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Integrating through Planning
 Currently seen as
adversaries
 Root of both is
“eco” = house
 Chief Sealth: planning by custom
◦ Protect the earth
◦ land, people, livelihood
 Patrick Geddes: planning by profession
◦ Sympathy for environment
◦ place, folk, work
 Statue: good planning?
◦ Seattle, WA.
◦ c.1920
Purpose Targets
Principles Tasks
Plan
- Appropriate allocation
of land
-Protect natural habitat
-Create human habitat
-Encourage spiritual habitat
-Conservation planning
-Smart growth
-Sector analysis
-Settlement analysis
-Transect analysis
Place
-Ensure people thrive
-protect wellbeing
-create nurturing society
-encourage wisdom
-Social determinants of
health
-Lifelong Learning
-Population Projections
-Community Wellbeing
Index
Folk
- Use available assets to
enhance livelihoods
-Protect Opportunity
-Create Jobs
- Encourage Innovation
-Local Economic
Development
-Multipliers
-Location Quotients
-Shift Share Analysis
Work
 Land = Habitat
 Habitat = Home
 Land = Home
Spiritual
habitat
Cultural
habitat
Natural
habitat
Home
Habitats We All Occupy
Natural Habitat Cultural Habitat Spiritual Habitat
Ground Survival Place of safety
Territory Kinship Place alive with spirit
Property Possession Place of power
Inheritance Management Place of ultimate order
Real Estate Ownership Marketplace of
possibilities
Earth Sharing Place of common
experience
 Mix of plants & animals are different as one
moves across the landscape
 Best done in public in
ongoing discussion
with the community
Community
Consultation
Map
Sectors
Allocate
Settlement
Areas
Assign
Zones
1. Map region into open & growth sectors
2. Allocate hamlet, village, town settlements
3. Assign natural, rural, sub-urban, urban
zones
O1 - Preserved Open Sector
O2 - Retained Open Sector
G1 - Restricted Growth Sector
G2 - Controlled Growth Sector
G3 - Intended Growth Sector
G4 - Infill Growth Sector
 Development
◦ Prohibited
 O1 & O2
◦ Allowed
 G1 & G2
◦ Encouraged
 G3 & G4
1. Map region into open & growth sectors
2. Allocate hamlet, village, town settlements
3. Assign natural, rural, sub-urban, urban
zones
O1 - Protected
O2 – to be Protected
G1 – New hamlet
G2 – New hamlet or village
G3 – New village or town
G4 - Existing village/town
 Hamlet
◦ 400m radius
◦ Centred on a store, church, school
or hall
 Village
◦ 400m radius
◦ Centred on a mix of uses;
or corridor
 Town
◦ 800m radius
◦ Mixed-use corridor
1. Map region into open & growth sectors
2. Allocate hamlet, village, town settlements
3. Assign natural, rural, sub-urban, urban
zones
T1 - Natural
T2 – Rural
T3 – Sub-urban
T4 – General Urban
T5 – Urban Centre
T6 – Urban Core
 Hamlet: T1, T2 to T4
 Village: T2 to T4, T5
 Town: T4 to T6
 Civic: T1 to T6
 Residential: T2 to T6
 Industry: T3 to T6, SD
 Commercial: T3 to T6, SD
 Natural Resources: T1 to T2
 Sensitive Environments: T1 to T4
 Case Study
◦ Moose Deer Point First
Nation
◦ Numerous economic & land
initiatives
◦ Some success, some issues
still ongoing
O'Donnell Point Nature Reserve
Established in 1985
Moose Deer Point First Nation - 250 ha
Established as an Indian Reserve in 1917
Current ATR - 160 ha
Purchased in 1990, in ATR process for past 10 years
Crown Land under discussion - 280 ha
Currently in discussion for disposition to MDP for ATR
Park land under discussion - 155 ha
Currently in discussion for disposition to MDP for ATR
MOOSE DEER POINT
FIRST NATION - 2002
G e o r g i a n
B a y
T w e l v e M i l e B a y
12 Mile
Bay Rd
MDP
Isaac Bay
MDP
Gordon Bay
MDP
King Bay
Economic Development Land Use
 Community
Sustainability
◦ MDP Marina
◦ Niigon Technologies
◦ Sustainable Community
Plan
 Self-government
Initiative
◦ FNMLA
◦ Notification Protocol
 Community expansion
◦ Additions to Reserve
◦ Environmental Study
Report
◦ Negotiations with all
government levels
◦ Stewardship Council
◦ Land Use Plan

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Land Use and Economic Development

  • 2.  Currently seen as adversaries  Root of both is “eco” = house
  • 3.  Chief Sealth: planning by custom ◦ Protect the earth ◦ land, people, livelihood  Patrick Geddes: planning by profession ◦ Sympathy for environment ◦ place, folk, work  Statue: good planning? ◦ Seattle, WA. ◦ c.1920
  • 5. - Appropriate allocation of land -Protect natural habitat -Create human habitat -Encourage spiritual habitat -Conservation planning -Smart growth -Sector analysis -Settlement analysis -Transect analysis Place
  • 6. -Ensure people thrive -protect wellbeing -create nurturing society -encourage wisdom -Social determinants of health -Lifelong Learning -Population Projections -Community Wellbeing Index Folk
  • 7. - Use available assets to enhance livelihoods -Protect Opportunity -Create Jobs - Encourage Innovation -Local Economic Development -Multipliers -Location Quotients -Shift Share Analysis Work
  • 8.  Land = Habitat  Habitat = Home  Land = Home Spiritual habitat Cultural habitat Natural habitat Home
  • 9. Habitats We All Occupy Natural Habitat Cultural Habitat Spiritual Habitat Ground Survival Place of safety Territory Kinship Place alive with spirit Property Possession Place of power Inheritance Management Place of ultimate order Real Estate Ownership Marketplace of possibilities Earth Sharing Place of common experience
  • 10.
  • 11.  Mix of plants & animals are different as one moves across the landscape
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15.  Best done in public in ongoing discussion with the community Community Consultation Map Sectors Allocate Settlement Areas Assign Zones
  • 16. 1. Map region into open & growth sectors 2. Allocate hamlet, village, town settlements 3. Assign natural, rural, sub-urban, urban zones
  • 17. O1 - Preserved Open Sector O2 - Retained Open Sector G1 - Restricted Growth Sector G2 - Controlled Growth Sector G3 - Intended Growth Sector G4 - Infill Growth Sector
  • 18.  Development ◦ Prohibited  O1 & O2 ◦ Allowed  G1 & G2 ◦ Encouraged  G3 & G4
  • 19. 1. Map region into open & growth sectors 2. Allocate hamlet, village, town settlements 3. Assign natural, rural, sub-urban, urban zones
  • 20. O1 - Protected O2 – to be Protected G1 – New hamlet G2 – New hamlet or village G3 – New village or town G4 - Existing village/town
  • 21.  Hamlet ◦ 400m radius ◦ Centred on a store, church, school or hall  Village ◦ 400m radius ◦ Centred on a mix of uses; or corridor  Town ◦ 800m radius ◦ Mixed-use corridor
  • 22. 1. Map region into open & growth sectors 2. Allocate hamlet, village, town settlements 3. Assign natural, rural, sub-urban, urban zones
  • 23. T1 - Natural T2 – Rural T3 – Sub-urban T4 – General Urban T5 – Urban Centre T6 – Urban Core
  • 24.  Hamlet: T1, T2 to T4  Village: T2 to T4, T5  Town: T4 to T6
  • 25.  Civic: T1 to T6  Residential: T2 to T6  Industry: T3 to T6, SD  Commercial: T3 to T6, SD  Natural Resources: T1 to T2  Sensitive Environments: T1 to T4
  • 26.  Case Study ◦ Moose Deer Point First Nation ◦ Numerous economic & land initiatives ◦ Some success, some issues still ongoing
  • 27. O'Donnell Point Nature Reserve Established in 1985 Moose Deer Point First Nation - 250 ha Established as an Indian Reserve in 1917 Current ATR - 160 ha Purchased in 1990, in ATR process for past 10 years Crown Land under discussion - 280 ha Currently in discussion for disposition to MDP for ATR Park land under discussion - 155 ha Currently in discussion for disposition to MDP for ATR MOOSE DEER POINT FIRST NATION - 2002 G e o r g i a n B a y T w e l v e M i l e B a y 12 Mile Bay Rd MDP Isaac Bay MDP Gordon Bay MDP King Bay
  • 28. Economic Development Land Use  Community Sustainability ◦ MDP Marina ◦ Niigon Technologies ◦ Sustainable Community Plan  Self-government Initiative ◦ FNMLA ◦ Notification Protocol  Community expansion ◦ Additions to Reserve ◦ Environmental Study Report ◦ Negotiations with all government levels ◦ Stewardship Council ◦ Land Use Plan

Editor's Notes

  1. In terms of land use – planning helps to set design parameters to ensure that what is happening in your community is what you want, it looks the way you want it to look, and is not inappropriate for your circumstances. In terms of economic development – if you are trying to attract outside investment as one of your economic development goals, land use planning helps to create the kind of certainty that investors want, including types, location, rules and regulations. In other words it is a discussion the community has already had, that some level of consensus was reached, and that the investor does not have to face objections that should have been resolved earlier.
  2. Picture: Sagoff, Mark. 2011. The Rise and Fall of Ecological Economics. Breakthrough Journal. No. 2 / Fall 2011. Breakthrough Institute. Oakland. California “eco” is the Greek word “oikos” and means “home” “ology” = study of & “nomic” = norms or rules ecology & economics are two sides of the same thing earth>home>oikos>”eco”>ecology & economics
  3. In 1850s, two hundred and fifty years of trading associations, military alliances, and family relationships between Aboriginal peoples and European peoples in Canada were put under the strain of growing capitalism. In 1854, Chief Sealth wrote to U.S. president to ask “How can you buy… the land?” His letter to the government questioning it reasons for wanting buy his traditional territory is considered one of the finest statements of an environmental ethic. It is also a clear indication of planning by custom. In 1854, Patrick Geddes was born. A town planer who emphasised sympathy for people and the environment. His methods lay at the foundation of the planning profession. These techniques were lost after the Second World War, but are now making a comeback and we will discuss them a little later. Statue of Sealth, the name sake of Seattle, Washington: The Seattle, Chief of the Suquamish, Sculpture is located at the southeastern corner of the Seattle Center at the intersection of Fifth Ave., Denny Way and Cedar St. The small park in which the sculpture is located, Tilkium Place, is open to the public. QUESTION: does the scene with the Seattle Statue represent good planning? If so, why? If not, why? History of statue: Local sculptor James Wehn created this meticulously researched bronze statue of Chief Sealth raising his right arm in greeting. Below the statue is a granite pedestal with two bronze bear head ornaments and a plaque reading "Seattle, Chief of the Suquamish, a firm friend of the whites, for whom the city of Seattle was named by its founders." Myrtle Loughery, Chief Sealth's great-great granddaughter, unveiled the finished sculpture on Founder's Day, November 13, 1912. Renovated in 1975, the Chief Sealth sculpture today presides over Tilikum Place, a park located in Northern Seattle.
  4. Planning can help to understand the different ways of looking at land
  5. Some views of land and how planning can help: Ground – place to survive This view of land is focussed solely on physical sustenance. It is less common now, but still occurs under extreme stress, such as for a child living on garbage heap in a South American barrios, or an African village devastated by AIDS, or someone who is homeless and wandering streets in North American due to poverty, addiction, or mental illness Good planning helps secure the resilience of a community Territory – place kinship This view of land reflects a relationship with a living being, as often conveyed in traditional teachings We have had the privilege on several occasions to sit a the feet of elders who wished to provide teachings on land When the elders tell a story of the land, listen carefully and make it part of the plan Property – place of possession This view of land looks at it as something that is “mine” Many communities have Certificates of Possession. Conflict can arise between them, and a good plan must help in their resolution However, Certificates of Possession are not necessary for a good plan. Example: Colette's community holds land in common, they have no CPs Inheritance – place of management This view of land sees it as a legacy that requires stewardship Anyone who deals with soil, wildlife, forests, etc. on regular basis feels that these must be managed well Many communities have Land Managers; they often seek plans that help bring order to the land under their care Real Estate -- place of ownership This view of land sees it as something to buy and sell This attitude often underlies business opportunities, and may motivate Fee Simple Purchases, or Additions to Reserve Potential investors may very likely view your land this way A good plan seeks opportunity without “selling out”. Ownership interests can be allowed without losing control of your land Earth – place of sharing This view of land sees it as something to be partaken of by all Many people now share this attitude and tourism in some communities is driven by those seeking this experience A community we work with has tourists show up every year because they are listed in a German guidebook; they have yet to fully benefit from this curiosity A good plan must be robust enough to cope with these expectations, but without being manipulated by outsiders QUESTIONS: What is YOUR experience of land? How many of these EXPERINCES of habitat have you had? How does it help shape and create your plan? How does it help the implementation of your plan? Source: Don Beck
  6. Land as a Natural Habitat is a home for plants & animals. Simple view of habitat: The bird lives in the tree; it eats the worm that lives in the soil, which has enough moisture to make the tree grow; which provides a home for the bird Source: “On the Edge: the Latest views from Andrés Duany”; video, Vancouver 2008
  7. Natural Habitats change over the landscape & over time; i.e., everything has a place Source: http://www.miami21.org/TheTransect.asp 22feb2012
  8. Land is also a Habitat for people; a home for them to live!
  9. Human activity changes over the landscape too, & over time – “Valley Plan” or section that depict traditional occupations Source: Patrick Geddes, 1905
  10. The PLANNING TRANSECT combines natural and human activity and applies it from rural landscapes through to urban streetscapes; is the basis for zoning. Natural Transect is a cross-section of a geographic region used to analyse differences in ecological zones; devised by Alexander Von Humboldt. Human Transect is a cross-section of a geographic region used to analyse differences in occupational zones; devised by Patrick Geddes. Planning Transect is a cross-section of a geographic region used to analyse differences in land-use zones; devised by Andrés Duany.
  11. Note: planning’s “Prime Directive” a la Star Trek : Talk to those your are planning for. Consultation with the community is vital to a plan’s success. It is less a step in the “Planning Cycle”, but is more a part of all the steps. It must, of course, be tailored to the community’s circumstances. Some methods are: Decide if household opinion is good enough (talk to fewer people), or personal opinion is needed (talk to everyone) Decide if opinion of each segment of community is needed (youth, middle aged, elders, etc.) Door-to-door visits Kitchen-table meetings of neighbours, friends, & family Special community meetings Get on the agenda of other community meetings Use community feast as occasion to briefly talk about community planning Community newsletter “Street corner” survey at prominent community facility or business Mail survey Mail out letter that tells people a survey will be mailed out to them soon; them mail out the survey Phone survey E-mail survey Internet survey, such as “Survey Monkey”, or post survey on community web site, perhaps combined with letter Social media; set up “facebook” page for community plan Conventional media: radio, TV, newspapers Offer prizes for participation Talk to opinion leaders first; people who will spread the word about the plan Use all methods available to you so that everyone has a chance to participate
  12. Open Sector: No Development; protected to various degrees, areas such as lakes, rivers, wetlands, forests, grasslands, hazard lands, floodplains, farmland, picturesque views, etc. that should be protected from development Growth Sector: Development; built to various degrees, areas with roads, infrastructure, buildings, etc. that should be used for development
  13. Conventional planning prohibits & allows development: NO & MAYBE Transect planning prohibits, allows, and encourages development: NO, MAYBE, & YES Actual Community example showing were development is encouraged, allowed, and prohibited This kind of certainty is attractive to inventors; they like to know what is on and off the table Tempting to stop here and call this a land-use plan, but there are several more important steps
  14. These settlement types are placed within the sector code listed, e.g., O1 or G2, etc.
  15. Large circle is original Village and is focus of existing civic and business uses and new infrastructure Small circles are subsequent Hamlets; dispersed development, occasional business or community use, more wasteful of land, harder to service QUESTION: Is there enough development in this community to create a Town? Is it desirable? Why?
  16. Conventional Zones separate uses, i.e., environmental, residential, institutional, commercial, industrial, etc. Zoning maps may have as many as 2 dozen zones. Once all uses are separated, it become very easy to waste land. It is the basis of suburban sprawl. Sprawl is linked to increasing health care costs, the recent global financial meltdown, and the emerging crisis over energy use and climate change Transect Zones integrate uses into appropriate mix of environmental, residential, institutional, commercial, industrial, etc. that vary across each settlement type, with various intensities, within each zone. It is a more respectful use of land, than simply catering to the needs of the automobile. It is a more effective and efficient use of land, and is linked to community resilience and health. Source: Smart Code
  17. Most communities don’t get big enough to become towns, but occasionally they do. Some communities exist right next to towns or may even be surrounded by them. QUESTION: how does this affect your planning? Source: Smart Code & Duany Plater-Zyberk & Company
  18. Handout: Transect Zones for Various Business Uses Source: Smart Code; Duany Plater-Zyberk & Company; Transect Map by Criterion Planners
  19. MDP First Nation initiatives: Land code development and ratification Additions to Reserve Internal & External Liaison Notification Protocol Stewardship Agreement Environmental Assessments Surveys and Mapping Land Use Plan Zone-specific Management Policies Development of Administrative procedures Community has faced many internal and external pressures. Some of this has been resolved by the land use and economic development activity of the First Nation. Some issues are still waiting to be resolved.