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Hematology laboratories utilize a diverse range of specialized
reagents to conduct various tests and analyses on blood samples.
These reagents play a crucial role in:
1. Blood cell counting and differentiation: Determining the
number and types of red blood cells, white blood cells, and
platelets present in a sample.
2. Hemoglobin measurement: Assessing the oxygen-carrying
capacity of red blood cells.
3. Coagulation testing: Evaluating the blood's clotting ability.
4. Bloodstaining: Visualizing cellular morphology under a
microscope for abnormal cell identification.
5. Immunological assays: Detecting specific proteins or antigens
associated with certain blood disorders.
Reagents 1
1. Cell counting and differentiation reagents:
1. Diluents: These solutions are used to prepare blood
samples for analysis by adjusting the cell
concentration to an optimal level for accurate
counting. They often contain saline or buffered
solutions to maintain cell integrity.
2. Isotonic buffers: These maintain the same osmotic
pressure as the cells, preventing them from
shrinking or swelling, which can affect their analysis.
3. Lysing agents: These break down red blood cells to
allow for the separate counting of white blood
cells. Common lysing agents include ammonium
chloride and saponin.
4. Staining solutions: Dyes like Wright-Giemsa stain
differentiate various cell types based on their
size, shape, and cytoplasmic and nuclear
characteristics.
Reagents 2
Hemoglobin measurement reagents:
1. Hemoglobinometers: These instruments
measure the hemoglobin concentration in red
blood cells, using various methods like
colorimetry or spectrophotometry.
2. Calibration standards: These solutions with
known hemoglobin concentrations are used to
calibrate the hemoglobinometer, ensuring
accurate measurements.
Reagents 3
Coagulation testing reagents:
•Thromboplastins: These tissue extracts activate the
clotting cascade, initiating clot formation in
vitro. Different types of thromboplastins are used for
specific coagulation tests.
•Anticoagulants: These prevent clot formation during
blood collection and storage. Common anticoagulants
include citrate, EDTA, and heparin, each with specific
functions and applications.
•Calcium chloride: This solution provides calcium
ions, essential for the activation of various clotting
factors.
Reagents 4
Bloodstaining reagents:
•Wright-Giemsa stain: This classic stain
differentiates various blood cell types based on
their cytoplasmic and nuclear staining patterns.
1. Prussian blue stain: This stain detects iron stores
in red blood cells, helpful in diagnosing iron
deficiency anemia.
2. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain: This stain
highlights carbohydrates, used to identify
abnormal cells like leukemic blasts.
Reagents 5
immunological assay reagents:
•Antibodies: These proteins specifically bind to
target antigens (proteins or other molecules)
associated with certain blood disorders. Antibodies
are often linked to enzymes or fluorescent
molecules for detection.
•Substrates and chromogens: These are used in
conjunction with enzymes linked to antibodies to
produce a visible signal when the target antigen is
bound.
•Controls: Positive and negative controls are
essential for ensuring the accuracy and specificity of
immunological assays.
Reagents 6

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lab reagents haematology.pdf

  • 1. Hematology laboratories utilize a diverse range of specialized reagents to conduct various tests and analyses on blood samples. These reagents play a crucial role in: 1. Blood cell counting and differentiation: Determining the number and types of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets present in a sample. 2. Hemoglobin measurement: Assessing the oxygen-carrying capacity of red blood cells. 3. Coagulation testing: Evaluating the blood's clotting ability. 4. Bloodstaining: Visualizing cellular morphology under a microscope for abnormal cell identification. 5. Immunological assays: Detecting specific proteins or antigens associated with certain blood disorders. Reagents 1
  • 2. 1. Cell counting and differentiation reagents: 1. Diluents: These solutions are used to prepare blood samples for analysis by adjusting the cell concentration to an optimal level for accurate counting. They often contain saline or buffered solutions to maintain cell integrity. 2. Isotonic buffers: These maintain the same osmotic pressure as the cells, preventing them from shrinking or swelling, which can affect their analysis. 3. Lysing agents: These break down red blood cells to allow for the separate counting of white blood cells. Common lysing agents include ammonium chloride and saponin. 4. Staining solutions: Dyes like Wright-Giemsa stain differentiate various cell types based on their size, shape, and cytoplasmic and nuclear characteristics. Reagents 2
  • 3. Hemoglobin measurement reagents: 1. Hemoglobinometers: These instruments measure the hemoglobin concentration in red blood cells, using various methods like colorimetry or spectrophotometry. 2. Calibration standards: These solutions with known hemoglobin concentrations are used to calibrate the hemoglobinometer, ensuring accurate measurements. Reagents 3
  • 4. Coagulation testing reagents: •Thromboplastins: These tissue extracts activate the clotting cascade, initiating clot formation in vitro. Different types of thromboplastins are used for specific coagulation tests. •Anticoagulants: These prevent clot formation during blood collection and storage. Common anticoagulants include citrate, EDTA, and heparin, each with specific functions and applications. •Calcium chloride: This solution provides calcium ions, essential for the activation of various clotting factors. Reagents 4
  • 5. Bloodstaining reagents: •Wright-Giemsa stain: This classic stain differentiates various blood cell types based on their cytoplasmic and nuclear staining patterns. 1. Prussian blue stain: This stain detects iron stores in red blood cells, helpful in diagnosing iron deficiency anemia. 2. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain: This stain highlights carbohydrates, used to identify abnormal cells like leukemic blasts. Reagents 5
  • 6. immunological assay reagents: •Antibodies: These proteins specifically bind to target antigens (proteins or other molecules) associated with certain blood disorders. Antibodies are often linked to enzymes or fluorescent molecules for detection. •Substrates and chromogens: These are used in conjunction with enzymes linked to antibodies to produce a visible signal when the target antigen is bound. •Controls: Positive and negative controls are essential for ensuring the accuracy and specificity of immunological assays. Reagents 6