by all member
countries. These binding agreements set out
the EU's goals in its many areas of activity.
2) Mobility, growth, stability and a single currency
- The EU has delivered half a century of peace,
stability and prosperity, helped raise living
standards, and launched a single European
currency, the euro.
- Thanks to the abolition of border controls
between EU countries, people can travel freely
throughout most of the continent. And it's
become much easier to live and work abroad in
Europe.
- The single or 'internal' market is the EU's main
economic engine, enabling most goods,
services, money and people to move freely.
Another key objective is to develop this huge
resource to ensure that Europeans can draw
the maximum benefit from it.
3) Human rights and equality
- One of the EU’s main goals is to promote
human rights both internally and around the
world. Human dignity, freedom, democracy,
equality, the rule of law and respect for human
rights: these are the core values of the EU.
Since the 2009 signing of the Treaty of Lisbon,
the EU's Charter of Fundamental Rights brings
all these rights together in a single document.
The EU's institutions are legally bound to
uphold them, as are EU governments
whenever they apply EU law.
4) Transparent and democratic institutions
- As it continues to grow, the EU remains
focused on making its governing institutions
more transparent and democratic. More powers
are being given to the directly elected
European Parliament, while national
parliaments are being given a greater role,
working alongside the European institutions. In
turn, European citizens have an ever-
increasing number of channels for taking part in
the political process.
Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare
ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION
Definition: Deterioration of the environment through
depletion of resources such as air, water and soil, and
also the destruction of ecosystems and the extinction of
wildlife.
- Any change or disturbance to the environment
perceived to be deleterious or undesirable.
Causes
1) Land disturbance
- Happens when there are numerous weedy
plant species.
- i.e. Garlic mustard grow on the land.
- These plants can assume control over nature,
eliminating the local greenery.
- The result is territory with a solitary
predominant plant which does not give
satisfactory food assets to all the environmental
life.
2) Pollution
- Pollution, in whatever form, whether it is air,
water, land or noise, is harmful for the
environment.
- Air pollution pollutes the air we breathe,
causing health issues.
- Water pollution degrades the quality of water
that we use for drinking purposes.
- Land pollution results in degradation of the
Earth’s surface as a result of human activities.
- Noise pollution can cause irrepairable damage
to our ears.
- i.e. Bunus River in KL is polluted and filled with
rubbish.
3) Deforestation
- Cutting down trees to make way for more
homes and industries.
- Overpopulation results in more demand for
food, clothes and shelter. Human beings need
more space to provide homes and to grow food
for millions of people.
- i.e. Decreased population of Orang Utan due to
deforestation.
4) Overpopulation
- Rapid population growth puts strain on natural
resources which results in degradation of the
environment.
Effects
1) Loss of biodiversity
- Important to maintain the balance of
ecosystem.
- It combats pollution, restores nutrients, protect
water sources and stabilise climates.
2) Ozone layer depletion
- Ozone layer is responsible for protecting the
Earth from harmful UV rays.
- As it will deplete, it will emit harmful radiations
back to the Earth, causing possibility of skin
cancer and rising temperature of the Earth.
3) Impact on human health
- Areas exposed to toxic air pollutants can cause
respiratory problem such as pneumonia and
asthma.
- Millions of people are known to have died due
to indirect effects of air pollution.
4) Impact the economy
- In terms of restoration of green cover, cleaning
up of landfills and protection of endangered
species.
Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare
Solutions
(International Level)
1) Implementing more environment protection
treaties and obeying to them
- i.e. Kyoto Protocol.
- Adopted in 1997.
- Became a binding treaty in 2005.
- 192 countries were party to the treaty at the
time it was signed, along with European Union.
- The main objectives include to reduce
greenhouse effect.
- Rio Declaration (informally known as Earth
Summit).
- Consisted of 27 principles intended to guide
future sustainable development around the
world.
- 7th
principle stated that states shall cooperate in
a spirit of global partnership to conserve,
protect and restore the health and integrity of
the Earth’s ecosystem.
- Protects and regulates the development of
resources in participating countries.
2) Role of INGOs
- i.e. Greenpeace and WWF.
- Greenpeace is an INGO focusing on protecting
the environment.
- WWF is an INGO focusing on protecting the
wildlife and biodiversity conservation.
- More INGOs like this should be created.
- The already-existing INGOs should organise
environmental awareness programs.
- June 5 – World Environment Day.
- These INGOs could also do a public protest on
excessive development.
(National Level)
1) Government should impose punishments
- Prohibit the contamination of lake, rivers and
seas.
- Punish those who illegally cut down the trees in
the forest or cause pollution.
- Wrong-doers should be sued under public
nuisance in tort for noise pollution.
2) Campaign
- Advertising campaign on various media i.e. TV
and internet on environmental awareness.
- Can be done by NGOs.
- Help promote the idea and can influence
people to protect and love the environment.
- Awaken the spirit of environmental
conservation among people and put ideas into
action.
Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare
OVERPOPULATION
Definition: An undesirable condition where the number
of existing human population exceeds the carrying
capacity. // Excessive population within an area that
lacks enough resources for long-term sustainment.
Causes
- Migration issues (immigration)
- Lack of family planning (early marriage –
increases the chance of producing more
children, use of birth control)
- Cultural thing (to have many children)
- More income (for poor people)
- Reduced mortality rate (decline in the death
rate)
- Technology advancement (create better
medical facilities, saved more lives, increase
birth rate)
- Lack of education
Effects
- Pollution (more people use transportations that
cause air pollution)
- Depletion of resources (only limited amount of
food and water can be produced at a time,
which is insufficient for the people)
- Rise in unemployment (inadequate number of
jobs to cater large number of people)
- High cost of living (demand exceeds supply)
- Health issues (ageing, HIV, spread of diseases)
Solutions
- Providing better education (sex education,
family planning, marriage courses,
contraceptive methods)
- Government policy (i.e. limit foreign workers,
one child policy – i.e. China, tax exemptions,
strict migration laws)
- Reducing birth rate (abortion, abstinence,
contraception, government policy)
- UN Population Fund (prepare and study the
effects of population, assist government to
initiate a reproductive education)
- Millennium Development Goals (prepare
blueprint for reducing poverty and improving
lives agreed to by all countries and all leading
development institutions)
- Biological welfare (intentional spread of new
diseases)
- Emigration (bring people out of the country)
Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare
TERRORISM
Definition: The unlawful use of force or violence against
persons or property to intimidate or coerce the
government, the civilian population or any segment
thereof in furtherance of a political or social objectives.
Types of terrorism
1) Domestic terrorism
- Occurs within borders of a state.
- Usually happen when someone is dissatisfied
with the government, other groups or policies.
- Launched by killing and bombing at
government offices.
- i.e. Latin American – Shinning Path, Tupac
Amaru (one incident involved Malaysian
Ambassador in Peru)
2) Nationalist terrorism
- Terrorism that is motivated by nationalism,
usually with strong nationalist ideas and goals.
- Sometimes they want to establish an
independent state, or take control of a certain
region and sometimes to overthrow the
government of a country or to accomplish the
abolition of an entire political system to replace
it with another.
- A form of terrorism which participants attempt
to form an independent state against what they
consider an occupying, imperial or otherwise
illegitimate state.
- i.e. Palestine Liberation Organisation,
Provisional Irish Republican Army, Gerakan
Acheh Merdeka
3) Religious terrorism
- Irresponsible act by certain group of people by
using violence in the name of religion.
- They misinterpret the word of God in order to
achieve their political interest.
- They believe that everyone is sinner and they
were the chose one to finish God’s work.
- Always linked to Islam but exists in other
religions too.
- i.e. ISIS, Al-Qaeda, KKK.
4) State terrorism
- The terror act used by the state to suppress
dissents.
- Use of violence to coerce or intimidate and to
create fear among the citizens.
- This was a popular tactic to command respect
and fear among its people during WW1 and
WW2.
- i.e. Germany (Nazi), Russia (Stalinist), Iraq,
North Korea, Uganda.
- Three levels: intimidation (use of force to
discourage opposition and dissent by exploiting
the police and army force), coerced conversion
(forcing the citizen to change their behaviours,
usually after a revolution, i.e. Soviet Union,
China), genocide (systematic killing. i.e. Pol
Pot, Idi Amin – Uganda).
5) Global terrorism
- Include activities by domestic, nationalist,
religious and state terrorists.
- Each terrorist attack are inter-linked with each
other.
- So far, Al-Qaeda is known for its well-
connected network around the globe, financially
and manpower.
- i.e. A terrorist leader in Yemen, may direct a
bombing in the Philippines or USA.
Causes of terrorism
1) Oppression
- Groups opposing the current state of affairs
may engage in terrorism as a principal method
of expression and not as a last resort.
- The unfair treatment of the government may
lead to oppression.
2) Financial gain
- Poverty.
- To sheer financial gain.
- Hostage taking – to earn ransom money rather
than to achieve political goal.
- Suicide bombers in Palestine – the family will
receive financial reward.
3) The believe that violence is an effective tool for
change
- Choose violence after long deliberation – felt
like they had no choice.
Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare
4) Religious extremist
- Considered as the main driver to terrorism.
- i.e. ISIS, Taliban, KKK.
- Radical Christian killers have been involved in
abortion clinic bombings and militia actions in
the USA.
5) Clash of civilization
- Cultural and religious differences between
civilisations worldwide.
- The clash of belief between the West and the
Muslims in the East – led to controversial
concept – create new world order.
Methods of terrorism
1) Launching attack
- By using explosive device to inflict damage to
the target.
- Using suicide bombers who chose to sacrifice
their lives.
- Vehicles borne devices, i.e. HSBC Bank in
Istanbul.
- Using modern welfare method, i.e. biological
and chemical attacks such as nuclear attack.
- i.e. poisonous gas attack on Tokyo subway in
1995.
2) Assassination and kidnapping
- Of diplomats, government officials or citizens of
a nation.
- Hold them as hostage until the government
fulfill their demand.
- i.e. assassination of JFK (President US) and
Benazir Bhutto (Pakistan PM).
3) Hijacking
- Airplanes, buses, and any other vehicle.
- Take control over the vehicle and held
passengers hostage and threaten to kill them –
blow up or crash the plane.
- i.e. 1977 MAS hijacked en route Penang to KL
– attempted hijacking and 9/11 tragedy
Goals of terrorism
- Social and political justice
- Self-determination (create new states)
- Racial superiority
- Foreign policy
- Publicity
- Demoralised government
Ways to overcome terrorism
a) Set up a proper procedure to stop them
- Identify and understand their strategies – how
do they attack us – the possible target.
- Constant patrol by the security guard, system
to check for harmful item – metal detector.
b) Get the citizens to be involved
- To report anything that is out of place or
strange.
- Give the authorities thousands of eyes and
ears to watch for suspicious behaviour.
c) Control media power
- They want to make news – they learn how to
exploit the media to propagate the their
demand.
- Need to reduce the utility gained from such
behaviour – prevent from receiving credit from
such act.
d) Positive incentive to actual and prospective
terrorist not to engage in violent act.
- Positive sanction.
- Interaction between groups tends to reduce
extremist views – avoid segregation.
e) Be sensitive and tolerant although we are
different by religions, races, languages and etc.
f) To identify and protect all nuclear materials so
that they do not fall into the hands of terrorists
Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare
WORLD WAR I
Why men go to war?
- Thirst for power
- To expand their territorial limit
- To spread political ideology
Causes of WW1
- Competing powers between powerful countries
in the Europe. Germany and Britain were
competing to have the most powerful navy in
the world.
- Tension ran high in the Europe.
- The European countries scrambled around the
globe including Africa to colonise as many
continent as they can.
- Nationalism – desire for self-rule.
- Hostility among countries, i.e. France,
Germany, the British Empire, Austria-Hungarian
empire and Russia.
The Schlieffen Plan 1914
- Germany believed war with Russia was
extremely likely. If war broke out, Germany
assume France would also attack as it was an
ally of Russia and keen to revenge its defeat in
the Franco-Prussian war.
- If this happens, Germany would face a war on
two fronts. Germany wanted to avoid this at all
costs.
- So, Germany instructed the Germany Army
Chief of Staff, Alfred von Schlieffen, to draft a
plan on how to avoid going into war against
these two countries.
Assassination which led to WW1
- Assassination of Archduke Franz in Sarajevo
by Gavrilo Philip, a Bosnian-Serb.
- This led to retaliation by the Austria-Hungarian
government against the Serbian government.
- This had triggered the chain reaction which led
to WW1.
- When Russia began to mobilise due to its
alliance with Serbia, Germany declared war on
Russia. Thus began the expansion of the war
to include all those involved in the mutual
defense alliances.
Countries that were involved in WW1: Including
Britain, France, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Russia,
America, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria.
How it ended?
- Before WW1 officially ended, there were many
treaties signed between the warring countries.
- 11 November 1918: Germany signed an
armistice with the allies – the official date of the
end of WW1.
- Signing the Treaty of Versailles on 28 June
1918.
Effects of WW1
- Basically hundreds of thousands to millions of
soldiers were killed.
- Four empires were wiped out: German, Austro-
Hungarian, Ottoman, Russian.
- Starvation and famine.
- Economic impact to the affected countries.
- Spread of diseases.
- Establishment of League of Nations – to avoid
future wars.
Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare
COMMUNISM VS DEMOCRACY
- After WW1 and WW2 ended, there were two
main superpowers: USA and USSR.
- After those wars, Soviet Union emerged
stronger in terms of military, together with USA.
- Germany and Japan were defeated which led
to the Soviet expansion in the West, East and
North.
- During WW2, USA and Soviet Union fought
together as allies against the Axis powers.
- However, the relationship between the two
nations was a tense one. Americans had long
been wary of the Soviet communism and
concerned about Russian leader Joseph
Stalin’s tyrannical, blood-thirsty rule of his own
country.
- After the war ended, the Americans became
wary of the Soviet expansion plan which they
feared the Soviet will take over the world one
day.
Differences between democracy and communism
Democracy Communism
Free election No election/fixed
Democratic Autocratic/dictatorship
Capitalist Communist
Richest world power Poor economic base
Personal freedom Controlled society
Media freedom Controlled media/freedom
of expression
- Cold War (1940s-1980s) refers to the
relationship between the USA and USSR.
- Arm race between USA and the Soviet, i.e. the
American supplied weapons to the Afghan
jihadists to fight against the Soviet army in
Afghanistan.
- Vietnam War was one of the classic example
of democracy vs communism.
- The most crucial part of this war is the Cuban
missile crisis.
Cuban missile crisis
- The most dangerous confrontation during the
Cold War.
- Started when Nikita Kruschev, the Soviet
leader, decided to station nuclear weapons in
Cuba, which is 90 miles from USA.
- The installation was intended to prevent USA
from invading Cuba after previous attempt
failed.
- JFK notified Americans about the presence of
the missile, explained his decision to enact a
naval blockade around Cuba and made it clear
that USA was prepared to use military force if
necessary to neutralise this perceived threat to
national security.
- The nuclear war was fortunately averted when
the USA agreed to Nikita’s offer to remove the
Cuban missiles in exchange for the USA
promising not to invade Cuba. JFK also
secretly agreed to remove USA missiles from
Turkey.
The fall of communism (numerous weaknesses)
- Concentration on weaponry and nuclear led to
economic problems.
- Freedom of expression was stifled and citizens
had to share their wealth with the country.
- Only few companies were allowed to run their
businesses and usually politically connected to
the Communist Party.
- Lack of economic activities in the Soviet
countries had led to the reform by Mikhail
Gorbachev, the last USSR leader.
- Gorbachev abandoned the “Brezhnev Doctrine”
– Soviet’s policy of intervening with military
force, if necessary, to preserve communist rule
in the region.
- Gorbachev introduced “perestroika” –
economic and political restructuring, as well as
“glasnot” – openness.
- His reforms resulting in series of strikes
between it failed to rejuvenate the economy.
Factories reduced production and resulting in
the increase (?) of consumer goods.
- Government printed more money to solve it but
it led to inflation.
- The citizens were dissatisfied and strikes were
planned to protest.
- “Glasnot” resulted to nationalism. More
countries demanded to leave USSR and set up
a republic country, which led to more
revolutions.
- The fall of Berlin wall in 1989 marked the
collapse of the communism.
Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare
ARM RACE AND ARM CONTROL
Definition: A competition between two or more parties to
have the best armed forces.
Reasons
- Power rivalry
- Military burden sharing
- Balance of power
- Economies of scale
- Self-reliance
- Authoritarians regime
Why is it a problem?
- Proliferation of nuclear weapons among
superpowers is very worrying.
- China, USA, France, India, Pakistan, North
Korea, Israel’s tendency to develop nuclear
weapon is very dangerous to the world society.
- Known as MAD – Mutual Assured Destruction
(deter other countries from attacking, pre-
emptive in nature).
Non-proliferation regimes
- The superpowers agreed to slow down the
nuclear development.
- United Nations Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)
– to prevent further spread of nuclear weapons.
- Limited Test Ban Treaty – signed by JFK to
prevent nuclear test in the atmosphere.
- Geneva Protocol – prohibiting the use of
chemical and biological weapons.
Problems in enforcing arm control agreements
- Difficult – they rely on the desire of participants
to abide by terms of agreement.
- When a nation no longer desire to abide by the
terms, they might withdraw from the treaty (i.e.
North Korea from NPT)
Disadvantages of withdrawing from arm control
agreements
- To openly defy an agreement, is often seen in a
bad light politically and can carry diplomatic
repercussions.
- If one remains in an agreement, competitors
who are also participatory may be held to the
limitation of the terms, while withdrawal release
your opponents to make the same
developments you are making, limiting the
advantages of the development.
Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare
BIODIVERSITY LOSS
Definition of biodiversity: the variety of life in the world
or in a particular habitat or ecosystem.
Importance of biodiversity
1) Health
- Variety of food for humans.
- 80% of human food supply comes from 20
kinds of plants.
2) Human health
- The shortage of drinking water is expected to
create a major global crisis.
- Biodiversity plays an important role in drug
discovery and medicinal resources.
- Medicines from nature account for usage
by 80% of the world’s population.
3) Ecosystem
- Biodiversity boosts ecosystem productivity.
- Each species, no matter how small, all have
an important role to play.
- i.e. A larger number of plant species means a
greater variety of crops.
- Greater species diversity ensures natural
sustainability for all life forms.
- Healthy ecosystems can better withstand and
recover from a variety of disasters.
4) Industry
- Biological sources provide many industrial
materials.
- i.e. fiber, oil, dyes, rubber, water, timber, paper
and food.
5) Culture:
- Biodiversity enhances recreational activities
- i.e. bird watching, fishing, trekking etc.
- It inspires musicians and artists.
Causes of biodiversity loss
1) Introduction of exotic species and
genetically modified organisms
- Species originating from a particular area,
introduced into new natural environments can
lead to different forms of imbalance in the
ecological equilibrium.
2) Deforestation
- Cutting down trees.
- Illegal deforestation.
- In excessive amount that is detrimental to the
biodiversity.
3) Pollution
- i.e. Air, water, noise.
- Human activity influences the natural
environment.
- Producing negative, direct or indirect, effects
that alter the flow of energy, the chemical and
physical constitution of the environment and
abundance of the species.
4) Climate change
- Heating of the Earth’s surface affects
biodiversity because it endangers all the
species that adapted to the cold due to the
latitude (the Polar species) or the altitude
(mountain species).
5) Overexploitation of resources
- Excessive activities connected with capturing
and harvesting a renewable natural resource in
a particular area.
- i.e. hunting, fishing, farming.
- The resource itself may become exhausted, i.e.
the case of sardines, herrings, cod, tuna and
many other species that man captures without
leaving enough time for the organisms to
reproduce.
Effects of biodiversity loss
1) Changes the way the whole ecosystem
perform
- Reduced plant diversity.
- Because they grew less, they also took up less
carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
- This shows that loss of biodiversity might
increase the effects of climate change by
reducing the ability of ecosystems to absorb
carbon dioxide.
2) Impacts human health and well-being
negatively
- A balanced diet depends on the availability of a
wide variety of foods which in turn depends on
the conservation of biodiversity.
- i.e. food pyramid (carbohydrate, protein, etc.)
- Increase the spread of many wildlife pathogens
to humans.
- Put simply, reduced biodiversity means millions
of people face a future where food supplies are
more vulnerable to pests and disease, and
where fresh water is in irregular or short supply.
3) Leads to natural disaster
- i.e. Because of the loss of mangroves and
coral reefs, which are excellent natural
buffers against floods and storms, coastal
communities have increasingly suffered from
severe floods.
4) Harms the social relations
- Many cultures attach spiritual, aesthetic,
recreational, and religious values to
ecosystems or their components.
- The loss or damage to these components can
harm social relations, both by reducing the
bonding value of shared experience as well as
by causing resentment toward groups that profit
from their damage.
5) Loss of freedom of choice
- The notion of having choices available
irrespective of whether any of them will be
Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare
actually picked is an essential constituent of the
freedom aspect of well-being.
6) Affects the production of basic materials
- Biodiversity provides various goods.
- i.e. plants and animals – that individuals need
in order to earn an income and secure
sustainable livelihoods.
- In addition to agriculture, biodiversity
contributes to a range of other sectors,
including "ecotourism", pharmaceuticals,
cosmetics, and fisheries.
- Losses of biodiversity, such as the collapse of
the Newfoundland cod fishery can impose
substantial costs at local and national level.
7) Flora and fauna extinction
- Amphibians are particularly sensitive to
changes in environment.
- i.e. The Golden Toad (Costa Rica)
- Other animals, i.e. reptile green vine snake.
- Loss of vegetable species.
Solutions to curb biodiversity loss
1) Protecting areas
- Create protected areas where human activity is
limited.
- i.e. reserved forests, such as Hutan Simpan
Sepilok.
- To prevent deforestation and overexploitation
of resources.
2) Preventing species introductions
- Preventing from the start is better than fixing.
- Invasive species, which can wreak havoc when
introduced to the ecosystem.
3) Informing and educating
- To promote awareness.
- Education is a powerful tool.
- Educate people about the effects of biodiversity
loss.
- Educate the people about the benefits of
biodiversity.
- This will encourage people to be more
conscious of the environment.
- The more people know about biodiversity loss,
the more they will be prepared to help slow it.
4) Ecological restoration and reclaimation
- Short-term conservation: means protecting
species/habitats in immediate danger. It is a
quick way to stop biodiversity from decresing
further.
- Long-term conservation means purchasing land
and protecting it from harm. By preserving the
land, we will be preserving all of the species
that live there.
5) Make human-occupied land more wildlife-
friendly
- We humans take up a lot of space, and that
isn't going to change.
- However, it is very easy for farmers and cities
to make their land more habitable for wildlife.
- Keeping hedges alive as a can serve as a
habitat for birds and bats.
6) Enact and enforce laws
- Pass legislation that protects ecosystems.
- Imposing stiff penalties for violations.
- To prevent further habitat destruction.
7) Keep permanent funds for biodiversity
- Provide a back-up in case of emergency.
8) Alternative livelihoods
- i.e. poor farmers around the world are forced to
use destructive methods to clear land in order
to grow crops to support their families.
- Poor fishermen must sometimes throw
explosives into the sea near coral reefs or take
important reef species out of their environments
in order to sell them to aquariums.
- The solution to these threats is to create
programs that help develop sustainable and
alternate livelihoods to such people so that they
can feed their families without having to destroy
the environment.
- i.e. fishermen in poor villages who are forced to
destroy coral reef ecosystems could be given
jobs in fishing.

More Related Content

What's hot

Era pemerintahan tun hussein onn
Era pemerintahan tun hussein onnEra pemerintahan tun hussein onn
Era pemerintahan tun hussein onn
seridatul Md Shah
 
Lina Joy
Lina JoyLina Joy
Perlembagaan persekutuan
Perlembagaan persekutuanPerlembagaan persekutuan
Perlembagaan persekutuan
Xiiao Irene
 
Mahkamah Khas
Mahkamah KhasMahkamah Khas
Mahkamah Khas
azam_hazel
 
Pengajian am presentation
Pengajian am presentationPengajian am presentation
Pengajian am presentation
fazrul
 
FAMILY LAW - PROMISE TO MARRY
FAMILY LAW - PROMISE TO MARRYFAMILY LAW - PROMISE TO MARRY
FAMILY LAW - PROMISE TO MARRY
Insyirah Mohamad Noh
 
FAMILY LAW - NULLITY OF MARRIAGE
FAMILY LAW - NULLITY OF MARRIAGEFAMILY LAW - NULLITY OF MARRIAGE
FAMILY LAW - NULLITY OF MARRIAGE
Insyirah Mohamad Noh
 
Meor atiqulrahman ishak & yang lain
Meor atiqulrahman ishak & yang lainMeor atiqulrahman ishak & yang lain
Meor atiqulrahman ishak & yang lain
azah narowi
 
Mahkamah tinggi
Mahkamah tinggiMahkamah tinggi
Mahkamah tinggi
Qaseh Nur Husna
 
Sistem Kehakiman Malaysia #STPM
Sistem Kehakiman Malaysia #STPMSistem Kehakiman Malaysia #STPM
Sistem Kehakiman Malaysia #STPM
Kharthiga Parseraman
 
Mahkamah perusahaan-Pengajian Am STPM
Mahkamah perusahaan-Pengajian Am STPMMahkamah perusahaan-Pengajian Am STPM
Mahkamah perusahaan-Pengajian Am STPM
jumal murray
 
MALAYSIAN LEGAL SYSTEM on Alternative Dispute Resolution
MALAYSIAN LEGAL SYSTEM on Alternative Dispute ResolutionMALAYSIAN LEGAL SYSTEM on Alternative Dispute Resolution
MALAYSIAN LEGAL SYSTEM on Alternative Dispute Resolution
FAROUQ
 
Kebaikan Dan Keburukan
Kebaikan Dan KeburukanKebaikan Dan Keburukan
Kebaikan Dan Keburukan
mr_kay86
 
parol evidence rule and collateral contract
parol evidence rule and collateral contractparol evidence rule and collateral contract
parol evidence rule and collateral contract
Nur Farhana Ana
 
The Supremacy of Federal Constitution of Malaysia
The Supremacy of Federal Constitution of MalaysiaThe Supremacy of Federal Constitution of Malaysia
The Supremacy of Federal Constitution of Malaysia
Nelfi Amiera Mizan
 
Adat temengung dan adat perpatih
Adat temengung dan adat perpatihAdat temengung dan adat perpatih
Adat temengung dan adat perpatih
nelson fredoline
 
12 fundamental liberties 6 10 (8)
12 fundamental liberties 6 10 (8)12 fundamental liberties 6 10 (8)
12 fundamental liberties 6 10 (8)
Ainnabila Rosdi
 
Article 11 freedom of religion
Article 11  freedom of religionArticle 11  freedom of religion
Article 11 freedom of religion
Hafizul Mukhlis
 
Pliding utk proses penguatkuasaan perintah
Pliding utk proses penguatkuasaan perintahPliding utk proses penguatkuasaan perintah
Pliding utk proses penguatkuasaan perintah
musa_awang
 

What's hot (20)

Era pemerintahan tun hussein onn
Era pemerintahan tun hussein onnEra pemerintahan tun hussein onn
Era pemerintahan tun hussein onn
 
Lina Joy
Lina JoyLina Joy
Lina Joy
 
Perlembagaan persekutuan
Perlembagaan persekutuanPerlembagaan persekutuan
Perlembagaan persekutuan
 
Mahkamah Khas
Mahkamah KhasMahkamah Khas
Mahkamah Khas
 
Pengajian am presentation
Pengajian am presentationPengajian am presentation
Pengajian am presentation
 
FAMILY LAW - PROMISE TO MARRY
FAMILY LAW - PROMISE TO MARRYFAMILY LAW - PROMISE TO MARRY
FAMILY LAW - PROMISE TO MARRY
 
FAMILY LAW - NULLITY OF MARRIAGE
FAMILY LAW - NULLITY OF MARRIAGEFAMILY LAW - NULLITY OF MARRIAGE
FAMILY LAW - NULLITY OF MARRIAGE
 
Meor atiqulrahman ishak & yang lain
Meor atiqulrahman ishak & yang lainMeor atiqulrahman ishak & yang lain
Meor atiqulrahman ishak & yang lain
 
Mahkamah tinggi
Mahkamah tinggiMahkamah tinggi
Mahkamah tinggi
 
Sistem Kehakiman Malaysia #STPM
Sistem Kehakiman Malaysia #STPMSistem Kehakiman Malaysia #STPM
Sistem Kehakiman Malaysia #STPM
 
Mahkamah perusahaan-Pengajian Am STPM
Mahkamah perusahaan-Pengajian Am STPMMahkamah perusahaan-Pengajian Am STPM
Mahkamah perusahaan-Pengajian Am STPM
 
Pengajian am stpm
Pengajian am stpmPengajian am stpm
Pengajian am stpm
 
MALAYSIAN LEGAL SYSTEM on Alternative Dispute Resolution
MALAYSIAN LEGAL SYSTEM on Alternative Dispute ResolutionMALAYSIAN LEGAL SYSTEM on Alternative Dispute Resolution
MALAYSIAN LEGAL SYSTEM on Alternative Dispute Resolution
 
Kebaikan Dan Keburukan
Kebaikan Dan KeburukanKebaikan Dan Keburukan
Kebaikan Dan Keburukan
 
parol evidence rule and collateral contract
parol evidence rule and collateral contractparol evidence rule and collateral contract
parol evidence rule and collateral contract
 
The Supremacy of Federal Constitution of Malaysia
The Supremacy of Federal Constitution of MalaysiaThe Supremacy of Federal Constitution of Malaysia
The Supremacy of Federal Constitution of Malaysia
 
Adat temengung dan adat perpatih
Adat temengung dan adat perpatihAdat temengung dan adat perpatih
Adat temengung dan adat perpatih
 
12 fundamental liberties 6 10 (8)
12 fundamental liberties 6 10 (8)12 fundamental liberties 6 10 (8)
12 fundamental liberties 6 10 (8)
 
Article 11 freedom of religion
Article 11  freedom of religionArticle 11  freedom of religion
Article 11 freedom of religion
 
Pliding utk proses penguatkuasaan perintah
Pliding utk proses penguatkuasaan perintahPliding utk proses penguatkuasaan perintah
Pliding utk proses penguatkuasaan perintah
 

Similar to LAW088 Notes

Political science part ii
Political science part iiPolitical science part ii
Political science part ii
Alona Salva
 
Chapter 2 National Differences in Political Economy by Islam El-Shafie
Chapter 2 National Differences in Political Economy by Islam El-ShafieChapter 2 National Differences in Political Economy by Islam El-Shafie
Chapter 2 National Differences in Political Economy by Islam El-Shafie
Islam El-Shafie
 
International Relations
International Relations International Relations
International Relations
Camille Palma
 
public IL-1.pptx
public IL-1.pptxpublic IL-1.pptx
public IL-1.pptx
inuM2
 
1[1].foundations of american government
1[1].foundations of american government1[1].foundations of american government
1[1].foundations of american government
jtoma84
 
1[1].foundations of american government
1[1].foundations of american government1[1].foundations of american government
1[1].foundations of american government
jtoma84
 
Chapter 4 presentation
Chapter 4 presentationChapter 4 presentation
Chapter 4 presentation
krobinette
 
UCSP WEEK 7 SECOND GRADING STATE.pptx
UCSP  WEEK 7 SECOND GRADING  STATE.pptxUCSP  WEEK 7 SECOND GRADING  STATE.pptx
UCSP WEEK 7 SECOND GRADING STATE.pptx
EuryFauna
 
Government and Law
Government and LawGovernment and Law
Government and Law
Angelo Rivera
 
STS 211 SLT DIP 2 BY WILLIAMS AHMED GAMGUM.pdf
STS 211 SLT DIP 2 BY WILLIAMS AHMED GAMGUM.pdfSTS 211 SLT DIP 2 BY WILLIAMS AHMED GAMGUM.pdf
STS 211 SLT DIP 2 BY WILLIAMS AHMED GAMGUM.pdf
DonpedroAni1
 
subjects PIL.pdf
subjects PIL.pdfsubjects PIL.pdf
subjects PIL.pdf
WakjiraTesfaye
 
The subject of international law
The subject of international lawThe subject of international law
The subject of international law
FAROUQ
 
Subjects of international law
Subjects of international lawSubjects of international law
Subjects of international law
Shivani Sharma
 
International law notes
International law notesInternational law notes
International law notes
junaidliaqatjunaid
 
Lecture 7 subjects of international law
Lecture 7   subjects of international lawLecture 7   subjects of international law
Lecture 7 subjects of international law
Kingnabalu
 
Concepts of state and government
Concepts of state and governmentConcepts of state and government
Concepts of state and government
Philner Salindo
 
Political Science, State and Government, Constitution
Political Science, State and Government, Constitution Political Science, State and Government, Constitution
Political Science, State and Government, Constitution
Cool Kid
 
Chapter 1 Principles Of Gov\ T
Chapter 1 Principles Of Gov\ TChapter 1 Principles Of Gov\ T
Chapter 1 Principles Of Gov\ T
polomisj
 
Topic 1
Topic 1Topic 1
Topic 1
ShoaibKhan539
 
AP GOV - Introduction to U.S. Government and Politics
AP GOV - Introduction to U.S. Government and PoliticsAP GOV - Introduction to U.S. Government and Politics
AP GOV - Introduction to U.S. Government and Politics
Taylor Phillips
 

Similar to LAW088 Notes (20)

Political science part ii
Political science part iiPolitical science part ii
Political science part ii
 
Chapter 2 National Differences in Political Economy by Islam El-Shafie
Chapter 2 National Differences in Political Economy by Islam El-ShafieChapter 2 National Differences in Political Economy by Islam El-Shafie
Chapter 2 National Differences in Political Economy by Islam El-Shafie
 
International Relations
International Relations International Relations
International Relations
 
public IL-1.pptx
public IL-1.pptxpublic IL-1.pptx
public IL-1.pptx
 
1[1].foundations of american government
1[1].foundations of american government1[1].foundations of american government
1[1].foundations of american government
 
1[1].foundations of american government
1[1].foundations of american government1[1].foundations of american government
1[1].foundations of american government
 
Chapter 4 presentation
Chapter 4 presentationChapter 4 presentation
Chapter 4 presentation
 
UCSP WEEK 7 SECOND GRADING STATE.pptx
UCSP  WEEK 7 SECOND GRADING  STATE.pptxUCSP  WEEK 7 SECOND GRADING  STATE.pptx
UCSP WEEK 7 SECOND GRADING STATE.pptx
 
Government and Law
Government and LawGovernment and Law
Government and Law
 
STS 211 SLT DIP 2 BY WILLIAMS AHMED GAMGUM.pdf
STS 211 SLT DIP 2 BY WILLIAMS AHMED GAMGUM.pdfSTS 211 SLT DIP 2 BY WILLIAMS AHMED GAMGUM.pdf
STS 211 SLT DIP 2 BY WILLIAMS AHMED GAMGUM.pdf
 
subjects PIL.pdf
subjects PIL.pdfsubjects PIL.pdf
subjects PIL.pdf
 
The subject of international law
The subject of international lawThe subject of international law
The subject of international law
 
Subjects of international law
Subjects of international lawSubjects of international law
Subjects of international law
 
International law notes
International law notesInternational law notes
International law notes
 
Lecture 7 subjects of international law
Lecture 7   subjects of international lawLecture 7   subjects of international law
Lecture 7 subjects of international law
 
Concepts of state and government
Concepts of state and governmentConcepts of state and government
Concepts of state and government
 
Political Science, State and Government, Constitution
Political Science, State and Government, Constitution Political Science, State and Government, Constitution
Political Science, State and Government, Constitution
 
Chapter 1 Principles Of Gov\ T
Chapter 1 Principles Of Gov\ TChapter 1 Principles Of Gov\ T
Chapter 1 Principles Of Gov\ T
 
Topic 1
Topic 1Topic 1
Topic 1
 
AP GOV - Introduction to U.S. Government and Politics
AP GOV - Introduction to U.S. Government and PoliticsAP GOV - Introduction to U.S. Government and Politics
AP GOV - Introduction to U.S. Government and Politics
 

More from Dania

LAW501: Equity & Trust: Equitable Remedies Notes
LAW501: Equity & Trust: Equitable Remedies NotesLAW501: Equity & Trust: Equitable Remedies Notes
LAW501: Equity & Trust: Equitable Remedies Notes
Dania
 
LAW605 Notes (Family Law 1: Islamic) - EXCEPT INTRODUCTION & POLYGAMOUS MARRIAGE
LAW605 Notes (Family Law 1: Islamic) - EXCEPT INTRODUCTION & POLYGAMOUS MARRIAGELAW605 Notes (Family Law 1: Islamic) - EXCEPT INTRODUCTION & POLYGAMOUS MARRIAGE
LAW605 Notes (Family Law 1: Islamic) - EXCEPT INTRODUCTION & POLYGAMOUS MARRIAGE
Dania
 
Real Property Gains Tax (RPGT) Notes - LAW512 Conveyancing
Real Property Gains Tax (RPGT) Notes - LAW512 ConveyancingReal Property Gains Tax (RPGT) Notes - LAW512 Conveyancing
Real Property Gains Tax (RPGT) Notes - LAW512 Conveyancing
Dania
 
Conceptualising violence at work through a gender lens: Regulation and strate...
Conceptualising violence at work through a gender lens: Regulation and strate...Conceptualising violence at work through a gender lens: Regulation and strate...
Conceptualising violence at work through a gender lens: Regulation and strate...
Dania
 
LAW037 Notes - EXCEPT COURTS W/ SPECIAL JURISDICTION
LAW037 Notes - EXCEPT COURTS W/ SPECIAL JURISDICTIONLAW037 Notes - EXCEPT COURTS W/ SPECIAL JURISDICTION
LAW037 Notes - EXCEPT COURTS W/ SPECIAL JURISDICTION
Dania
 
LAW012 List of Definitions
LAW012 List of DefinitionsLAW012 List of Definitions
LAW012 List of Definitions
Dania
 
MLA Style Citation Guide
MLA Style Citation GuideMLA Style Citation Guide
MLA Style Citation Guide
Dania
 
APA Style Citation (6th edition) Guide 2.0
APA Style Citation (6th edition) Guide 2.0APA Style Citation (6th edition) Guide 2.0
APA Style Citation (6th edition) Guide 2.0
Dania
 
LAW038 Notes - EXCEPT APA & MLA CITATION
LAW038 Notes - EXCEPT APA & MLA CITATIONLAW038 Notes - EXCEPT APA & MLA CITATION
LAW038 Notes - EXCEPT APA & MLA CITATION
Dania
 
APA Style Citation Format: Easy Guide & Samples
APA Style Citation Format: Easy Guide & SamplesAPA Style Citation Format: Easy Guide & Samples
APA Style Citation Format: Easy Guide & Samples
Dania
 
Penanda Wacana
Penanda WacanaPenanda Wacana
Penanda Wacana
Dania
 
Nota Lengkap Sejarah Tingkatan 4
Nota Lengkap Sejarah Tingkatan 4Nota Lengkap Sejarah Tingkatan 4
Nota Lengkap Sejarah Tingkatan 4
Dania
 
Folio Sivik Khidmat Masyarakat Tingkatan 5 Kajian Mengatasi Gejala Sosial Mer...
Folio Sivik Khidmat Masyarakat Tingkatan 5 Kajian Mengatasi Gejala Sosial Mer...Folio Sivik Khidmat Masyarakat Tingkatan 5 Kajian Mengatasi Gejala Sosial Mer...
Folio Sivik Khidmat Masyarakat Tingkatan 5 Kajian Mengatasi Gejala Sosial Mer...
Dania
 
Folio Biologi Ekosistem Terancam
Folio Biologi Ekosistem TerancamFolio Biologi Ekosistem Terancam
Folio Biologi Ekosistem Terancam
Dania
 
Additional Mathematics Project 2014 Selangor Sample Answers
Additional Mathematics Project 2014 Selangor Sample AnswersAdditional Mathematics Project 2014 Selangor Sample Answers
Additional Mathematics Project 2014 Selangor Sample Answers
Dania
 

More from Dania (15)

LAW501: Equity & Trust: Equitable Remedies Notes
LAW501: Equity & Trust: Equitable Remedies NotesLAW501: Equity & Trust: Equitable Remedies Notes
LAW501: Equity & Trust: Equitable Remedies Notes
 
LAW605 Notes (Family Law 1: Islamic) - EXCEPT INTRODUCTION & POLYGAMOUS MARRIAGE
LAW605 Notes (Family Law 1: Islamic) - EXCEPT INTRODUCTION & POLYGAMOUS MARRIAGELAW605 Notes (Family Law 1: Islamic) - EXCEPT INTRODUCTION & POLYGAMOUS MARRIAGE
LAW605 Notes (Family Law 1: Islamic) - EXCEPT INTRODUCTION & POLYGAMOUS MARRIAGE
 
Real Property Gains Tax (RPGT) Notes - LAW512 Conveyancing
Real Property Gains Tax (RPGT) Notes - LAW512 ConveyancingReal Property Gains Tax (RPGT) Notes - LAW512 Conveyancing
Real Property Gains Tax (RPGT) Notes - LAW512 Conveyancing
 
Conceptualising violence at work through a gender lens: Regulation and strate...
Conceptualising violence at work through a gender lens: Regulation and strate...Conceptualising violence at work through a gender lens: Regulation and strate...
Conceptualising violence at work through a gender lens: Regulation and strate...
 
LAW037 Notes - EXCEPT COURTS W/ SPECIAL JURISDICTION
LAW037 Notes - EXCEPT COURTS W/ SPECIAL JURISDICTIONLAW037 Notes - EXCEPT COURTS W/ SPECIAL JURISDICTION
LAW037 Notes - EXCEPT COURTS W/ SPECIAL JURISDICTION
 
LAW012 List of Definitions
LAW012 List of DefinitionsLAW012 List of Definitions
LAW012 List of Definitions
 
MLA Style Citation Guide
MLA Style Citation GuideMLA Style Citation Guide
MLA Style Citation Guide
 
APA Style Citation (6th edition) Guide 2.0
APA Style Citation (6th edition) Guide 2.0APA Style Citation (6th edition) Guide 2.0
APA Style Citation (6th edition) Guide 2.0
 
LAW038 Notes - EXCEPT APA & MLA CITATION
LAW038 Notes - EXCEPT APA & MLA CITATIONLAW038 Notes - EXCEPT APA & MLA CITATION
LAW038 Notes - EXCEPT APA & MLA CITATION
 
APA Style Citation Format: Easy Guide & Samples
APA Style Citation Format: Easy Guide & SamplesAPA Style Citation Format: Easy Guide & Samples
APA Style Citation Format: Easy Guide & Samples
 
Penanda Wacana
Penanda WacanaPenanda Wacana
Penanda Wacana
 
Nota Lengkap Sejarah Tingkatan 4
Nota Lengkap Sejarah Tingkatan 4Nota Lengkap Sejarah Tingkatan 4
Nota Lengkap Sejarah Tingkatan 4
 
Folio Sivik Khidmat Masyarakat Tingkatan 5 Kajian Mengatasi Gejala Sosial Mer...
Folio Sivik Khidmat Masyarakat Tingkatan 5 Kajian Mengatasi Gejala Sosial Mer...Folio Sivik Khidmat Masyarakat Tingkatan 5 Kajian Mengatasi Gejala Sosial Mer...
Folio Sivik Khidmat Masyarakat Tingkatan 5 Kajian Mengatasi Gejala Sosial Mer...
 
Folio Biologi Ekosistem Terancam
Folio Biologi Ekosistem TerancamFolio Biologi Ekosistem Terancam
Folio Biologi Ekosistem Terancam
 
Additional Mathematics Project 2014 Selangor Sample Answers
Additional Mathematics Project 2014 Selangor Sample AnswersAdditional Mathematics Project 2014 Selangor Sample Answers
Additional Mathematics Project 2014 Selangor Sample Answers
 

Recently uploaded

BIOFIN-EU project | IP & IPR Workshop.pptx
BIOFIN-EU project | IP & IPR Workshop.pptxBIOFIN-EU project | IP & IPR Workshop.pptx
BIOFIN-EU project | IP & IPR Workshop.pptx
BIOFIN-EU
 
Birmingham degree offer diploma Transcript
Birmingham degree offer diploma TranscriptBirmingham degree offer diploma Transcript
Birmingham degree offer diploma Transcript
pehqgou
 
Bindu Vethody is Committed to Protecting the Rights of Individuals and Ensuri...
Bindu Vethody is Committed to Protecting the Rights of Individuals and Ensuri...Bindu Vethody is Committed to Protecting the Rights of Individuals and Ensuri...
Bindu Vethody is Committed to Protecting the Rights of Individuals and Ensuri...
SunilVethody2
 
Trademark Search & Filing LA Secure Brand
Trademark Search & Filing LA Secure BrandTrademark Search & Filing LA Secure Brand
Trademark Search & Filing LA Secure Brand
Trademark Quick
 
California Baptist University degree Cert diploma offer
California Baptist University degree Cert diploma offerCalifornia Baptist University degree Cert diploma offer
California Baptist University degree Cert diploma offer
epqyxu
 
Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita lawer (BNS).pptx
Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita lawer (BNS).pptxBharatiya Nyaya Sanhita lawer (BNS).pptx
Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita lawer (BNS).pptx
Ravi984037
 
Westminster degree offer diploma Transcript
Westminster degree offer diploma TranscriptWestminster degree offer diploma Transcript
Westminster degree offer diploma Transcript
pehqgou
 
Dallas Criminal Attorney | Frisco Criminal Attorney- Reggie London
Dallas Criminal Attorney | Frisco Criminal Attorney- Reggie LondonDallas Criminal Attorney | Frisco Criminal Attorney- Reggie London
Dallas Criminal Attorney | Frisco Criminal Attorney- Reggie London
ReggieLondon Lawyer
 
Bayu Triaswara - Federal Income Taxation (Concepts and Insights Series).pdf
Bayu Triaswara - Federal Income Taxation (Concepts and Insights Series).pdfBayu Triaswara - Federal Income Taxation (Concepts and Insights Series).pdf
Bayu Triaswara - Federal Income Taxation (Concepts and Insights Series).pdf
Bayu Triaswara
 
Bayu Triaswara - Whats is DEPUTY COMMISSIONER OF TAXATION and Parties Involve...
Bayu Triaswara - Whats is DEPUTY COMMISSIONER OF TAXATION and Parties Involve...Bayu Triaswara - Whats is DEPUTY COMMISSIONER OF TAXATION and Parties Involve...
Bayu Triaswara - Whats is DEPUTY COMMISSIONER OF TAXATION and Parties Involve...
Bayu Triaswara
 
Exploring Maternal and Child Welfare in accordance with Law Number 4 of 2024 ...
Exploring Maternal and Child Welfare in accordance with Law Number 4 of 2024 ...Exploring Maternal and Child Welfare in accordance with Law Number 4 of 2024 ...
Exploring Maternal and Child Welfare in accordance with Law Number 4 of 2024 ...
AHRP Law Firm
 
SiebenCarey Sponsors First Social Justice On Tap Fundraiser for the Southern ...
SiebenCarey Sponsors First Social Justice On Tap Fundraiser for the Southern ...SiebenCarey Sponsors First Social Justice On Tap Fundraiser for the Southern ...
SiebenCarey Sponsors First Social Justice On Tap Fundraiser for the Southern ...
Knowyourright
 
Md_Rahim_Ali_v_State_of_Assam_and_ors-1.pdf
Md_Rahim_Ali_v_State_of_Assam_and_ors-1.pdfMd_Rahim_Ali_v_State_of_Assam_and_ors-1.pdf
Md_Rahim_Ali_v_State_of_Assam_and_ors-1.pdf
bhavenpr
 
ansp-air selangor niosh safety passport.pptx
ansp-air selangor niosh safety passport.pptxansp-air selangor niosh safety passport.pptx
ansp-air selangor niosh safety passport.pptx
HarizManaf
 
PERSONAL INJURY LAW: EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW IN 2024
PERSONAL INJURY LAW: EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW IN 2024PERSONAL INJURY LAW: EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW IN 2024
PERSONAL INJURY LAW: EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW IN 2024
Paisley Law LLC
 
Bayu triaswara : Whats is Federal Court of Australia, New South Wales Registr...
Bayu triaswara : Whats is Federal Court of Australia, New South Wales Registr...Bayu triaswara : Whats is Federal Court of Australia, New South Wales Registr...
Bayu triaswara : Whats is Federal Court of Australia, New South Wales Registr...
Bayu Triaswara
 
Here's the Latest Todd Rokita Grievance That was Filed
Here's the Latest Todd Rokita Grievance  That was FiledHere's the Latest Todd Rokita Grievance  That was Filed
Here's the Latest Todd Rokita Grievance That was Filed
Abdul-Hakim Shabazz
 
BCU degree offer diploma Transcript
BCU degree offer diploma TranscriptBCU degree offer diploma Transcript
BCU degree offer diploma Transcript
pehqgou
 
Untitled document criminal history page.pdf
Untitled document criminal history page.pdfUntitled document criminal history page.pdf
Untitled document criminal history page.pdf
braydenstoch777
 
Boosting Client Retention with Ethical Debt Collection
Boosting Client Retention with Ethical Debt CollectionBoosting Client Retention with Ethical Debt Collection
Boosting Client Retention with Ethical Debt Collection
Williams Rush & Associates
 

Recently uploaded (20)

BIOFIN-EU project | IP & IPR Workshop.pptx
BIOFIN-EU project | IP & IPR Workshop.pptxBIOFIN-EU project | IP & IPR Workshop.pptx
BIOFIN-EU project | IP & IPR Workshop.pptx
 
Birmingham degree offer diploma Transcript
Birmingham degree offer diploma TranscriptBirmingham degree offer diploma Transcript
Birmingham degree offer diploma Transcript
 
Bindu Vethody is Committed to Protecting the Rights of Individuals and Ensuri...
Bindu Vethody is Committed to Protecting the Rights of Individuals and Ensuri...Bindu Vethody is Committed to Protecting the Rights of Individuals and Ensuri...
Bindu Vethody is Committed to Protecting the Rights of Individuals and Ensuri...
 
Trademark Search & Filing LA Secure Brand
Trademark Search & Filing LA Secure BrandTrademark Search & Filing LA Secure Brand
Trademark Search & Filing LA Secure Brand
 
California Baptist University degree Cert diploma offer
California Baptist University degree Cert diploma offerCalifornia Baptist University degree Cert diploma offer
California Baptist University degree Cert diploma offer
 
Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita lawer (BNS).pptx
Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita lawer (BNS).pptxBharatiya Nyaya Sanhita lawer (BNS).pptx
Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita lawer (BNS).pptx
 
Westminster degree offer diploma Transcript
Westminster degree offer diploma TranscriptWestminster degree offer diploma Transcript
Westminster degree offer diploma Transcript
 
Dallas Criminal Attorney | Frisco Criminal Attorney- Reggie London
Dallas Criminal Attorney | Frisco Criminal Attorney- Reggie LondonDallas Criminal Attorney | Frisco Criminal Attorney- Reggie London
Dallas Criminal Attorney | Frisco Criminal Attorney- Reggie London
 
Bayu Triaswara - Federal Income Taxation (Concepts and Insights Series).pdf
Bayu Triaswara - Federal Income Taxation (Concepts and Insights Series).pdfBayu Triaswara - Federal Income Taxation (Concepts and Insights Series).pdf
Bayu Triaswara - Federal Income Taxation (Concepts and Insights Series).pdf
 
Bayu Triaswara - Whats is DEPUTY COMMISSIONER OF TAXATION and Parties Involve...
Bayu Triaswara - Whats is DEPUTY COMMISSIONER OF TAXATION and Parties Involve...Bayu Triaswara - Whats is DEPUTY COMMISSIONER OF TAXATION and Parties Involve...
Bayu Triaswara - Whats is DEPUTY COMMISSIONER OF TAXATION and Parties Involve...
 
Exploring Maternal and Child Welfare in accordance with Law Number 4 of 2024 ...
Exploring Maternal and Child Welfare in accordance with Law Number 4 of 2024 ...Exploring Maternal and Child Welfare in accordance with Law Number 4 of 2024 ...
Exploring Maternal and Child Welfare in accordance with Law Number 4 of 2024 ...
 
SiebenCarey Sponsors First Social Justice On Tap Fundraiser for the Southern ...
SiebenCarey Sponsors First Social Justice On Tap Fundraiser for the Southern ...SiebenCarey Sponsors First Social Justice On Tap Fundraiser for the Southern ...
SiebenCarey Sponsors First Social Justice On Tap Fundraiser for the Southern ...
 
Md_Rahim_Ali_v_State_of_Assam_and_ors-1.pdf
Md_Rahim_Ali_v_State_of_Assam_and_ors-1.pdfMd_Rahim_Ali_v_State_of_Assam_and_ors-1.pdf
Md_Rahim_Ali_v_State_of_Assam_and_ors-1.pdf
 
ansp-air selangor niosh safety passport.pptx
ansp-air selangor niosh safety passport.pptxansp-air selangor niosh safety passport.pptx
ansp-air selangor niosh safety passport.pptx
 
PERSONAL INJURY LAW: EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW IN 2024
PERSONAL INJURY LAW: EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW IN 2024PERSONAL INJURY LAW: EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW IN 2024
PERSONAL INJURY LAW: EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW IN 2024
 
Bayu triaswara : Whats is Federal Court of Australia, New South Wales Registr...
Bayu triaswara : Whats is Federal Court of Australia, New South Wales Registr...Bayu triaswara : Whats is Federal Court of Australia, New South Wales Registr...
Bayu triaswara : Whats is Federal Court of Australia, New South Wales Registr...
 
Here's the Latest Todd Rokita Grievance That was Filed
Here's the Latest Todd Rokita Grievance  That was FiledHere's the Latest Todd Rokita Grievance  That was Filed
Here's the Latest Todd Rokita Grievance That was Filed
 
BCU degree offer diploma Transcript
BCU degree offer diploma TranscriptBCU degree offer diploma Transcript
BCU degree offer diploma Transcript
 
Untitled document criminal history page.pdf
Untitled document criminal history page.pdfUntitled document criminal history page.pdf
Untitled document criminal history page.pdf
 
Boosting Client Retention with Ethical Debt Collection
Boosting Client Retention with Ethical Debt CollectionBoosting Client Retention with Ethical Debt Collection
Boosting Client Retention with Ethical Debt Collection
 

LAW088 Notes

  • 1. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare LAW088 STATEHOOD AND SOVEREIGNTY State: a political unit composed of people, well-defined territory and a set of governing institutions. Differences between common law and civil law Common law Civil law Derived from English Law Derived from Roman Law Refers to case laws Refers to statutes Adversarial (lawyers play active role) Inquisitorial (judges play active role) Based on the rights of the individual Based on the best interest of the society Based on judicial precedent (first case ever decided in the court, obeys doctrine of stare decisis) Law is codified (decision- making must be referred from the constitutions, acts or other statutes) Unwritten law Written law i.e. UK, Australia, Hong Kong, USA, Canada i.e. Italy, Spain (French), Germany, Austria (German) Constitutive theory: defines a state as a person of International law if, and only if, it is recognised as sovereign by other states. Declarative theory: four criteria must be met (permanent population, defined territory, a government, capacity to enter into relations with other states) Art. 1 of Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States 1933) - The convention codified the declarative theory of statehood as accepted to be as part of customary international law. - Signed at Montevideo, Uruguay at December 26, 1933. - Signed by 19 states inc. Paraguay, Brazil, US, Peru, Argentina. 1) Permanent population - An aggregate of individuals of both sexes who live together as a community in spite of the fact that they may be of different races or creeds. - There is no specific rule in the number of population. - i.e. Naura: 1000 citizens only 2) Defined territory - Exclusive rights to display activities of the state within a certain geographical area. - No rule prescribing on the minimum size of the territory. - i.e. Tuvalu (7km2), Naura (21km2) - Size is not important but must have a clear territory. 3) A government - There must be in existence a government system in the state. - International law does not prescribe the exact form of government, except that it must be in conformity with the right of self-determination of people. 4) Capacity to enter into relations with other states - Forms diplomatic ties. - Negotiate agreements. - i.e. Malaysia and Israel does not have diplomatic relationship. Not matured statehood 1) Republic of Abkhazia - Near Georgia in Russia. - Cannot achieve independent. - No government. 2) Palestine - Against by Israel. - Should be a matured statehood. - Lack of effective control over the claimed territory (government control – external). 3) Israel - No accurate border. - Governed by military. - Not recognised by international community. Types of government control 1) Internally - A government implies capacity to establish and maintain a legal order in the sense of constitutional autonomy. - This means that government focus on the country and its constitution itself. 2) Externally - A government has the ability to act autonomously on the international level without being dependent on other states within the international legal order. - Thus, state of Palestine was not a state due to lack of effective control over the claimed territory.
  • 2. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare State sovereignty - Ability of a state to be independent and free from control of another state. - The power of a state to do everything necessary to govern itself, such as making, executing and applying laws, imposing an collecting taxes, making war and peace, and forming treaties or engaging commerce in with foreign nations. - Emerged 350 years ago as a result of the Treaty of Westphalia. - Vested in government or other political agency. Sovereignty in international law - The legitimate exercise of power and the interpretation of international law by a state. - Government possess full control over its own affairs within a territorial or geographical area or limit. Concepts of sovereignty 1) Authority - The right to command and correlatively the riht to be obeyed/ - The holder of sovereignty possess authority. - Not just mere authority but supreme authority. 2) Legitimacy - A holder of sovereignty derives authority from some mutually acknowledged source of legitimacy. - i.e. from Natural law, a divine mandate, hereditary law, constitution, international law. 3) Supremacy - What makes the constitution of superior to the government. - i.e. Federal Constitution is a supreme law of Malaysia. 4) Territoriality - Principle by which a community is to be defined. - Specifies that their membership derives from their residence within borders. Types of sovereignty 1) De jure - “According to the law” (created in respect of constitutional law). - The legal right to exercise the power. - May happen: de jure sovereign may not be able to command obedience while someone else, whose identity may or may not be recognised by law, is actually obeyed. 2) De facto - “The ability in fact to do so”. - Government in control. - Although it may not be legally accepted as existing. - Has no legal claim to sovereignty but exercises necessary force to make and enforce laws. - i.e. Palestine vs Israel, People’s Republic of China (mainland China) vs Republic of China (Taiwan). Challenges to sovereignty 1) The rise of human rights - The emergence of human rights affect sovereignty because these “agreed upon” principles set clear limits on the authority of government to act within their borders. - i.e. in Malaysia, any action taken by government that is against human rights will be criticised by people. 2) Economic globalisation - The growth of multinational organisation has placed constraints on state ability to direct development and fashion social, and economic policy. - This is because economic globalisation will increase flow of communications which allows vital information to be shared between individuals and corporations around the world. - The globalisation in economy will promote some sort like changes in idea of certain way how economy growth and direction of economy will be directed by not only government, but also multinational organisation. - i.e. Michelin, producer of wheel. They control over the manufacturing and business of rubber wheel without any intervention of government. This is because Michelin has full control over the sources. Thus, sovereignty is affected. 3) The growth of international organisations/ supranational institutions - Emerges as significant source of authority that place limit in state sovereignty. - Member states transcend national boundaries or interests to share in the decision-making and vote on issues pertaining to the wider grouping. - In today’s world no state can openly disregard global enactments made by such international organisations, i.e. UN.
  • 3. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare NON-STATE AS LEGAL ACTORS - Organisations established not by nation states, but by certain group of individuals, businessmen and other societal forces. - Oppose the characteristics of nation states which have absolute power of their countries including borders, sovereignty, religious matters and ethnics. - Does not fulfill the requirement of a state. - But give impact to particular state especially to the rule-making such as in the country’s administration. Classifications of Non-state Actors 1) International Intergovernmental Organisations (IGOs) 2) International Non-Governmental Organisations (IGOs) IGOs - Non-state actors that are created by nation states. - Voluntary organisations of sovereign states. - Established by treaty or other agreements. - Usually have a legislative body which creates legal acts (decisions, resolutions, directives). - May be classified by scope and by function. - Play significant role by providing means of cooperation and multiple channels of communication among states. - i.e. United Nations, IMF, WHO, Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). Functions of IGOs - Rule making - Agenda setting - Information gathering INGOs - Private institutions that are independent of the government. - Established by certain group of individuals, businessmen or societal forces. - i.e. Greenpeace, WWF, Amnesty International Reasons for INGOs’ emergence - Role of government increased. - Government does not respond to the needs of and demand of the people. - Pressure from government policies. - Communication revolution. Types of INGOs - Transnational - Government-organised - Business and industry - Donor-dominated Functions of INGOs - Provide analysis and expertise, serve as early warning mechanism and help monitor and implement international agreements. - Alerting global network of supporters to conditions requiring attention (relief suffering). - Creating emergency response around the world. - Mobilising pressure from outside states. - Enhance public participation within states by reminding government delegates that they are being watched. - Gathering information on local conditions through contacts around the world. Advantages of Non-state Actors 1) Helping in solving world crisis - Crisis Yom Kippur War (Security Council adopted resolution 338 in 1973) - Crisis of Iran 1946 (Security Council adopted resolution 2. - Solving world hunger (WFP, Stop Hunger Now, Bread for the World) 2) Gain more trust from the people 3) Diplomatic relation - Help in the international trade and diplomatic ties. - i.e. ASEAN – 10 countries participated in Southeast Asia. - United Nations. 4) Have more of a grass roots focus - Usually focus on specific issue. - i.e. WFP (food), WWF (wildlife), WHO (health). - Can find problems and solutions faster than the government since the government has a lot of matters to take care of. - Assisting the government on issues that they may have overlooked.
  • 4. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare Disadvantages of non-state actors 1) Interference of veto power - Permanent members of UN (China, Russia, France, USA, UK). - i.e. USA has vetoed 32 recommendations regarding the issue of Israel. 2) Implication of neutral ground - Principle in ASEAN do not interfere with other country’s sovereignty. - i.e. ASEAN towards Myanmar. - Cannot solve the problem of Rohingya because practiced the ASEAN principle. 3) Domination of power - Price determination. - i.e. OPEC determining and dominating the price of oil around the world. @ Advantages of non-state actors - Specific issues. - Provide the information. - Settle economic issue among them. - Get cooperation through sort of formal structure. - They hold the state sovereignty. Disadvantages of non-state actors - Plays lesser role in political issue. - State has to give part of their sovereignty. - Inequality among the state members. - The membership is limited.
  • 5. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare UNITED NATIONS - Successor of the League of Nations. - Failed to prevent world war. - Founded in 1945 after the 2nd world war by 51 countries committed to maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly nations, promoting social progress, better living standards and human rights. Aim and Objectives 1) To keep peace throughout the world - Agreements on disarmament i.e. the Non- Proliferation Treaty (NPT) for nuclear weapons. - Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation among states. - States shall settle their international disputes by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security and justice are not endangered. 2) To develop friendly relations among nations - Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation among States. - States shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state. - The duty of states to co-operate with one another. 3) To help nations work together to improve the lives of poor people, to conquer hunger, diseases and illiteracy, and to encourage respect for each other’s rights and freedoms - WFP (world hunger – food assistance branch of the United Nations). - UN Declaration of Human Rights. - UNESCO (education, scientific, cultural). 4) To be a centre for harmonising the actions of nations to achieve these goals. - Acts as the middleman. - Might seem to interfere, but actually paternalistic. Structure of UN - 193 state members. - 2 non-member states (Holy See and Palestine). - Non-members receive standing invitation to participate as observers in the sessions and the work of the General Assembly and maintaining permanent observer missions at Headquarters. - Secretariat, General Assembly, Security Council, ECOSOC (economic and social), ICJ. 1) Secretariat - Run day-to-day operation. - Provides administrative task. - Led by Secretary General (who is appointed by Security Council for five years). - Staffs are only answerable to UN, not to the country they operate (i.e. UNESCO Malaysia). 2) General Assembly - Main deliberative organ of UN. - Composed of representatives from all member states. - Decide and pass important policies. - Consider and make recommendations on the general principles of cooperation for maintaining internal peace and security, including disarmament. - Initiate studies and make recommendations to promote international political cooperation, human rights, ecosoc, etc. - Elect non-permanent members of the Security Council and members of other UN councils and organs, recommend the Security Council, appoint Secretary General. - Each member has one vote to vote on issues. 3) Security Council - Five permanent members: China, France, UK, Russia, USA. - Ten non-permanent members elected for two- year terms by the General Assembly. - Carries out the aim and objectives of UN. 4) ECOSOC - Responsible for cooperation between states on economic and social fields. - i.e. raise standard of living. - ICJ - Located in Hague, Netherlands. - Resolve dispute between states. - Judges elected by General Assembly and Security Council for period of nine years. 4) May entertain 1) legal dispute between states submitted to them, 2) requests for advisory opinions on legal relations referred to it.
  • 6. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare Contributions of UN 1) Maintaining international peace and security - There are 16 UN peacekeeping operations deployed on four continents. - i.e. UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan and UN Mission in Liberia. 2) Countering terrorism - Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force (CTITF) was established in order to ensure coordination and coherence in UN activities on counter-terrorism. - i.e. I-ACT Mission 2015. 3) Protecting human rights - UN Human Rights Council. - UN Declaration of Human Rights, the first legal document in protecting universal human rights and is generally agreed to be the foundation of international human rights law. 4) Delivering humanitarian aid - Helping refugees (UNHCR). - WFP sends food aid to Syrian refugees. Challenges of UN 1) Keeping human rights - LGBT – everyone has different standards of human rights due to different cultural and religious beliefs. 2) Insufficient funding - Salary of the staffs - Donation - Refugee crisis, etc. 3) Trying to curb the spread of diseases - New diseases keep coming in. - Spread too quickly. - Could get out of control. 4) Limited supply 5) Enforcing the law - Veto power. 6) The threat of nuclear weapon - North Korea withdrew from NPT. 5) Announced on March 2016 that they’re going to launch their nuclear soon. 7) Keeping countries in a treaty 6) North Korea withdrew from NPT. 7) Seeing it as a mean for countries who already possess nuclear weapons to keep their weapons and prevent others from developing it. 8) Biological welfare 8) Killing people with intentional spread of diseases – for overpopulation. 9) States are not bound to bid by the sanctions provided by UN. 9) One of UN’s bodies, ICJ, is created to resolve disputes between states. 10) However, not all states follow the decision of the court. 11) The sanctions provided by UN are not always followed. 12) States are not legally binded to follow UN’s decisions. 13) Therefore it is not effective because these countries are also a part of the world. 14) i.e. Malaysia do not ratify to some of UN’s treaties. 10) Outdated structure 15) The permanent members have veto power. 16) Outgrowing number of members, therefore more states should be able to be permanent members as well. 17) These other states can only pass non-binding resolutions. 18) The big five does not seem to have the intention to give up any power or share it with more states. 11) Increasing demands - Not enough peacekeeping troops. - States are asked to contribute troops for peace- keeping but it is still not enough. - 100 peacekeepers had died last year and dozens have been taken captive. 12) Unreliable funding - Funded by voluntary contributions. - Not enough donations. - WFP had to suspend a food voucher program serving more than 1.7mil Syrian refugees after the donors failed to meet their commitments. - Members owed about $3.5bil for regular operations and peacekeeping.
  • 7. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare Effectiveness of UN 1) Effective in reducing climate change. - Kyoto Protocol. - Kyoto, Japan in 1997. 2) Successful efforts on helping the people in need - WFP. - Developed smartphone application: Share The Meal, which is very successful. - All that it takes is a single click and $0.50 will be donated to Syrian refugees. Weaknesses of UN 1) Failure to act fast - i.e. to curb the spread of diseases. - Too slow until the disease is already widespread and out of control. 2) Wasting the fund - Divided into different branches and sub- organisations, cost a lot of money. - Huge salaries are paid to international staffs. - UN is not a business firm which people can make money out of. - As a development agency, the fund is supposed to be channeled to help the poor as best as they could. - UN must cut the salary of expats in order to make the available funding to the program’s operation and development. 3) Difficult to recruit and retain the right staff - Senior staffs are guaranteed contracts that can cost an upwards of $300-500k a year. - Yet the bulk of the work falls on lower level staff who are not guaranteed a salary for more than a few months at a time. - As a result, each individual response, project and program must go through long and time- consuming recruitment processes just to find the right team. 4) Need to improve its relations - Have to be more open to working with civil society as well – local NGOs for example. Failure to achieve UN’s objectives 1) Terrorism 2) NPT (North Korea, Israel, Pakistan, India) 3) Sri Lanka; The Safe Zone 4) Child Sex Abuse Scandal 5) Veto power of permanent members (one vote will beat others – i.e. China and Russia vetoed the attempt to intervene and prevent genocide in Syria, resulting to 60,000 been killed, with thousands more displaced). 6) The Cold War Veto power - Held by the five permanent members (USA, UK, France, Russia, People’s Republic of China). - Art. 27 of the UN Charter. - Imbalance of power. - Misuse of power. - Ineffective. - However if no veto or permanent seats anymore, it will boil up rejection from the big five.
  • 8. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare GLOBALISATION - Refers to the shrinking distance among the continents, a wider geographic senses of vulnerability, and a worldwide interconnectedness of important aspects of human life including religion, migration, war, finance, trade, diseases, drugs and music. - The process of increasing the interconnectedness and interdependence of the world’s markets and businesses. - Began with the first movement of people out of Africa. - Migrants, merchants, etc. - Melaka was the center of globalisation. - Columbus discovered America. Types of globalisation 1) Economic - Import and export goods. - Intensifies competitiveness between states. - i.e. Apple products are mostly manufactured in China to save cost (low-skilled labour = cheap cost). 2) Financial - NYSE was the centre of the world’s economic heartbeat. 9/11 attack had shaken the world until today. - Sub-prime mortgage crisis – financial crisis in USA influenced other states because USA is the largest importer in the world. - World Bank establishment. - IMF, OPEC. 3) Political - Proliferation of international regional organisations composed of states and the spread of non-state political actors. - War in Iraq affected the USA economy (oil). - Increase in multilateral organisations (IGO) i.e. UN, EU, Commonwealth, to promote political ideologies. 4) Military - USA’s army’s presence in Korean peninsular to ensure no war will break out between North and South Korea. - NATO was deployed in many countries to bring down regime, i.e. Bosnia and Libya. 5) Criminal/Terrorism - Use of criminal to achieve objectives (Al- Qaeda, Abu Sayyaf, drug trafficking, prostitution, etc). - Border issues. Causes of globalisation 1) Human desire to explore - To look for other resources, economic security, curiousity, etc. - Migration to seek better life. - African ancestors migrated because of geographical problems, i.e. draught, lack of food. 2) Transportation - Improved transportation system, i.e. Air Asia. 3) Spread of empire/political influence - Cold War – democracy (US) vs communism (USSR). 4) Technological advancement - Internet, smartphones. 5) Growth of media - Global media such as CNN, CNBC, Al-Jazeera Effects of globalisation - Political: the decrease of the importance of the state. (through creation of sub-states such as EU, ICC, etc, the state losses power of policy- making and thus sovereignty). - Global environmental problems like cross- boundary pollution, over fishing on oceans, climate changes are solved by discussions. - More transborder data flow using communication satellites, internet, mobile phones, etc. - ICC and ICJ movements are launched. - International travel and tourism increases.
  • 9. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare - Worldwide sport events such as FIFA World Cup and Olympic Games. - Global standard applications such as patent, copyright laws, word trade agreement increases // supranational recognition: patents authorised by one country are authorised in another too. - Immigration between countries increases. - Cross-cultural contacts grow and cultural diffusion takes place. - Increase in the desire to use foreign ideas and products, adopt new practices and technologies and be a part of world culture. - Free trade zones are formed having less or no tariffs. Advantages of globalisation 1) Faster economic growth - Shown to have consistently grown much faster than those states that try to protect themselves. - Well-managed economies have grown at rates that are on average 2.5% higher than states with economies closed to globalisation. 2) Improved environmental awareness and accountability - Positive environmental outcomes. - By encouraging the use of more efficient, less- polluting technologies and facilitating economies’ imports of renewable substitutes for use in place of scarce domestic natural resources. 3) Improved technology - Dramatically reduced costs and prices changing the way the world communicates, learns, does business and treats illnesses. - Decrease in adult illiteracy rates in developing countries. 4) Resolved international political and economic tensions - Increasing interdependence and global institutions like WTO and World Bank that manage the settlement of government-to- government disputes. - This have enabled international political and economic tensions to be resolved based on “rule of approach” rather than which state has the greater political and economic power. 5) International migration - Led to greater recognition of diversity and respect for cultural identities. - Improves democracy and access to human rights. 6) Improve living standards and reduce poverty - Because of faster economic growth. - i.e. India has cut its poverty rate in half in the past two decades. - China has reduced the number of rural poor from 250mil in 1978 to 34mil in 1999. - Cheaper imports make wide range of products to be accessible to more people. - Through competition, can promote efficiency and productivity. 7) Improved wealth through the economic gains of globalisation - Led to improved access to health care and clean water. - Increased life expectancy. 8) Others: - Decreases the possibility of war. - Easier and faster transportation. - Free trade between countries increases. - Global mass media connects all the people in the world (i.e. student exchange program). - As the cultural barriers reduce, the global village dream becomes more realistic. - The interdependence of the nation-states increases. Disadvantages of globalisation 1) Spread of diseases - i.e. HIV, AIDS, swine flu, bird flu. - Spread across borders. - Greater risk of diseases being transported unintentionally between nations. 2) Reduce life expectancy - Because of the diseases such as AIDS (in some parts of Africa). 3) Introduction of cigarettes and tobacco to developing countries - Major adverse health and financial costs associated. 4) Harming the environment - Agricultural, forest, mining and fishing industries exploit inadequate environmental codes and corrupt behaviour in developing countries. - Agricultural seed companies are destroying the biodiversity of the planet and depriving subsistence farmers of their livelihood. - Increased likelihood of economic disruptions in one nation affecting all nations
  • 10. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare Impacts of globalisation on developing countries 1) Economic POSITIVE - Developing countries are able to share the same economic growth that the developed countries have. - i.e. World Bank and IMF encourage developing countries to go through market reforms and radical changes through large sum of loans. - Developing countries have taken the step to open their market by remoring tariffs and freeing up their economies. - Allows developed countries to invest in developing countries, which in a way helps to create job opportunities. NEGATIVE - Increases the inequality between the rich and the poor. - The benefit that globalisation brings is not universal as the rich are getting richer and the poor are getting poorer. - i.e. Africa, which is among the developing countries, still holds the highest poverty rate. 2) Education POSITIVE - Acts as a catalyst to jobs that require higher skills. - This demand will allow people to gain higher education. - When demand of highly-educated people increases, the government will somehow be pushed by the citizens to provide better education. - This will cause the education of developing countries to improve. NEGATIVE - Causing globalised competition which forces many professional, skilled workers who are highly qualified and educated to migrate to developed countries because they would want to benefit from the higher wage rate and the greater lifestyle prospects that developed countries offer. - Leads to decreased skill labour in developing countries. 3) Health POSITIVE - The improvement of living standards and life expectancy of people in developing countries. - Means increased fortune of the country. - With more fortunes, poor nations are able to supply good health care services and better sanitation to their people. NEGATIVE - Indirectly helps to spread new diseases to these countries. - Due to the increase of the number of travelers that are travelling between countries, which indirectly causes diseases to spread. - i.e. H1N1, various influenzas. Forms of globalisation - Economic (free trade, open market) - Financial (consolidate of banks, global operation, new technologies, universality of banking) - Political (role of regional organisations) - Military (network around the globe) - Cultural spread (World Cup, K-Pop) - Environmental (working together to resolve problems, water, air pollution) - Criminal (drug and human trafficking)
  • 11. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare GLOBAL HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUES Human: A member of the homo sapiens species; a man, woman, or child; a person. Rights: Things to which you are entitled or allowed; freedoms that are guaranteed. Human rights: The rights you have simply because you are human. History and origins - Mooted by Cyrus the Great (600BC). - All slaves were freed and everyone has the freedom of religion, regardless of the race. - It evolved throughout the human history. - Romans refer it as natural rights. - Many tried to uphold human rights, but failed (i.e. World War, tyranny around the world). - Finally, after WW2 ended, United Nations was formed in 1945 which among its objectives is to protect human rights. - UN Declaration of Human Rights – adopted in 1948 which affirms its objective. UDHR 1948 - Drafted by representatives of all regions in the world and encompassed of all legal traditions. - Formally adopted in 1948. - The most universal human rights document in existence. - Equality, freedom of religion, freedom of expression. Types of rights - Civil rights: Personal liberties, such as freedom of speech, thought and religion. - Political rights: Right to vote, voice political opinions and participate in political process. - Social rights: Right to healthcare, education and other social benefits. Human rights claims that dominate global politics - Accusations that government are abusing individuals (crime of genocide). - Demands by ethnic, racial and religious communities for autonomy or independence. - Claims in what is generally regarded as private life, including rights and obligations within families, and the demands for equality by minority groups within unconventional lifestyle. - Demand by governments for protection against powerful governments and non-state actors, as well as the right to economic development. Situations that violate human rights - The rights to adequate food, housing, employment and cultural life are denied. - Genocide. - War crime. - Slavery. Why are basic human rights violated and suggest solutions - Define human rights (the rights you have simply because you are a human) - The rights you are entitled to (freedom of speech, freedom of religion, rights to education, etc – give examples) - Whose responsibility is it to protect human rights – the state - Who violated human rights – also the state - Reasons why are these rights violated – the government itself has broken down/civil war/ there’s no government/ corruption/ greedy over power/ abuse of power – the police became more autocratic i.e. detention without….. / the state of economy/ discrimination – discriminatory practices of the state because of race/religion – Africa, the blacks are the majority but they cannot take the same bus etc/ government doesn’t want to hold elections, violate rights to vote as a citizen - Your solutions and recommendations to curb these violations – impose sanctions (sanctions imposed to North Korea recently, because they threatened to launch their nuclear weapons- no country can sell or trade with North Korea at the moment), humanitarian intervention- of NSA, UN can expel, UN can suspend membership, bringing the violators of human rights to the International Criminal Court, demonstration- attract the attention of other countries, bring a case to agencies
  • 12. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare Refugees: A person who has been forced to leave their home and seek refuge elsewhere. United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees - An international convention that defines who is a refugee, sets out the rights of the individuals who are granted asylum, sets out the responsibilities of nations that grant asylum and sets out which people do not qualify as refugees, such as war criminals. Asylum seeker: A person who is seeking protection as a refugee and is still waiting to have his or her claim assessed. Legal status of refugees - Refugees are legally entitled to receive the protection of 147 countries that have participated in the convention. - Refugees are allowed to enter and temporarily stay in these countries. - There is a distinction between the legal status of refugee and Internally Displaced Person (IDP). - Refugees are those who are forced to leave their own countries while IDPs are those who have been force to leave their residents but have remained in their own countries. - Stateless people (illegal immigrant) are those who have no nationality. They can also be categorised as refugees but only if they fit the convention’s criteria. - However, people who leave their homes because of extreme poverty, famine, or environmental factors do not qualify as refugees. Countries with significant IDP population: Afghanistan, Africa, Iraq, Indonesia, Pakistan, Philippines, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan. Refugees rights under the International Law - The right to belong to trade unions. - The right to belong to other non-political non- profit organisations. - The right to engage in wage-earning employment. - The right to own property. - The right to practice a profession. - The right to self-employment. - Access to housing. - Access to higher education. // most favourable - The right to choose their place of residence. - The right to move freely within a country. - Free exercise of religion and religious education. - Free access to the courts, including legal assistance. - Access to elementary education. - Access to public relief and assistance. - Protection provided by social security. - Protection of intellectual property, i.e. inventions and trade names. - Protection of literary, artistic and scientific work. How to address the problem of refugees 1) Local integration - Granting refugees a permanent right to stay in the host country. - However, the government of the host country would be unwilling. - Where refugees have integrated locally in Africa, they often do so through informal “self- settlement”, with no firm legal status. 2) Resettlement in a third country - Participant countries agree to take a certain number of refugees each year. - However, the number could be as small as nine countries offer meaning quotes. - Nine government currently host the bulk of the refugees who are annually resettled in new countries (USA, Canada, Finland, Australia, Sweden, Norway, New Zealand, Denmark, Netherlands) 3) Repatriation to the country of origin - Legally, it must only occur when the returnees’ safety can be guaranteed. - In practice, UNHCR promotes and facilitates voluntary repatriation through various means: organising “go-and-see” visits, compiling updated information on the country, engaging in peace and reconciliation activities, promoting housing and property restitution, providing return assistance and legal aid to returnees.
  • 13. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare GENOCIDE - A systematic mass murder of an ethnic, religious, or national group based on discriminatory preconceptions. Examples of genocide Armenian genocide, 1915 - During WW1 by Ottoman empire. - Many Armenians ran for shelter around Europe (Armenian Diaspora) because of it. - Many Armenians were rooted out from their home and were forced to march in the Syrian desert and many died. - To date, Turkey refused to acknowledge this event as genocide. Instead, they claim that the Armenians were victims of widespread chaos and governmental breakdown as the Ottoman empire collapsed before modern Turkey was created. Rwandan genocide, 1994 - Occurred in Rwanda, a poor African country. - Rwanda consisted of majority of Hutu and a small group of Tutsi tribe. - A group of Tutsi rebel invaded the capital of Rwanda and shot down a plane that carried the president, who is a Hutu. - As a retaliation, the Hutus committed mass- killings of the Tutsis. Bosnian genocide - Bosnia was part of the Ottoman (Turkish) empire until 1978 and then of the Austro- Hungarian empire until WW1. - After the war, Serbs and Bosniaks were looking for independence. - The Serbs, who were led by Slobodan Milosevic, cried for Serbs nationalism. - They considered the Bosnian who were mainly Muslim as intruders and wanted to clean the Serbian land from the Bosnian. United Nations Convention on the Prevention of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) - Raphael Lemkin, who introduced the term ‘genocide’ presented his essay entitled “Crime of Barbarity” to the League of Nations. However, it was rejected. - However, his genocide idea was accepted as an offence against the international law and his idea formed basis of Nuremberg Trial. - Finally, in 1948, the General Assembly adopted “Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide”. Art 1: Genocide is a crime under the international law. Art 2: Genocide means killing an ethnic with the intention to destroy it. Art 3: UN to enforce the convention in order to prevent future genocide. Why CPPCG is not effective? 1) There are countries that do not invoke to CPPCG - Khmer Rouge in Cambodia: in power, Khmer Rouge carried out a radical program that included isolating the country from all foreign influences, closing major facilities such as schools, hospitals and factories, abolishing banks and currency, outlawing all religions, confiscating all public properties and relocating people from urban areas to collective farms where forced labour was widespread. The purpose of this policy was to turn Cambodians into “Old People” through agricultural labour. - The regime killed 1.7mil people in Cambodia as no one invoked to the convention even after it has been established. 2) No machinery to govern the CPPCG - A permanent body is inexistent and should be made to monitor the implementation of the convention, and require states to issue reports on their compliance with the convention. - This would make it more effective. 3) Only a small number of countries ratified to CPPCG - It had the status of 146 parties. - Only 41 countries signed the convention. - It is only about 21% which is not even half. - Countries that have signed: Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Philippines, Russia and others.
  • 14. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare EUROPEAN UNION - A politico-economic union of 28 member states that are primarily located in Europe. - Operates through a system of supranational institutions and intergovernmental-made decisions by member states. - Consists of European Parliament, Council of European Union, European Commission, Court of Justice of European Union, European Central Bank and Court of Auditors. Aims - To introduce European citizenship. (protection of fundamental human rights and freedoms) - To ensure freedom, security and justice (co- operation in the field of justice and home affairs) - To promote economic and social progress (help people earn enough money and get treated fairly) - To develop Europe as an area of freedom, security and justice (help Europeans to live in safety, without the threat of war) - To maintain and build on established EU laws (make laws that protect people’s rights in the member countries) - To speak for EU on the international scene (by working as a group the EU hopes that Europe will be listened to more by other countries) Objectives - To bring its member states closer together with respect of human rights and democracy (common style of passport, common rules about fair trading with each other, common agreements about law enforcement, and other agreements) - To promote peace, the Union's values and the well-being of its people Principles Art 1-4 of the Constitution - Guarantees the free movement of persons, goods, services and capital within the Union and strictly prohibits any discrimination on grounds of nationality. Art 1-5 of the Constitution - Stated the obligation to respect the national identities and the fundamental political and constitutional structures of the member states. Art 1-6 of the Constitution - Lays down the principle of the primacy of the law of EU over the law of member states. This principle has been recognised to be the basic principle and a key aspect of the functioning of the Union. Article 1-7 of the Constitution - Confers on the EU legal personality. Following the merger of the European Community and the EU, the new Union will therefore have the right to conclude international agreements.
  • 15. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare Four main developments of EU 1) From economic to political union - What began as a purely economic union has evolved into an organisation spanning policy areas, from development aid to environment. A name change from the EEC to the European Union (EU) in 1993 reflected this. - The EU is based on the rule of law: everything that it does is founded on treaties, voluntarily and democratically agreed by all member countries. These binding agreements set out the EU's goals in its many areas of activity. 2) Mobility, growth, stability and a single currency - The EU has delivered half a century of peace, stability and prosperity, helped raise living standards, and launched a single European currency, the euro. - Thanks to the abolition of border controls between EU countries, people can travel freely throughout most of the continent. And it's become much easier to live and work abroad in Europe. - The single or 'internal' market is the EU's main economic engine, enabling most goods, services, money and people to move freely. Another key objective is to develop this huge resource to ensure that Europeans can draw the maximum benefit from it. 3) Human rights and equality - One of the EU’s main goals is to promote human rights both internally and around the world. Human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rule of law and respect for human rights: these are the core values of the EU. Since the 2009 signing of the Treaty of Lisbon, the EU's Charter of Fundamental Rights brings all these rights together in a single document. The EU's institutions are legally bound to uphold them, as are EU governments whenever they apply EU law. 4) Transparent and democratic institutions - As it continues to grow, the EU remains focused on making its governing institutions more transparent and democratic. More powers are being given to the directly elected European Parliament, while national parliaments are being given a greater role, working alongside the European institutions. In turn, European citizens have an ever- increasing number of channels for taking part in the political process.
  • 16. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION Definition: Deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil, and also the destruction of ecosystems and the extinction of wildlife. - Any change or disturbance to the environment perceived to be deleterious or undesirable. Causes 1) Land disturbance - Happens when there are numerous weedy plant species. - i.e. Garlic mustard grow on the land. - These plants can assume control over nature, eliminating the local greenery. - The result is territory with a solitary predominant plant which does not give satisfactory food assets to all the environmental life. 2) Pollution - Pollution, in whatever form, whether it is air, water, land or noise, is harmful for the environment. - Air pollution pollutes the air we breathe, causing health issues. - Water pollution degrades the quality of water that we use for drinking purposes. - Land pollution results in degradation of the Earth’s surface as a result of human activities. - Noise pollution can cause irrepairable damage to our ears. - i.e. Bunus River in KL is polluted and filled with rubbish. 3) Deforestation - Cutting down trees to make way for more homes and industries. - Overpopulation results in more demand for food, clothes and shelter. Human beings need more space to provide homes and to grow food for millions of people. - i.e. Decreased population of Orang Utan due to deforestation. 4) Overpopulation - Rapid population growth puts strain on natural resources which results in degradation of the environment. Effects 1) Loss of biodiversity - Important to maintain the balance of ecosystem. - It combats pollution, restores nutrients, protect water sources and stabilise climates. 2) Ozone layer depletion - Ozone layer is responsible for protecting the Earth from harmful UV rays. - As it will deplete, it will emit harmful radiations back to the Earth, causing possibility of skin cancer and rising temperature of the Earth. 3) Impact on human health - Areas exposed to toxic air pollutants can cause respiratory problem such as pneumonia and asthma. - Millions of people are known to have died due to indirect effects of air pollution. 4) Impact the economy - In terms of restoration of green cover, cleaning up of landfills and protection of endangered species.
  • 17. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare Solutions (International Level) 1) Implementing more environment protection treaties and obeying to them - i.e. Kyoto Protocol. - Adopted in 1997. - Became a binding treaty in 2005. - 192 countries were party to the treaty at the time it was signed, along with European Union. - The main objectives include to reduce greenhouse effect. - Rio Declaration (informally known as Earth Summit). - Consisted of 27 principles intended to guide future sustainable development around the world. - 7th principle stated that states shall cooperate in a spirit of global partnership to conserve, protect and restore the health and integrity of the Earth’s ecosystem. - Protects and regulates the development of resources in participating countries. 2) Role of INGOs - i.e. Greenpeace and WWF. - Greenpeace is an INGO focusing on protecting the environment. - WWF is an INGO focusing on protecting the wildlife and biodiversity conservation. - More INGOs like this should be created. - The already-existing INGOs should organise environmental awareness programs. - June 5 – World Environment Day. - These INGOs could also do a public protest on excessive development. (National Level) 1) Government should impose punishments - Prohibit the contamination of lake, rivers and seas. - Punish those who illegally cut down the trees in the forest or cause pollution. - Wrong-doers should be sued under public nuisance in tort for noise pollution. 2) Campaign - Advertising campaign on various media i.e. TV and internet on environmental awareness. - Can be done by NGOs. - Help promote the idea and can influence people to protect and love the environment. - Awaken the spirit of environmental conservation among people and put ideas into action.
  • 18. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare OVERPOPULATION Definition: An undesirable condition where the number of existing human population exceeds the carrying capacity. // Excessive population within an area that lacks enough resources for long-term sustainment. Causes - Migration issues (immigration) - Lack of family planning (early marriage – increases the chance of producing more children, use of birth control) - Cultural thing (to have many children) - More income (for poor people) - Reduced mortality rate (decline in the death rate) - Technology advancement (create better medical facilities, saved more lives, increase birth rate) - Lack of education Effects - Pollution (more people use transportations that cause air pollution) - Depletion of resources (only limited amount of food and water can be produced at a time, which is insufficient for the people) - Rise in unemployment (inadequate number of jobs to cater large number of people) - High cost of living (demand exceeds supply) - Health issues (ageing, HIV, spread of diseases) Solutions - Providing better education (sex education, family planning, marriage courses, contraceptive methods) - Government policy (i.e. limit foreign workers, one child policy – i.e. China, tax exemptions, strict migration laws) - Reducing birth rate (abortion, abstinence, contraception, government policy) - UN Population Fund (prepare and study the effects of population, assist government to initiate a reproductive education) - Millennium Development Goals (prepare blueprint for reducing poverty and improving lives agreed to by all countries and all leading development institutions) - Biological welfare (intentional spread of new diseases) - Emigration (bring people out of the country)
  • 19. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare TERRORISM Definition: The unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce the government, the civilian population or any segment thereof in furtherance of a political or social objectives. Types of terrorism 1) Domestic terrorism - Occurs within borders of a state. - Usually happen when someone is dissatisfied with the government, other groups or policies. - Launched by killing and bombing at government offices. - i.e. Latin American – Shinning Path, Tupac Amaru (one incident involved Malaysian Ambassador in Peru) 2) Nationalist terrorism - Terrorism that is motivated by nationalism, usually with strong nationalist ideas and goals. - Sometimes they want to establish an independent state, or take control of a certain region and sometimes to overthrow the government of a country or to accomplish the abolition of an entire political system to replace it with another. - A form of terrorism which participants attempt to form an independent state against what they consider an occupying, imperial or otherwise illegitimate state. - i.e. Palestine Liberation Organisation, Provisional Irish Republican Army, Gerakan Acheh Merdeka 3) Religious terrorism - Irresponsible act by certain group of people by using violence in the name of religion. - They misinterpret the word of God in order to achieve their political interest. - They believe that everyone is sinner and they were the chose one to finish God’s work. - Always linked to Islam but exists in other religions too. - i.e. ISIS, Al-Qaeda, KKK. 4) State terrorism - The terror act used by the state to suppress dissents. - Use of violence to coerce or intimidate and to create fear among the citizens. - This was a popular tactic to command respect and fear among its people during WW1 and WW2. - i.e. Germany (Nazi), Russia (Stalinist), Iraq, North Korea, Uganda. - Three levels: intimidation (use of force to discourage opposition and dissent by exploiting the police and army force), coerced conversion (forcing the citizen to change their behaviours, usually after a revolution, i.e. Soviet Union, China), genocide (systematic killing. i.e. Pol Pot, Idi Amin – Uganda). 5) Global terrorism - Include activities by domestic, nationalist, religious and state terrorists. - Each terrorist attack are inter-linked with each other. - So far, Al-Qaeda is known for its well- connected network around the globe, financially and manpower. - i.e. A terrorist leader in Yemen, may direct a bombing in the Philippines or USA. Causes of terrorism 1) Oppression - Groups opposing the current state of affairs may engage in terrorism as a principal method of expression and not as a last resort. - The unfair treatment of the government may lead to oppression. 2) Financial gain - Poverty. - To sheer financial gain. - Hostage taking – to earn ransom money rather than to achieve political goal. - Suicide bombers in Palestine – the family will receive financial reward. 3) The believe that violence is an effective tool for change - Choose violence after long deliberation – felt like they had no choice.
  • 20. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare 4) Religious extremist - Considered as the main driver to terrorism. - i.e. ISIS, Taliban, KKK. - Radical Christian killers have been involved in abortion clinic bombings and militia actions in the USA. 5) Clash of civilization - Cultural and religious differences between civilisations worldwide. - The clash of belief between the West and the Muslims in the East – led to controversial concept – create new world order. Methods of terrorism 1) Launching attack - By using explosive device to inflict damage to the target. - Using suicide bombers who chose to sacrifice their lives. - Vehicles borne devices, i.e. HSBC Bank in Istanbul. - Using modern welfare method, i.e. biological and chemical attacks such as nuclear attack. - i.e. poisonous gas attack on Tokyo subway in 1995. 2) Assassination and kidnapping - Of diplomats, government officials or citizens of a nation. - Hold them as hostage until the government fulfill their demand. - i.e. assassination of JFK (President US) and Benazir Bhutto (Pakistan PM). 3) Hijacking - Airplanes, buses, and any other vehicle. - Take control over the vehicle and held passengers hostage and threaten to kill them – blow up or crash the plane. - i.e. 1977 MAS hijacked en route Penang to KL – attempted hijacking and 9/11 tragedy Goals of terrorism - Social and political justice - Self-determination (create new states) - Racial superiority - Foreign policy - Publicity - Demoralised government Ways to overcome terrorism a) Set up a proper procedure to stop them - Identify and understand their strategies – how do they attack us – the possible target. - Constant patrol by the security guard, system to check for harmful item – metal detector. b) Get the citizens to be involved - To report anything that is out of place or strange. - Give the authorities thousands of eyes and ears to watch for suspicious behaviour. c) Control media power - They want to make news – they learn how to exploit the media to propagate the their demand. - Need to reduce the utility gained from such behaviour – prevent from receiving credit from such act. d) Positive incentive to actual and prospective terrorist not to engage in violent act. - Positive sanction. - Interaction between groups tends to reduce extremist views – avoid segregation. e) Be sensitive and tolerant although we are different by religions, races, languages and etc. f) To identify and protect all nuclear materials so that they do not fall into the hands of terrorists
  • 21. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare WORLD WAR I Why men go to war? - Thirst for power - To expand their territorial limit - To spread political ideology Causes of WW1 - Competing powers between powerful countries in the Europe. Germany and Britain were competing to have the most powerful navy in the world. - Tension ran high in the Europe. - The European countries scrambled around the globe including Africa to colonise as many continent as they can. - Nationalism – desire for self-rule. - Hostility among countries, i.e. France, Germany, the British Empire, Austria-Hungarian empire and Russia. The Schlieffen Plan 1914 - Germany believed war with Russia was extremely likely. If war broke out, Germany assume France would also attack as it was an ally of Russia and keen to revenge its defeat in the Franco-Prussian war. - If this happens, Germany would face a war on two fronts. Germany wanted to avoid this at all costs. - So, Germany instructed the Germany Army Chief of Staff, Alfred von Schlieffen, to draft a plan on how to avoid going into war against these two countries. Assassination which led to WW1 - Assassination of Archduke Franz in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Philip, a Bosnian-Serb. - This led to retaliation by the Austria-Hungarian government against the Serbian government. - This had triggered the chain reaction which led to WW1. - When Russia began to mobilise due to its alliance with Serbia, Germany declared war on Russia. Thus began the expansion of the war to include all those involved in the mutual defense alliances. Countries that were involved in WW1: Including Britain, France, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Russia, America, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria. How it ended? - Before WW1 officially ended, there were many treaties signed between the warring countries. - 11 November 1918: Germany signed an armistice with the allies – the official date of the end of WW1. - Signing the Treaty of Versailles on 28 June 1918. Effects of WW1 - Basically hundreds of thousands to millions of soldiers were killed. - Four empires were wiped out: German, Austro- Hungarian, Ottoman, Russian. - Starvation and famine. - Economic impact to the affected countries. - Spread of diseases. - Establishment of League of Nations – to avoid future wars.
  • 22. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare COMMUNISM VS DEMOCRACY - After WW1 and WW2 ended, there were two main superpowers: USA and USSR. - After those wars, Soviet Union emerged stronger in terms of military, together with USA. - Germany and Japan were defeated which led to the Soviet expansion in the West, East and North. - During WW2, USA and Soviet Union fought together as allies against the Axis powers. - However, the relationship between the two nations was a tense one. Americans had long been wary of the Soviet communism and concerned about Russian leader Joseph Stalin’s tyrannical, blood-thirsty rule of his own country. - After the war ended, the Americans became wary of the Soviet expansion plan which they feared the Soviet will take over the world one day. Differences between democracy and communism Democracy Communism Free election No election/fixed Democratic Autocratic/dictatorship Capitalist Communist Richest world power Poor economic base Personal freedom Controlled society Media freedom Controlled media/freedom of expression - Cold War (1940s-1980s) refers to the relationship between the USA and USSR. - Arm race between USA and the Soviet, i.e. the American supplied weapons to the Afghan jihadists to fight against the Soviet army in Afghanistan. - Vietnam War was one of the classic example of democracy vs communism. - The most crucial part of this war is the Cuban missile crisis. Cuban missile crisis - The most dangerous confrontation during the Cold War. - Started when Nikita Kruschev, the Soviet leader, decided to station nuclear weapons in Cuba, which is 90 miles from USA. - The installation was intended to prevent USA from invading Cuba after previous attempt failed. - JFK notified Americans about the presence of the missile, explained his decision to enact a naval blockade around Cuba and made it clear that USA was prepared to use military force if necessary to neutralise this perceived threat to national security. - The nuclear war was fortunately averted when the USA agreed to Nikita’s offer to remove the Cuban missiles in exchange for the USA promising not to invade Cuba. JFK also secretly agreed to remove USA missiles from Turkey. The fall of communism (numerous weaknesses) - Concentration on weaponry and nuclear led to economic problems. - Freedom of expression was stifled and citizens had to share their wealth with the country. - Only few companies were allowed to run their businesses and usually politically connected to the Communist Party. - Lack of economic activities in the Soviet countries had led to the reform by Mikhail Gorbachev, the last USSR leader. - Gorbachev abandoned the “Brezhnev Doctrine” – Soviet’s policy of intervening with military force, if necessary, to preserve communist rule in the region. - Gorbachev introduced “perestroika” – economic and political restructuring, as well as “glasnot” – openness. - His reforms resulting in series of strikes between it failed to rejuvenate the economy. Factories reduced production and resulting in the increase (?) of consumer goods. - Government printed more money to solve it but it led to inflation. - The citizens were dissatisfied and strikes were planned to protest. - “Glasnot” resulted to nationalism. More countries demanded to leave USSR and set up a republic country, which led to more revolutions. - The fall of Berlin wall in 1989 marked the collapse of the communism.
  • 23. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare ARM RACE AND ARM CONTROL Definition: A competition between two or more parties to have the best armed forces. Reasons - Power rivalry - Military burden sharing - Balance of power - Economies of scale - Self-reliance - Authoritarians regime Why is it a problem? - Proliferation of nuclear weapons among superpowers is very worrying. - China, USA, France, India, Pakistan, North Korea, Israel’s tendency to develop nuclear weapon is very dangerous to the world society. - Known as MAD – Mutual Assured Destruction (deter other countries from attacking, pre- emptive in nature). Non-proliferation regimes - The superpowers agreed to slow down the nuclear development. - United Nations Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) – to prevent further spread of nuclear weapons. - Limited Test Ban Treaty – signed by JFK to prevent nuclear test in the atmosphere. - Geneva Protocol – prohibiting the use of chemical and biological weapons. Problems in enforcing arm control agreements - Difficult – they rely on the desire of participants to abide by terms of agreement. - When a nation no longer desire to abide by the terms, they might withdraw from the treaty (i.e. North Korea from NPT) Disadvantages of withdrawing from arm control agreements - To openly defy an agreement, is often seen in a bad light politically and can carry diplomatic repercussions. - If one remains in an agreement, competitors who are also participatory may be held to the limitation of the terms, while withdrawal release your opponents to make the same developments you are making, limiting the advantages of the development.
  • 24. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare BIODIVERSITY LOSS Definition of biodiversity: the variety of life in the world or in a particular habitat or ecosystem. Importance of biodiversity 1) Health - Variety of food for humans. - 80% of human food supply comes from 20 kinds of plants. 2) Human health - The shortage of drinking water is expected to create a major global crisis. - Biodiversity plays an important role in drug discovery and medicinal resources. - Medicines from nature account for usage by 80% of the world’s population. 3) Ecosystem - Biodiversity boosts ecosystem productivity. - Each species, no matter how small, all have an important role to play. - i.e. A larger number of plant species means a greater variety of crops. - Greater species diversity ensures natural sustainability for all life forms. - Healthy ecosystems can better withstand and recover from a variety of disasters. 4) Industry - Biological sources provide many industrial materials. - i.e. fiber, oil, dyes, rubber, water, timber, paper and food. 5) Culture: - Biodiversity enhances recreational activities - i.e. bird watching, fishing, trekking etc. - It inspires musicians and artists. Causes of biodiversity loss 1) Introduction of exotic species and genetically modified organisms - Species originating from a particular area, introduced into new natural environments can lead to different forms of imbalance in the ecological equilibrium. 2) Deforestation - Cutting down trees. - Illegal deforestation. - In excessive amount that is detrimental to the biodiversity. 3) Pollution - i.e. Air, water, noise. - Human activity influences the natural environment. - Producing negative, direct or indirect, effects that alter the flow of energy, the chemical and physical constitution of the environment and abundance of the species. 4) Climate change - Heating of the Earth’s surface affects biodiversity because it endangers all the species that adapted to the cold due to the latitude (the Polar species) or the altitude (mountain species). 5) Overexploitation of resources - Excessive activities connected with capturing and harvesting a renewable natural resource in a particular area. - i.e. hunting, fishing, farming. - The resource itself may become exhausted, i.e. the case of sardines, herrings, cod, tuna and many other species that man captures without leaving enough time for the organisms to reproduce. Effects of biodiversity loss 1) Changes the way the whole ecosystem perform - Reduced plant diversity. - Because they grew less, they also took up less carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. - This shows that loss of biodiversity might increase the effects of climate change by reducing the ability of ecosystems to absorb carbon dioxide. 2) Impacts human health and well-being negatively - A balanced diet depends on the availability of a wide variety of foods which in turn depends on the conservation of biodiversity. - i.e. food pyramid (carbohydrate, protein, etc.) - Increase the spread of many wildlife pathogens to humans. - Put simply, reduced biodiversity means millions of people face a future where food supplies are more vulnerable to pests and disease, and where fresh water is in irregular or short supply. 3) Leads to natural disaster - i.e. Because of the loss of mangroves and coral reefs, which are excellent natural buffers against floods and storms, coastal communities have increasingly suffered from severe floods. 4) Harms the social relations - Many cultures attach spiritual, aesthetic, recreational, and religious values to ecosystems or their components. - The loss or damage to these components can harm social relations, both by reducing the bonding value of shared experience as well as by causing resentment toward groups that profit from their damage. 5) Loss of freedom of choice - The notion of having choices available irrespective of whether any of them will be
  • 25. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare actually picked is an essential constituent of the freedom aspect of well-being. 6) Affects the production of basic materials - Biodiversity provides various goods. - i.e. plants and animals – that individuals need in order to earn an income and secure sustainable livelihoods. - In addition to agriculture, biodiversity contributes to a range of other sectors, including "ecotourism", pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and fisheries. - Losses of biodiversity, such as the collapse of the Newfoundland cod fishery can impose substantial costs at local and national level. 7) Flora and fauna extinction - Amphibians are particularly sensitive to changes in environment. - i.e. The Golden Toad (Costa Rica) - Other animals, i.e. reptile green vine snake. - Loss of vegetable species. Solutions to curb biodiversity loss 1) Protecting areas - Create protected areas where human activity is limited. - i.e. reserved forests, such as Hutan Simpan Sepilok. - To prevent deforestation and overexploitation of resources. 2) Preventing species introductions - Preventing from the start is better than fixing. - Invasive species, which can wreak havoc when introduced to the ecosystem. 3) Informing and educating - To promote awareness. - Education is a powerful tool. - Educate people about the effects of biodiversity loss. - Educate the people about the benefits of biodiversity. - This will encourage people to be more conscious of the environment. - The more people know about biodiversity loss, the more they will be prepared to help slow it. 4) Ecological restoration and reclaimation - Short-term conservation: means protecting species/habitats in immediate danger. It is a quick way to stop biodiversity from decresing further. - Long-term conservation means purchasing land and protecting it from harm. By preserving the land, we will be preserving all of the species that live there. 5) Make human-occupied land more wildlife- friendly - We humans take up a lot of space, and that isn't going to change. - However, it is very easy for farmers and cities to make their land more habitable for wildlife. - Keeping hedges alive as a can serve as a habitat for birds and bats. 6) Enact and enforce laws - Pass legislation that protects ecosystems. - Imposing stiff penalties for violations. - To prevent further habitat destruction. 7) Keep permanent funds for biodiversity - Provide a back-up in case of emergency. 8) Alternative livelihoods - i.e. poor farmers around the world are forced to use destructive methods to clear land in order to grow crops to support their families. - Poor fishermen must sometimes throw explosives into the sea near coral reefs or take important reef species out of their environments in order to sell them to aquariums. - The solution to these threats is to create programs that help develop sustainable and alternate livelihoods to such people so that they can feed their families without having to destroy the environment. - i.e. fishermen in poor villages who are forced to destroy coral reef ecosystems could be given jobs in fishing.