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Jit Kumar Gupta
Former Advisor( Town Planning), Punjab,
jit.kumar1944@gmail.com
Land- Introduction
Character, Role,
Importance,
availability
Land- Introduction
 Land--finite resource, most vital, critical,
valuable, unique gift of nature to mankind
 Land- creator/ sustainer- of vast range of flora/
fauna/ vegetation / eco-system
 Land- platform for human support system
 Land-- recognized, basic human necessity for
human livability/ productivity.
 Land -- supports entire super structure of human
settlements
 Land--Under which infrastructures find place
 Land-- a scarce commodity
 Land– occupies 29.20% of global area- 70.80 %
water.
 Land – as a resource in India-- under major stress-
2.48% area supporting 17.5% -- global population
 Besides agriculture, land required for:
 Housing
 Trade & Commerce
 Industry
 Education/ health care/ recreation/religious
 Open spaces
 Transportation Network-Roads/streets
 Infrastructures/ utilities/service network--
water/drainage/sanitation etc
 Growing population /Competing claims
require
 -- land must be used in most careful manner
 - land resource needs optimum utilization
Global Land-
Introduction
Character, Role,
Importance,
availability
Area under Entire World - 510,072,200 sqm - 100%
Area under Land -- 148,939,800 sqm __ 29.20%
Area Under Water -- 361,132,400 sqm -- 70.80
Land- Introduction
 Land- Introduction
 50% world’s habitable land -- used for agriculture
 Majority of world’s land- was wilderness: forests, grasslands , shrubbery
 During last few centuries -- wild habitats squeezed -- by turning it into agricultural land.
 1000 years, before-only 4 million square kilometers – less than 4% used for farming
 Half of all habitable land now used for agriculture- leaving only 37% for forests;
 10% of the world is covered by glaciers
 19% is barren land – deserts, dry salt flats, beaches, sand dunes, and exposed rocks
 11% as shrubs and grasslands; -- 1% as freshwater coverage;
 1% built-up urban area--cities, towns, villages, roads /human infrastructure.
 Unequal distribution of land- used between livestock /crops for human consumption.
 77% farming land.--producing only 18% of world’s calories and 37% total protein.
 Expanding agriculture one of humanity’s largest impacts on the environment.
 transformed habitats --one of the greatest pressures for biodiversity:
 28,000 species to become extinction on the IUCN Red List, agriculture is listed as a threat for 24,000
of them.
 For Reducing these impacts– change dietary changes,- substitute meat with plant/ technology .
 Crop yields increased - sparing land from agricultural production: globally- to produce same
amount of crops as in 1961-- need only 30% of farmland.
 Supported by consumers /producers- opportunity to restore farmland to forests/ natural habitats.--
-https://ourworldindata.org/land-us
Land-
-India
State of Haryana
India seventh-largest country in world,-- with area of 3,287,263
square kilometres (1,269,219 sq mi)-- measures 3,214 km from
north to south and 2,933 km from east to west-- land frontier of
15,200 km and a coastline of 7,516.6 km (4,671 mi).
 1st March, 2011-population of Haryana– 2,53,51,462 – Ranked 18th
in country
 Area -- 44212 Km 2-- ranked 21st in area in India
 1,65,09,359 resided in 6,848 villages –88,42,103- in 154
urban centres- 22 districts
 Level of Urbanization--34.48% (India- 31.1%.)
 Haryana- 1.375% of geographical area- housing 2.1%
population
 During last 100 years( 1911-2011)
 -State population increased merely by 6 times (4.2 to
 25.35 million),Urban population multiplied more than 19.4
times (0.45 to 8.84 million),Level of Urbanization grew merely
- 3 times ( 10.37% to 34.48%)
 Projections-29.3 million( 2021), -State projected to add 40
lakh person during 2011-21& @ 4 lakh persons/annum
 State needs a roadmap to ensure availability of land for--
 -- urban development --making provision of shelter--Traffic
and Transportation - Open spaces -- infrastructure -- ensuring
quality of life-- both existing / future residents.
 Famous American humorist / writer, Mark Twain said:
 ‘Buy land, they’re not making it any more.’
 Quote holds great meaning for India,
 particularly for agrarian state of Haryana--
 -- where farming-- is a way of life
 - 86% land in arable Providing sustenance to 66 % of
state population.
 For large rural families--- land represents:
 -- a fundamental asset:
 -- Primary source of income,
 -- security and status.
 -- Major cause of crime / dispute
 Land availability in Haryana/person—1744 sqm(2011 )
 --state suffers from low land- man ratio
 -- with 44212 sqm—1.375 % area
 -- supporting 25.35 m--2.1 % of country population(2011).

Land-
Management
 Land management is the process of;
 -- managing use /development of land resources
 - in both --Urban and Rural setting
 -in a most effective/ efficient , just, fair manner .
 - land used for a variety of purposes including -- Human settlements,
Urban/infrastructure development-social/physical; agriculture, reforestation,
water resource management and eco-tourism projects
 Land management have positive /negative effects on
 -- Ecology/ ecosystems.
 -- when over-/ misused
 -- can degrade /reduce productivity and
 - disrupt natural equilibriums
 Land management— Important-- needs to be made just /fair for all citizens
--People not having formal ownership of land
-- remain vulnerability,-- can't get a loan
-- can't develop land and -- can't get legal/ technical support activities— for
better land management
 land now treated as a commodity-- like any other,
 -- dramatically reducing its social /cultural value.
 --Commodification of land promoted increased inequality
 -- led to social, economic/political issues/problems
Land-Issues
 Demand for Land increasing rapidly due to;
 -Ever Increasing populations
 -Rapid/Massive Urbanization
 --Increased Migration- Globalisation – Industrialisation
 - Increased demand for Housing/ built environment
 - --High prevailing prices- making unaffordable to many.
 - Unable to meet needs of low-income migrants / indigenous
urban populations.
 Low availability/high cost of legally developed land-
Increased Slums/Squatter Colonies
 - Challenges greatest in urban/peri-urban areas- involving
 -- Security of tenure-- Regulatory barriers
 - Land use planning
 --Political economy of land
 - Cumbersome procedure/processes to secure approvals for planned
development/colonies
 Cumbersome procedures for securing approvals
 Irrational Planning norms and standards- Planning tools
 Haphazard urban development–- failure to supply of --
approved/legal serviced land in right quantum at right place/at
right time/ at right price & to right people
 Large Mismatch between -- demand and supply of serviced land
 Irrational approach to urban planning- Master Plans- time consuming-
resource inefficient
 Large urban area- under vacant plots/agriculture
 Large existing vacancies in plotted development
 Irrational Building bye-laws- low density/low FAR
 High land cost/Speculation-- becoming irrational, excessive
/unaffordable..
 - Irrational Urban development –due to operational inefficiency of
urban land market leading to--
 - out-pricing of urban poor from land market-speculation
 --failure to make available adequate serviced land - leading to
slums
 --Land becoming sector for investment for surplus money
 Monopoly of Parastatal Agencies;- large ownership of land;
limited resources, restricted supply of land, emergence of parallel land
market, high land prices, inefficient land market--- need redefining role
 Limited Role of Private Sector; inefficient land market, limited
role in land market, high land prices, unclear titles, poor land record,
long drawn litigations, needs re-definition
 Restricting Development Controls; Restrictions imposed by
Master Plans, Development Plans, Development controls and building
by-laws -- greatest hindrance in sourcing land -- need rationalization
 Irrational Legal Framework; Right to Fair Compensation and
Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act,
2013– made land acquisition difficult, expensive, cumbersome
 Limited Supply of Serviced Land; limited release of land parcels,
auction, reserve price fixation, irrational targeting of poor beneficiaries
 Absence of Urban Land Record in public domain;-absence of
proper land record, correct area, ownership status, encumbrances ,
mortgage status-- land needs digitisation, record put in public domain
Options for
Land
Management
 Land Information System --Creating an effective , Efficient,
transparent, user-friendly Land Information System
 Land Use Policy– Evolving a comprehensive land use policy-
national/state/district/local level
 Legal Framework- Creating a simple, uniform legal code related
to land ownership/transfer of land etc.
 Change of Land use – Evolving guidelines, norms & standards for
granting change of land use from one use to other- agriculture-
non-agriculture
 Town Planning–Preparing detailed methodology, Guidelines,
norms& standards for defining planning area/controlled area,
preparing Master Plans/Development Plans/Zoning Plans/ Layout
plans/
 Planning Norms-- Reviewing / revising/ redefining -planning norms
and standards for amenities/services, densities etc
 Using Technologies- for making land related system more
efficient/ rationalizing Revenue system- Land Consolidation etc
 Defining Municipal Boundaries- defining principles, guidelines
 Land Records – Past History
Rulers of State entitled to part of produce of land from those who use it
 as price for protection of their life / property/ meet common expenses
 led to concept of collection of revenue
 -- that necessitated maintenance of land records,
 ‘Arthsastra’- first Indian work to mention- village officers - “gopa” whose
 duties include preparing registers for village field/ transfers, due taxes etc.
 First Attempt to reform system made by Sher Shah-- land was categorized/ measured
/schedule of crop rates fixed.
 further developed during regime of Akbar,
 Raja Todar Mal, fixed-- cash rates on rational basis.Evolved Elaborate Methods/
determining average produce of each class of land /for commuting grain rates into
money rates.
 settlement widely resembled system – Britishers used--, during 1822, including detailed
surveys / regulations.
 The principal records being maintained are;
 -- (1) Village map: A pictorial form showing village/field boundaries;
 (2) Field books or ‘khasra’ -- an index to map- showing changes in field boundaries/
area/ particulars of tenure-holders/methods of Irrigation/ cropped area, other uses of
land
 (3) Records of Right-- known as ‘khatouni’, --in which names /classes of tenure of all
occupants of land are recorded.
 Land Information management
Land information needs carefully management to;
 Maximise potential benefits of land
 Provide land related information comprehensively
 Effective management of land
 Mimnimise lnd speculation
 Make land market more efficient and efficient
 Facilitate sourcing of land at appropriate price
Computerisation of Land Records:--Benefits of computerised system includes
 -- certainty of ownership,
 - security of data,
 -reduction in land disputes,
 --improved conveyancing,
 --facilitating implementation of land reforms programmes,
 -- better management of land,
 -- improvements in planning land related development programmes,
 -- support for land resource management,
 -- facilitating issue of copy of record of rights (ROR) to owner
 -- making data available in a compact/readable form at any time.
 -- reducing time lag in effecting mutations in field/ registers to permissible
 -- reducing the gap in the level of up-dation of data in records / associated maps
 -- maps can be plotted instantaneously through high speed plotters,
 -- extracting all registers - maintained mandatorily through computers.
 -- integrating land records data/associated map data --through information
technology.
Making Cities Compact;
 For Minimising land to be used for urbanization
 Preparing master plans/development plans-to make
cities compact- cities of short distances
 --involving minimum use of land.
 --Promoting pedestrianisation
 -- Involving mixed land uses.
 -- planned/designed /developed
 --as a vertical / inward looking city.
 -- walk-able city- involving Transit Oriented Development
 - promoting high density development
 providing large built up area using minimum land
 - Redefining planning norms and standards for public
amenities/ education/play areas/institutions/healthcare
Options for
Sourcing Land
for Urban
Development
 Basic Approach-For planned development of cities/ towns;
 Taking a holistic / multi-pronged approach
 Making optimum use of existing urban land
 Sourcing minimum agricultural land for urban development
 Making land market efficient / sensitive to demand- creating land banks/
granting time bound approvals
 Rationalizing land prices- bridging gap between demand and supply
 Minimising land speculation. -- imposing tax on vacant lands
 Making provision of basic amenities/services/ /infrastructure --- on re-
defined norms / standards.
 Rationalizing land related policies- Changing land ownership pattern
 Ending monopoly of prastatal agencies- in land assembly/ development
 Sourcing land -- joint activity of public sector/private sector /
cooperative sector
 Protecting lower income groups.
 Promoting optimum utilization of public / private urban land
 Diverting vacant urban land into market.
 Creating automated/ cadastral land titling system/digitizing land record
 Creating a supportive /enabling policy and legal framework
 Options for sourcing land for urban development
include;
 Compulsory Acquisition of land
 Purchasing land by Negotiation from landowners
 Bartering Raw land with Developed Land/Land Exchange
 Land Pooling and Land Distribution
 Granting License to private Colonies
 Optimum Utilisation of existing urban Land- OUVGL
 -- Using Vacant Government Land
 --- Recycling derelict land .
 Transfer of Development Rights
 Accommodation Reservation
 Redefining Floor Area Ratio/Height
 Promoting flatted development against plotted
development
 Redefining planning tools/planning process
 Using Land 24X7
 Compulsory Acquisition of land- Least preferred
mode—under-Right to Fair Compensation and
Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and
Resettlement Act, 2013
 --difficult and time consuming process
 -- expensive -- compensation at higher rate
 --involving rehabilitation and
 -- resettlement of land owners.
 -- lack of resources with parastatal agencies
 -- liabilities incurred on perpetual basis
 -- opposed by landowners
 -- long drawn litigation between landowners/Acquiring
agencies
 -- Used as a last resort
 Purchasing land by Negotiation from landowners-
Involving Private Sector—
 - Land sourced by developers from landowner
 --at a negotiated price.
 -- used for planning /developing colonies-Residential--
plotted/flatted-- commercial, industrial
 - under Haryana Urban Area Act/Pb Scheduled Roads ,
controlled area Act,
 -- Considerable amount of land brought under development
 -- Development of colonies impacted by prevailing high land
prices/ lack of land related data
 -Colonies mostly localized in/around large urban centres
 -Least impact to make land market efficient
 --Large un-serviced peri-urban/rural lands put to urban use-
 - Need to redefine scope and approach- by confining to
urban limits only
Regenerating Private land;
 - Large chunks of corporate /private lands locked
in inefficient uses-
 -closed industries/offices/Institutions
 --land to be brought into urban market for
meeting land requirement for
 --shelter, infrastructure, institutions, trade &
commerce, creating open spaces
 -- State to incentivize such development by--
 --granting permission for change of landuse
 -- granting approvals on time bound basis
 -- Promoting joint ventures for stressed land
parcels
Optimum Utilization of Vacant Government
Lands( OUVGL);
 State/central/ULGs/ parastatal agencies-- biggest
landholders of most valuable land parcels in urban
areas--Chennai --30 %,Ahmadabad-32% -world bank
 Punjab Govt launched OUVGL scheme-- for bringing
government land in urban market
 Scheme made not much headway due to -
 -Reluctance by departments to part with land
 --cumbersome approval/ development process
 Scheme – to be made more effective /efficient
 Vesting Land Ownership with state government/not
individual departments
 - creating inventory for such lands
 Carrying out detailed analysis of available land
 Carrying out development on time bound basis.
.
Taxing Vacant Urban Land;
•Land Speculation-- gaining enormous currency.
• Large quantity of urban land remains locked /
unused
• Few cities –
•-- have > 25-30% of urban land lying unused.
• - Even agriculture practiced within urban limits
• Available Urban land-needs to be brought into
market
•--to make optimum use of urban land&
•Minimizing land speculation
• by imposing extension fee/taxes on vacant plots.
• --Permitting sale of individual floors on plotted
development to make full use of buildable area
 Land Pooling and Plot Reconstitution Schemes;
 -- Best option for sourcing land for urban purposes
 -- aptly called, ‘Urban development without Tears
 --universal application for sourcing land
 -- distinct advantage over land acquisition
-- more equitable; efficient/sustainable self-financing
 makes land for infrastructure available without cost;
 treats landowner- partners in urban development
 eliminates cumbersome process of land acquisition.
 -- landowner retaining majority of land
 -- getting much higher returns
 - scheme generates resources for urban local body
 -- enables planned urban expansion.
 -- works best in medium/metro areas
 Land Pooling and Plot Reconstitution Schemes;
 Pre- Requisite for successful implementation of
scheme---- supported by state/ ulb/land owners/
public/ private/stakeholders;
 -- creating proper and supportive legal framework with
 -- rules, regulations/guidelines to ensure fairness
 -- designating agency at local level --with powers
/authority for coordination/ assistance from deptt;
 creating efficient/accurate system of land
registration
 -Having skilled/ dedicated professionals/negotiators
 availability of objective/ well-trained land valuers ;
 framing scheme on time bound basis;
 Creating adequate checks/ balances for transparency
in scheme formulation / valuation.
 Rationalising Building Bye-Laws/Dev. Controls;
 Urban land Utilization hindered by irrational
building bye-laws/ development controls, -
creating Restrictions on use/developing land
 For improving utility of land—
 --maximum plot sizes restricted ;
 -- land use patterns clearly defined
 -promoting mixed land use/ leveraging flatted
development instead of plotted development
 - Rationalising floor area ratio, ground coverage,
setbacks- to make cities compact
 -Promoting vertical expansion, -- Redefining Building
bye-laws /development controls-
 Adopting principle of--Limited Land – unlimited space
 Land pooling by Land Bartering;
 For making land owners partners in urban development -- state
notified land pooling scheme-- alternative to compulsory
acquisition
 Instead of paying compensation in cash-- landowner given
developed residential / commercial plots -depending on land
surrendered
 For agricultural land/ acre-- farmer given-- residential plot of
1000 Sqyds and commercial plot of SCO of 18feet x 40 feet.
 Looking at intent/content - misnomer to call it land pooling
 Barter system-- where raw land exchanged for developed land
 Scheme popular in large cities--where prevailing land prices
high- farmers hope to get higher value of land
 Success of scheme contingent on-- credibility of authority
 -- time frame in which plots allotted / place where allotted.
 --Authority having ready developed land
 -- acceptable to landowners.
 Densification and Intensification
 Transit Oriented Development
 Inclusionary Zoning
 Mixed Use Development
 Green Field Development
 Brown Field Development
Amravati
Land Pooling
Scheme;
 Amravati Land Pooling Scheme;
 -- Amravati-new capital city of AP,
 -- planned for3.5 mllion population ,
 -- spread over217 sqkm
 -- to be built through Land Pooling Scheme,
 --without resorting to compulsory land acquisition
 --Enacted ,AP Capital Region Development Act 2014’
 -- making provision of Land Pooling Scheme.
 - a voluntary land procurement mechanism
 Landowners direct beneficiaries/partners in development
 land assembled under irrevocable voluntary consents
 -planned parcels--developed /partly returned to owners.
 Compensation –depending upon-- land quality /quantity/
cropping pattern
 Amravati Land Pooling Scheme; Double-cropped land—
 1000 syds of residential land & 200 syds of commercial land /
acre of land pooled
 Annuity (paid monthly) starting at Rs 30,000 per year
 -- increasing by Rs 3,000 annually for 10 years
-- Triple-cropped land
 --1000 syds of residential land & 450 syds of commercial land/
acre pooled
 --annuity starting at Rs 50,000 per year,
 -- increasing by Rs 5,000 annually for a decade.
 --After 10 years-- city expected to be fully developed
 -- all farmers to become city landlords, workers/ businessmen.
 Government to utilize its share of Amravati land
 to develop infrastructure/amenities - capital complex.
 scheme involves--- reconstitute land, develop infrastructure/
handing possession of developed land to owners within 2.5 years
Delhi
Development
Authority- Land
Pooling Scheme;
 Delhi Land Pooling Scheme;
 For meeting demand of land-- rapid population growth,
 -- DDA framed-- Land pooling Scheme --to source land from land
owners
 without compulsory acquisition/ paying any cash compensation
 Scheme based on principle of --
 land owners to share part of land with DDA
 in lieu of getting permission for development
/ selling in market.
 dividing landowners into; Small land holders
 holding between 2-20 hect
 -- large land owners having land above 20 Hec
 -- Small land owner returned 40% of land
 -- whereas large landowner gets 60% of the land
 Development conditions provide –
 ---pattern for land development based on
DDA–LAND POOLINGPOLICY
Mumbai-
Model of
sourcing land
Transfer of Development Rights(TDR)-
 -- Sourcing land for developing urban roads
 -- defined in master plans/development plans.
 --Development Rights given in lieu of compensation
 -- not in cash but in kind
Accommodation Reservation(AR)-
 --Sourcing land for public amenities
 -- dispensaries ,police-post, community centres,
convenient shopping-- defined in development plans
 Development Rights given –as compensation for land
Air Space Development Rights-
 for intensive utilization of land --creating built up space
over the public transportation network etc
Land Management and sourcing land for sustainable Urban Development.
Land Management and sourcing land for sustainable Urban Development.
Land Management and sourcing land for sustainable Urban Development.
Land Management and sourcing land for sustainable Urban Development.
Land Management and sourcing land for sustainable Urban Development.
Land Management and sourcing land for sustainable Urban Development.

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Land Management and sourcing land for sustainable Urban Development.

  • 1. Jit Kumar Gupta Former Advisor( Town Planning), Punjab, jit.kumar1944@gmail.com
  • 3. Land- Introduction  Land--finite resource, most vital, critical, valuable, unique gift of nature to mankind  Land- creator/ sustainer- of vast range of flora/ fauna/ vegetation / eco-system  Land- platform for human support system  Land-- recognized, basic human necessity for human livability/ productivity.  Land -- supports entire super structure of human settlements  Land--Under which infrastructures find place  Land-- a scarce commodity  Land– occupies 29.20% of global area- 70.80 % water.  Land – as a resource in India-- under major stress- 2.48% area supporting 17.5% -- global population
  • 4.  Besides agriculture, land required for:  Housing  Trade & Commerce  Industry  Education/ health care/ recreation/religious  Open spaces  Transportation Network-Roads/streets  Infrastructures/ utilities/service network-- water/drainage/sanitation etc  Growing population /Competing claims require  -- land must be used in most careful manner  - land resource needs optimum utilization
  • 5. Global Land- Introduction Character, Role, Importance, availability Area under Entire World - 510,072,200 sqm - 100% Area under Land -- 148,939,800 sqm __ 29.20% Area Under Water -- 361,132,400 sqm -- 70.80
  • 7.
  • 8.  Land- Introduction  50% world’s habitable land -- used for agriculture  Majority of world’s land- was wilderness: forests, grasslands , shrubbery  During last few centuries -- wild habitats squeezed -- by turning it into agricultural land.  1000 years, before-only 4 million square kilometers – less than 4% used for farming  Half of all habitable land now used for agriculture- leaving only 37% for forests;  10% of the world is covered by glaciers  19% is barren land – deserts, dry salt flats, beaches, sand dunes, and exposed rocks  11% as shrubs and grasslands; -- 1% as freshwater coverage;  1% built-up urban area--cities, towns, villages, roads /human infrastructure.  Unequal distribution of land- used between livestock /crops for human consumption.  77% farming land.--producing only 18% of world’s calories and 37% total protein.  Expanding agriculture one of humanity’s largest impacts on the environment.  transformed habitats --one of the greatest pressures for biodiversity:  28,000 species to become extinction on the IUCN Red List, agriculture is listed as a threat for 24,000 of them.  For Reducing these impacts– change dietary changes,- substitute meat with plant/ technology .  Crop yields increased - sparing land from agricultural production: globally- to produce same amount of crops as in 1961-- need only 30% of farmland.  Supported by consumers /producers- opportunity to restore farmland to forests/ natural habitats.-- -https://ourworldindata.org/land-us
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  • 12. India seventh-largest country in world,-- with area of 3,287,263 square kilometres (1,269,219 sq mi)-- measures 3,214 km from north to south and 2,933 km from east to west-- land frontier of 15,200 km and a coastline of 7,516.6 km (4,671 mi).
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  • 14.  1st March, 2011-population of Haryana– 2,53,51,462 – Ranked 18th in country  Area -- 44212 Km 2-- ranked 21st in area in India  1,65,09,359 resided in 6,848 villages –88,42,103- in 154 urban centres- 22 districts  Level of Urbanization--34.48% (India- 31.1%.)  Haryana- 1.375% of geographical area- housing 2.1% population  During last 100 years( 1911-2011)  -State population increased merely by 6 times (4.2 to  25.35 million),Urban population multiplied more than 19.4 times (0.45 to 8.84 million),Level of Urbanization grew merely - 3 times ( 10.37% to 34.48%)  Projections-29.3 million( 2021), -State projected to add 40 lakh person during 2011-21& @ 4 lakh persons/annum  State needs a roadmap to ensure availability of land for--  -- urban development --making provision of shelter--Traffic and Transportation - Open spaces -- infrastructure -- ensuring quality of life-- both existing / future residents.
  • 15.  Famous American humorist / writer, Mark Twain said:  ‘Buy land, they’re not making it any more.’  Quote holds great meaning for India,  particularly for agrarian state of Haryana--  -- where farming-- is a way of life  - 86% land in arable Providing sustenance to 66 % of state population.  For large rural families--- land represents:  -- a fundamental asset:  -- Primary source of income,  -- security and status.  -- Major cause of crime / dispute  Land availability in Haryana/person—1744 sqm(2011 )  --state suffers from low land- man ratio  -- with 44212 sqm—1.375 % area  -- supporting 25.35 m--2.1 % of country population(2011). 
  • 17.  Land management is the process of;  -- managing use /development of land resources  - in both --Urban and Rural setting  -in a most effective/ efficient , just, fair manner .  - land used for a variety of purposes including -- Human settlements, Urban/infrastructure development-social/physical; agriculture, reforestation, water resource management and eco-tourism projects  Land management have positive /negative effects on  -- Ecology/ ecosystems.  -- when over-/ misused  -- can degrade /reduce productivity and  - disrupt natural equilibriums  Land management— Important-- needs to be made just /fair for all citizens --People not having formal ownership of land -- remain vulnerability,-- can't get a loan -- can't develop land and -- can't get legal/ technical support activities— for better land management  land now treated as a commodity-- like any other,  -- dramatically reducing its social /cultural value.  --Commodification of land promoted increased inequality  -- led to social, economic/political issues/problems
  • 19.  Demand for Land increasing rapidly due to;  -Ever Increasing populations  -Rapid/Massive Urbanization  --Increased Migration- Globalisation – Industrialisation  - Increased demand for Housing/ built environment  - --High prevailing prices- making unaffordable to many.  - Unable to meet needs of low-income migrants / indigenous urban populations.  Low availability/high cost of legally developed land- Increased Slums/Squatter Colonies  - Challenges greatest in urban/peri-urban areas- involving  -- Security of tenure-- Regulatory barriers  - Land use planning  --Political economy of land
  • 20.  - Cumbersome procedure/processes to secure approvals for planned development/colonies  Cumbersome procedures for securing approvals  Irrational Planning norms and standards- Planning tools  Haphazard urban development–- failure to supply of -- approved/legal serviced land in right quantum at right place/at right time/ at right price & to right people  Large Mismatch between -- demand and supply of serviced land  Irrational approach to urban planning- Master Plans- time consuming- resource inefficient  Large urban area- under vacant plots/agriculture  Large existing vacancies in plotted development  Irrational Building bye-laws- low density/low FAR  High land cost/Speculation-- becoming irrational, excessive /unaffordable..  - Irrational Urban development –due to operational inefficiency of urban land market leading to--  - out-pricing of urban poor from land market-speculation  --failure to make available adequate serviced land - leading to slums  --Land becoming sector for investment for surplus money
  • 21.  Monopoly of Parastatal Agencies;- large ownership of land; limited resources, restricted supply of land, emergence of parallel land market, high land prices, inefficient land market--- need redefining role  Limited Role of Private Sector; inefficient land market, limited role in land market, high land prices, unclear titles, poor land record, long drawn litigations, needs re-definition  Restricting Development Controls; Restrictions imposed by Master Plans, Development Plans, Development controls and building by-laws -- greatest hindrance in sourcing land -- need rationalization  Irrational Legal Framework; Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013– made land acquisition difficult, expensive, cumbersome  Limited Supply of Serviced Land; limited release of land parcels, auction, reserve price fixation, irrational targeting of poor beneficiaries  Absence of Urban Land Record in public domain;-absence of proper land record, correct area, ownership status, encumbrances , mortgage status-- land needs digitisation, record put in public domain
  • 23.  Land Information System --Creating an effective , Efficient, transparent, user-friendly Land Information System  Land Use Policy– Evolving a comprehensive land use policy- national/state/district/local level  Legal Framework- Creating a simple, uniform legal code related to land ownership/transfer of land etc.  Change of Land use – Evolving guidelines, norms & standards for granting change of land use from one use to other- agriculture- non-agriculture  Town Planning–Preparing detailed methodology, Guidelines, norms& standards for defining planning area/controlled area, preparing Master Plans/Development Plans/Zoning Plans/ Layout plans/  Planning Norms-- Reviewing / revising/ redefining -planning norms and standards for amenities/services, densities etc  Using Technologies- for making land related system more efficient/ rationalizing Revenue system- Land Consolidation etc  Defining Municipal Boundaries- defining principles, guidelines
  • 24.  Land Records – Past History Rulers of State entitled to part of produce of land from those who use it  as price for protection of their life / property/ meet common expenses  led to concept of collection of revenue  -- that necessitated maintenance of land records,  ‘Arthsastra’- first Indian work to mention- village officers - “gopa” whose  duties include preparing registers for village field/ transfers, due taxes etc.  First Attempt to reform system made by Sher Shah-- land was categorized/ measured /schedule of crop rates fixed.  further developed during regime of Akbar,  Raja Todar Mal, fixed-- cash rates on rational basis.Evolved Elaborate Methods/ determining average produce of each class of land /for commuting grain rates into money rates.  settlement widely resembled system – Britishers used--, during 1822, including detailed surveys / regulations.  The principal records being maintained are;  -- (1) Village map: A pictorial form showing village/field boundaries;  (2) Field books or ‘khasra’ -- an index to map- showing changes in field boundaries/ area/ particulars of tenure-holders/methods of Irrigation/ cropped area, other uses of land  (3) Records of Right-- known as ‘khatouni’, --in which names /classes of tenure of all occupants of land are recorded.
  • 25.  Land Information management Land information needs carefully management to;  Maximise potential benefits of land  Provide land related information comprehensively  Effective management of land  Mimnimise lnd speculation  Make land market more efficient and efficient  Facilitate sourcing of land at appropriate price
  • 26. Computerisation of Land Records:--Benefits of computerised system includes  -- certainty of ownership,  - security of data,  -reduction in land disputes,  --improved conveyancing,  --facilitating implementation of land reforms programmes,  -- better management of land,  -- improvements in planning land related development programmes,  -- support for land resource management,  -- facilitating issue of copy of record of rights (ROR) to owner  -- making data available in a compact/readable form at any time.  -- reducing time lag in effecting mutations in field/ registers to permissible  -- reducing the gap in the level of up-dation of data in records / associated maps  -- maps can be plotted instantaneously through high speed plotters,  -- extracting all registers - maintained mandatorily through computers.  -- integrating land records data/associated map data --through information technology.
  • 27. Making Cities Compact;  For Minimising land to be used for urbanization  Preparing master plans/development plans-to make cities compact- cities of short distances  --involving minimum use of land.  --Promoting pedestrianisation  -- Involving mixed land uses.  -- planned/designed /developed  --as a vertical / inward looking city.  -- walk-able city- involving Transit Oriented Development  - promoting high density development  providing large built up area using minimum land  - Redefining planning norms and standards for public amenities/ education/play areas/institutions/healthcare
  • 28. Options for Sourcing Land for Urban Development
  • 29.  Basic Approach-For planned development of cities/ towns;  Taking a holistic / multi-pronged approach  Making optimum use of existing urban land  Sourcing minimum agricultural land for urban development  Making land market efficient / sensitive to demand- creating land banks/ granting time bound approvals  Rationalizing land prices- bridging gap between demand and supply  Minimising land speculation. -- imposing tax on vacant lands  Making provision of basic amenities/services/ /infrastructure --- on re- defined norms / standards.  Rationalizing land related policies- Changing land ownership pattern  Ending monopoly of prastatal agencies- in land assembly/ development  Sourcing land -- joint activity of public sector/private sector / cooperative sector  Protecting lower income groups.  Promoting optimum utilization of public / private urban land  Diverting vacant urban land into market.  Creating automated/ cadastral land titling system/digitizing land record  Creating a supportive /enabling policy and legal framework
  • 30.  Options for sourcing land for urban development include;  Compulsory Acquisition of land  Purchasing land by Negotiation from landowners  Bartering Raw land with Developed Land/Land Exchange  Land Pooling and Land Distribution  Granting License to private Colonies  Optimum Utilisation of existing urban Land- OUVGL  -- Using Vacant Government Land  --- Recycling derelict land .  Transfer of Development Rights  Accommodation Reservation  Redefining Floor Area Ratio/Height  Promoting flatted development against plotted development  Redefining planning tools/planning process  Using Land 24X7
  • 31.  Compulsory Acquisition of land- Least preferred mode—under-Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013  --difficult and time consuming process  -- expensive -- compensation at higher rate  --involving rehabilitation and  -- resettlement of land owners.  -- lack of resources with parastatal agencies  -- liabilities incurred on perpetual basis  -- opposed by landowners  -- long drawn litigation between landowners/Acquiring agencies  -- Used as a last resort
  • 32.  Purchasing land by Negotiation from landowners- Involving Private Sector—  - Land sourced by developers from landowner  --at a negotiated price.  -- used for planning /developing colonies-Residential-- plotted/flatted-- commercial, industrial  - under Haryana Urban Area Act/Pb Scheduled Roads , controlled area Act,  -- Considerable amount of land brought under development  -- Development of colonies impacted by prevailing high land prices/ lack of land related data  -Colonies mostly localized in/around large urban centres  -Least impact to make land market efficient  --Large un-serviced peri-urban/rural lands put to urban use-  - Need to redefine scope and approach- by confining to urban limits only
  • 33. Regenerating Private land;  - Large chunks of corporate /private lands locked in inefficient uses-  -closed industries/offices/Institutions  --land to be brought into urban market for meeting land requirement for  --shelter, infrastructure, institutions, trade & commerce, creating open spaces  -- State to incentivize such development by--  --granting permission for change of landuse  -- granting approvals on time bound basis  -- Promoting joint ventures for stressed land parcels
  • 34. Optimum Utilization of Vacant Government Lands( OUVGL);  State/central/ULGs/ parastatal agencies-- biggest landholders of most valuable land parcels in urban areas--Chennai --30 %,Ahmadabad-32% -world bank  Punjab Govt launched OUVGL scheme-- for bringing government land in urban market  Scheme made not much headway due to -  -Reluctance by departments to part with land  --cumbersome approval/ development process  Scheme – to be made more effective /efficient  Vesting Land Ownership with state government/not individual departments  - creating inventory for such lands  Carrying out detailed analysis of available land  Carrying out development on time bound basis.
  • 35. . Taxing Vacant Urban Land; •Land Speculation-- gaining enormous currency. • Large quantity of urban land remains locked / unused • Few cities – •-- have > 25-30% of urban land lying unused. • - Even agriculture practiced within urban limits • Available Urban land-needs to be brought into market •--to make optimum use of urban land& •Minimizing land speculation • by imposing extension fee/taxes on vacant plots. • --Permitting sale of individual floors on plotted development to make full use of buildable area
  • 36.  Land Pooling and Plot Reconstitution Schemes;  -- Best option for sourcing land for urban purposes  -- aptly called, ‘Urban development without Tears  --universal application for sourcing land  -- distinct advantage over land acquisition -- more equitable; efficient/sustainable self-financing  makes land for infrastructure available without cost;  treats landowner- partners in urban development  eliminates cumbersome process of land acquisition.  -- landowner retaining majority of land  -- getting much higher returns  - scheme generates resources for urban local body  -- enables planned urban expansion.  -- works best in medium/metro areas
  • 37.  Land Pooling and Plot Reconstitution Schemes;  Pre- Requisite for successful implementation of scheme---- supported by state/ ulb/land owners/ public/ private/stakeholders;  -- creating proper and supportive legal framework with  -- rules, regulations/guidelines to ensure fairness  -- designating agency at local level --with powers /authority for coordination/ assistance from deptt;  creating efficient/accurate system of land registration  -Having skilled/ dedicated professionals/negotiators  availability of objective/ well-trained land valuers ;  framing scheme on time bound basis;  Creating adequate checks/ balances for transparency in scheme formulation / valuation.
  • 38.
  • 39.  Rationalising Building Bye-Laws/Dev. Controls;  Urban land Utilization hindered by irrational building bye-laws/ development controls, - creating Restrictions on use/developing land  For improving utility of land—  --maximum plot sizes restricted ;  -- land use patterns clearly defined  -promoting mixed land use/ leveraging flatted development instead of plotted development  - Rationalising floor area ratio, ground coverage, setbacks- to make cities compact  -Promoting vertical expansion, -- Redefining Building bye-laws /development controls-  Adopting principle of--Limited Land – unlimited space
  • 40.  Land pooling by Land Bartering;  For making land owners partners in urban development -- state notified land pooling scheme-- alternative to compulsory acquisition  Instead of paying compensation in cash-- landowner given developed residential / commercial plots -depending on land surrendered  For agricultural land/ acre-- farmer given-- residential plot of 1000 Sqyds and commercial plot of SCO of 18feet x 40 feet.  Looking at intent/content - misnomer to call it land pooling  Barter system-- where raw land exchanged for developed land  Scheme popular in large cities--where prevailing land prices high- farmers hope to get higher value of land  Success of scheme contingent on-- credibility of authority  -- time frame in which plots allotted / place where allotted.  --Authority having ready developed land  -- acceptable to landowners.
  • 41.  Densification and Intensification  Transit Oriented Development  Inclusionary Zoning  Mixed Use Development  Green Field Development  Brown Field Development
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  • 50.  Amravati Land Pooling Scheme;  -- Amravati-new capital city of AP,  -- planned for3.5 mllion population ,  -- spread over217 sqkm  -- to be built through Land Pooling Scheme,  --without resorting to compulsory land acquisition  --Enacted ,AP Capital Region Development Act 2014’  -- making provision of Land Pooling Scheme.  - a voluntary land procurement mechanism  Landowners direct beneficiaries/partners in development  land assembled under irrevocable voluntary consents  -planned parcels--developed /partly returned to owners.  Compensation –depending upon-- land quality /quantity/ cropping pattern
  • 51.  Amravati Land Pooling Scheme; Double-cropped land—  1000 syds of residential land & 200 syds of commercial land / acre of land pooled  Annuity (paid monthly) starting at Rs 30,000 per year  -- increasing by Rs 3,000 annually for 10 years -- Triple-cropped land  --1000 syds of residential land & 450 syds of commercial land/ acre pooled  --annuity starting at Rs 50,000 per year,  -- increasing by Rs 5,000 annually for a decade.  --After 10 years-- city expected to be fully developed  -- all farmers to become city landlords, workers/ businessmen.  Government to utilize its share of Amravati land  to develop infrastructure/amenities - capital complex.  scheme involves--- reconstitute land, develop infrastructure/ handing possession of developed land to owners within 2.5 years
  • 53.  Delhi Land Pooling Scheme;  For meeting demand of land-- rapid population growth,  -- DDA framed-- Land pooling Scheme --to source land from land owners  without compulsory acquisition/ paying any cash compensation  Scheme based on principle of --  land owners to share part of land with DDA  in lieu of getting permission for development / selling in market.  dividing landowners into; Small land holders  holding between 2-20 hect  -- large land owners having land above 20 Hec  -- Small land owner returned 40% of land  -- whereas large landowner gets 60% of the land  Development conditions provide –  ---pattern for land development based on DDA–LAND POOLINGPOLICY
  • 55. Transfer of Development Rights(TDR)-  -- Sourcing land for developing urban roads  -- defined in master plans/development plans.  --Development Rights given in lieu of compensation  -- not in cash but in kind Accommodation Reservation(AR)-  --Sourcing land for public amenities  -- dispensaries ,police-post, community centres, convenient shopping-- defined in development plans  Development Rights given –as compensation for land Air Space Development Rights-  for intensive utilization of land --creating built up space over the public transportation network etc