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KONTRAST
                                 TKE 2012
                               Brigitte Juanals
                              Martin Lafréchoux
                               Jean-Luc Minel




Hi.

I am Martin Lafréchoux.

Photo : http://www.flickr.com/photos/daynoir/2180507211/
Standardization and Global Security




The work I am about to present was part a three-year project called NOTSEG (www.notseg.fr,
ANR-CSOG 2009).

We acknowledge funding from the French National Research Agency (ANR)
KONTRAST is a termino-
          ontological resource designed
          to represent and analyze the
          vocabulary used in international
          management standards


In short...

Photo : http://www.flickr.com/photos/natureindyablogspotcom/3038070680
I. Context
                          II. Model
                          III. Use Case



I will briefly describe the context of our work, i.e. the challenges faced by terminology in
management standards. I’ll then describe the representation model we came up with to
address these challenges, as well as our workflow. The last part of this talk will show you a
quick use case.

Photo : http://www.flickr.com/photos/natureindyablogspotcom/3038070680
I. Context
Standards & Terminology



Kontrast was designed to address the specific issues of terminology in the context
management standards.

Let me begin by giving you an overview of these specificities.
Standards
Standards can refer to many things.

The first thing that comes to your minds is probably something very down to earth, like
power outlets or the size of vegetables.

That’s not what I’ll be talking about today. I’ll talk about management standards, and more
precisely I’ll talk about business continuity.

Illustration : http://www.flickr.com/photos/double-m2/4341910416/
Business Continuity:
        The activity performed by an organization
        to ensure that critical functions will be
        available to those who need them even in
        the event of a disaster.




Just a quick reminder.

Business continuity is a subtask of risk management.
• Management standards are not about
               physical objects
           • They deal with the abstract —
               processes, business rules, concepts,
               methods
           • Standards include a ‘Terms and
               Definitions’ (T&D) section to alleviate
               ambiguity


Generally speaking, management standard use natural language to standardize an abstract
material: rules, processes, and so on.

Given that there is nothing tangible, concrete to refer to, only words and abstractions, these
standards have to include some manner of terminology. That’s the use of their T&D section.

This is what we studied.

Illustration : http://www.flickr.com/photos/double-m2/4341910416/
Here you can see the beginning of the T&D of ISO 31000:2009. It’s a glossary, either
thematic or alphabetical.

We chose to study T&D because we witnessed some heated discussion about them during the
writing process of certain ISO standards. They seemed to be some kind of focal point where
we could observe the different influences at play. This was confirmed by the AFNOR experts
we worked with: it’s not easy to agree on a terminology when writing international standards.
Consensus




If I oversimplify things a bit, the international standardization process goes something like
this:

Illustration : http://www.flickr.com/photos/double-m2/4324115629/
• Each standards organization can
         define its own vocabulary
     • International standards have to
         choose between several concurrent
         vocabularies
     •   The writing process follows a so-
         called ‘consensual procedure’.

On a given topic, several countries write their own national standard. Each one comes with its
own T&D.

When ISO decides to write an international standard on this topic, these countries send
delegations and of course, each country wants his own terminology to prevail, as it would
give a competitive advantage to those who have already adopted its national standard.

There is this competition between several vocabularies, none of which can be seen as more
valid as the others.

Illustration : http://www.flickr.com/photos/double-m2/4324115629/
Experts



This is where the ‘experts’ come in.

Experts is a generic term to describe the people sent by each organisation and country to
ISO. They are mostly consultants or from corporate background.

When writing a standard, a so-called ‘consensual procedure’ is used, where one expert
(secretary) will review each definition proposal and every other expert can ask for
modifications. There is no formal definition of this procedure.

Illustration : http://www.flickr.com/photos/beatnic/3683822225/
•    The way a standard will be implemented
       depends largely on its T&D
  • T&D are a product of the notional
       systems of the experts who wrote them
  •    T&D are an economical, sometimes
       political issue


Since the way a standard will be implemented depends largely on its T&D, the T&D can
become economical and political issues. The hypothesis we are trying to verify is this: can the
power plays and maneuvers that took place when writing international standards be traced in
their T&D?

Illustration : http://www.flickr.com/photos/beatnic/3683822225/
Authority?



International standardization has one major specificity compared to other terminology-heavy
fields - like, say, industry. No one has authority.

Illustration : http://www.flickr.com/photos/double-m2/4324611290/
• ISO has no authority over national
           standardization organisations
      • ISO vocabularies do not replace
           nor supercede other terminologies
      • ISO itself is not monolithic.
           Different subgroups coexist among
           ISO.

Standards are not laws. They are only references. An organization is free to use a standard or
not.

In the same way, ISO has no authority over national organisations.
“resilience”

   ISO/IEC 27031:2011                                ISO DIS 22300:2011
“The ability of an                                “The adaptive capacity
organization to resist being                      of an organization in a
affected by an incident”                          complex and changing
                                                  environment”



For example here are two definitions of the word ‘resilience’ in two ISO standards written in
2011. Resilience is a key concept in business continuity.

But more on that later.
Borrowings & References
As I said, each country *can* create its own vocabulary. That does not mean that they always
do.

Photo : http://www.flickr.com/photos/linneberg/6976347269/
• Creating a new terminology is a tedious
            and costly process
       • Standards frequently recycle or reuse
            other definitions
       • These quotes and reuses sometimes go
            unacknowledged



As I am sure you are all aware, creating a terminology can be a long, daunting, costly
process.

Often a standard will reuse the T&D of an existing standard, in part or in total, or at least
refer to it. These quotes and borrowings create a complex network, which is what we want
our system to track.

Photo : http://www.flickr.com/photos/linneberg/6976347269/
Reuse




The most simple case is a straight reuse. In effect it is similar to ‘importing’ a library in a
programming language.

Source : ISO DIS 22301:2010
Quote




When a standard quotes a single definition, the ID of the original standard is in brackets.
Modified Quote




Some quotes are shortened or modified.
Quote?




Some even go unacknowledged, which is, of course, of particular interest to us.

Guide 81 vs. BS 25999 1 - impact
Reference




Some definitions also refer to another one.
• A wide range of terminological systems are
        coexisting
     • They are interlinked by a complex network
        of influence, borrowings, adaptations and
        reuses
     • How can we represent them simultaneously
        without alignement?




Photo : http://www.flickr.com/photos/moofbong/4240137966/
II. Model
Here is the termino-ontological model we designed to address these issues.

Photo : http://www.flickr.com/photos/esm723/3573226450/
A contrastive ontological
               glossary
As you will see, it is not a ‘proper’ ontoterminology, so we call it a contrastive ontological
glossary instead.

Photo : http://www.flickr.com/photos/esm723/3573226450/
•  A 2 part-model :
                    - Terminological Data
                    - Structural Data


It’s a 2-part structure.

Photo : http://www.flickr.com/photos/esm723/3573226450/
Terminological Data
Photo : http://www.flickr.com/photos/fijneman/2971217479/
•   Terminology in standards offers
             unique challenges to knowledge
             engineering
         •   How can several semi-identical
             concepts coexist?
         •   We built on the operational
             properties of OWL ontologies
             with a twist: an unorthodox
             definition of the ‘concept’
The main challenge is that we had to represent several conflicting concepts at the same time,
without alignment and without any central authority to choose the ‘right one’.
In Kontrast a ‘concept’ is the
relationship between a term, a
context of use and a definition.
“An unstable condition
                                                            involving an impending abrupt
                                                             or significant change...”@en
                                                                       Définition




This allowed us to designed a scattered, decentralised model, where the individual
representing concepts are nothing more than the reification of a ternary relationship between
a term, a standard and a definition.

Please allow me to reiterate: this was a technical design decision.
One of the first advantages of this definition was that it worked well with the concept as
defined by SKOS.

SKOS is designed to represent several thesaurus that may share terms and / or definitions,
which worked well for us.

Illustration : http://www.w3.org/TR/2005/WD-swbp-skos-core-guide-20051102/
Ontology Building
Here is how we worked.
•    A linear XML glossary is
           converted to RDF/OWL
      •    XSLT perform most of the work
      • Python scripts extract
           relationships between concepts


In a different part of the NOTSEG project, a glossary was manually compiled from the 20
standards of our corpus. We then applied automatic and manual treatments over this
glossary.

I’ll walk you over the different steps.
Here is an entry of the XML glossary.
31000:2009




Here is a diagram representing the same entry in Kontrast.
First the term.
31000:2009




It is used in several places in the ontology: as a term (left), as part of the ID for the concept
(center), and as a label (right).
Definition
31000:2009




Transposed as a concept property
The standards in which the concept appears...
31000:2009




... are represented as skos:conceptSchemes, which makes them independent thesaurus.
Relationship Extraction
Next step is extracting relationships
“vulnerability”
    ISO Guide 73:2009                                     ASIS SPC.1:2009

    intrinsic properties of something resulting in        Intrinsic properties of something that create
    susceptibility to a risk source (3.5.1.2) that can    susceptibility to a source of risk (3.53) that can
    lead to an event with a consequence (3.6.1.3)         lead to a consequence. [ISO/IEC Guide
                                                          73:2002]
    AS/NZS 5050:2010
                                                          ISO DIS 22300:2011
    Intrinsic properties of something resulting in
    susceptibility to a risk source that can lead to an   intrinsic properties of something resulting in
    event with a consequence.                             susceptibility to a risk source that can lead to an
         [ISO Guide 73:2009, Risk Management—             event with a consequence
    Vocabulary, definition 3.6.1.6]




Another example.

Here are four definitions of ʻvulnerabilityʼ.
“vulnerability”
   ISO Guide 73:2009                                     ASIS SPC.1:2009

   intrinsic properties of something resulting in        Intrinsic properties of something that create
   susceptibility to a risk source (3.5.1.2) that can    susceptibility to a source of risk (3.53) that can
   lead to an event with a consequence (3.6.1.3)         lead to a consequence. [ISO/IEC Guide
                                                         73:2002]
   AS/NZS 5050:2010
                                                         ISO DIS 22300:2011
   Intrinsic properties of something resulting in
   susceptibility to a risk source that can lead to an   intrinsic properties of something resulting in
   event with a consequence.                             susceptibility to a risk source that can lead to an
        [ISO Guide 73:2009, Risk Management—             event with a consequence
   Vocabulary, definition 3.6.1.6]




To compare them, we normalize the text — i.e. get rid of everything in brackets, of punctuation and
capital letters.
“vulnerability”
   ISO Guide 73:2009                                     ASIS SPC.1:2009

   intrinsic properties of something resulting in        Intrinsic properties of something that create
   susceptibility to a risk source (3.5.1.2) that can    susceptibility to a source of risk (3.53) that can
   lead to an event with a consequence (3.6.1.3)         lead to a consequence. [ISO/IEC Guide
                                                         73:2002]
   AS/NZS 5050:2010
                                                         ISO DIS 22300:2011
   Intrinsic properties of something resulting in
   susceptibility to a risk source that can lead to an   intrinsic properties of something resulting in
   event with a consequence.                             susceptibility to a risk source that can lead to an
        [ISO Guide 73:2009, Risk Management—             event with a consequence
   Vocabulary, definition 3.6.1.6]




Three of them match: we create a skos:exactMatch relationship.
“vulnerability”
    ISO Guide 73:2009                                     ASIS SPC.1:2009

    intrinsic properties of something resulting in        Intrinsic properties of something that create
    susceptibility to a risk source (3.5.1.2) that can    susceptibility to a source of risk (3.53) that can
    lead to an event with a consequence (3.6.1.3)         lead to a consequence. [ISO/IEC Guide
                                                          73:2002]
    AS/NZS 5050:2010
                                                          ISO DIS 22300:2011
    Intrinsic properties of something resulting in
    susceptibility to a risk source that can lead to an   intrinsic properties of something resulting in
    event with a consequence.                             susceptibility to a risk source that can lead to an
         [ISO Guide 73:2009, Risk Management—             event with a consequence
    Vocabulary, definition 3.6.1.6]




The fourth one is slightly different. Itʼs very close, but we have no way to confirm it automatically. On
such short texts, a variation of a few words can be huge. A human analysis is still needed.

The best we can do is to create a temporary file for humans to check afterwards.
exactMatch closeMatch relatedMatch


         Recall                 1.0                0.38                 0.21


       Precision                1.0                 1.0                  1.0




Our test are designed for maximum precision. They cannot fail. The obvious downside is that
recall is very low.
•20 standards
• 291 terms
• 649 concepts
• 1107 matching relationships
 • 486 skos:relatedMatch
 • 85 skos:exactMatch
 • 535 skos:closeMatch
Structural Data



Briefly, here is the other part of the resource.

Photo : http://www.flickr.com/photos/hindrik/1919291052/
Data about...
   • the standards: release date,
        version, current status, reach...
   • the standardization process:
        publishers, working groups,
        institutions...

It contains mostly metadata about the standars and the writing process.

Photo : http://www.flickr.com/photos/hindrik/1919291052/
This data is linked with the terminological data through the individuals representing
standards.

We used Dublin Core (dcterms) whenever possible to ensure maximum interoperability.
Standards are revised regularly. Through the borrowings and quotes, an ‘older’ definition can
remain in use even if a new version of the standard has been published. So we have to
represent several versions of the same standard at the same time.

We also used dcterms.
Some standards of our corpus are present in DBPedia. We used owl:sameAs or
dcterms:isPartOf assertions to connect Kontrast with the Linked Data.
•   Decentralized, simple and
         extensible model
     •   Uses standard semantic web
         vocabularies
     •   Connected to the linked data


Photo : http://www.flickr.com/photos/sperkyajachtu/5497757852/
III. Use Case
Photo : http://www.flickr.com/photos/daynoir/2180507271/
‘resilience’
Kontrast does not have its own GUI. We used third-party tools such as RDF Gravity or
Ontograf to display a graphical representation of Kontrast.
“resilience”

   ISO/IEC 27031:2011               ISO DIS 22300:2011
“The ability of an                 “The adaptive capacity
organization to resist being       of an organization in a
affected by an incident”           complex and changing
                                   environment”



Let’s get back to resilience.
“resilience”




Here are the concepts using the term resilience in Kontrast

In yellow, skos:closeMatches, in green skos:exactMatches, in brown skos:relatedMatches.

Capture : Ontograf (Protégé plug-in)
“resilience”




These three nodes are British standards — the two parts of the BS25999 standard, and the
associated good practice guide.
“resilience”


                                                   “The ability of an
                                               organization to resist being
                                                affected by an incident”




They use the same definition of ‘resilience’.

The UK has worked on emergy planning since the 1980’s. It has been a business continuity
leader since then, and their standards have been used as international references for a long
time.

It led the BSI to a prominent position within ISO for business continuity standards.
“resilience”


                                                 “The ability of an
                                             organization to resist being
                                              affected by an incident”




ISO 27031 was recently published and uses the british definition.
“resilience”




On the other side of the graph are definitions under American influence.
“resilience”




Towars the center you can see the ASIS SPC.1:2009 definition.
“resilience”



   ASIS SPC.1:2009
   The adaptive capacity of an organization in a complex and
   changing environment.
       - NOTE 1: Resilience is the ability of an organization to resist
   being affected by an event or the ability to return to an acceptable
   level of performance in an acceptable period of time after being
   affected by an event.
«The adaptive capacity of an organization in a complex and changing environment.»

At first, the definition seems different. But if you take a closer look...
“resilience”



  ASIS SPC.1:2009
  The adaptive capacity of an organization in a complex and
  changing environment.
      - NOTE 1: Resilience is the ability of an organization to resist
  being affected by an event or the ability to return to an acceptable
  level of performance in an acceptable period of time after being
  affected by an event.
The first note reproduces the british definition.
In 2009, when the ASIS standard was published, the british influence was still very strong and
completely foregoing the british definition would have handicapped the standard.
“resilience”

 “The adaptive capacity
 of an organization in a
 complex and changing
     environment”




After the publication of this standard, the US used a different strategy. They kind of went
around the british influence and pushed to have their definition of ‘resilience’ adopted in
broader standards — the ISO 31000 series which deals with risk management.

With the help of an Israeli expert, the US managed to get their definition in the 2009 version
of the ISO Guide 73 (rightmost node). This was a good move because the definitions of ISO
Guide are often quoted or borrowed, as we can see at here at the bottom of the graph (the
Australia / New Zealand standard).
“resilience”
“The adaptive capacity of
an organization in a
complex and changing
environment, to achieve the
organizations objectives

NOTE 1
Resilience is the ability of
an organization to manage
the risks of events”


In 2011, the US pushed for a new definition to be adopted in the ISO 22300 series. This
caused quite a stir, as the 22300 series is a purely BC standard series, where the british
concepts usually prevail.

The debate is still ongoing.
“resilience”




And that’s how you end up with two conflicting definitions of an important concept in two
standards written within the same organization, during the same year.
“resilience”

   ISO/IEC 27031:2011                                  ISO DIS 22300:2011
“The ability of an                                  “The adaptive capacity
organization to resist being                        of an organization in a
affected by an incident”                            complex and changing
                                                    environment”



These definitions are important because they translate two different visions of business
continuity: in short, the US / Israeli position is about the planning and reactive capacities of
an organisation, whereas the british experts believe that risk assessment is costly and not
very realistic, as it is impossible to anticipate all possible risks.

Photos : http://www.flickr.com/photos/pmillera4/6366227011/ & http://www.flickr.com/
photos/adrianclarkmbbs/3050195566/
Conclusion




Photo : http://www.flickr.com/photos/bruceberrien/4262228892/
• Standardization terminology offers
            unique challenges to knowledge
            engineering
        • Influence can be traced in terms and
            definitions and Kontrast can be a
            useful tool to assist human analysis
        • Many possible optimizations: use
            Lemon instead of SKOS, automate
            relationship extraction...

SKOS was great for us because it was readily available and simple to set-up, but now we
begin to feel its limits.

Lemon would allow us to push our idea further.

Photo : http://www.flickr.com/photos/bruceberrien/4262228892/
Thank you

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Kontrast@TKE 2012

  • 1. KONTRAST TKE 2012 Brigitte Juanals Martin Lafréchoux Jean-Luc Minel Hi. I am Martin Lafréchoux. Photo : http://www.flickr.com/photos/daynoir/2180507211/
  • 2. Standardization and Global Security The work I am about to present was part a three-year project called NOTSEG (www.notseg.fr, ANR-CSOG 2009). We acknowledge funding from the French National Research Agency (ANR)
  • 3.
  • 4. KONTRAST is a termino- ontological resource designed to represent and analyze the vocabulary used in international management standards In short... Photo : http://www.flickr.com/photos/natureindyablogspotcom/3038070680
  • 5. I. Context II. Model III. Use Case I will briefly describe the context of our work, i.e. the challenges faced by terminology in management standards. I’ll then describe the representation model we came up with to address these challenges, as well as our workflow. The last part of this talk will show you a quick use case. Photo : http://www.flickr.com/photos/natureindyablogspotcom/3038070680
  • 7. Standards & Terminology Kontrast was designed to address the specific issues of terminology in the context management standards. Let me begin by giving you an overview of these specificities.
  • 8. Standards Standards can refer to many things. The first thing that comes to your minds is probably something very down to earth, like power outlets or the size of vegetables. That’s not what I’ll be talking about today. I’ll talk about management standards, and more precisely I’ll talk about business continuity. Illustration : http://www.flickr.com/photos/double-m2/4341910416/
  • 9. Business Continuity: The activity performed by an organization to ensure that critical functions will be available to those who need them even in the event of a disaster. Just a quick reminder. Business continuity is a subtask of risk management.
  • 10. • Management standards are not about physical objects • They deal with the abstract — processes, business rules, concepts, methods • Standards include a ‘Terms and Definitions’ (T&D) section to alleviate ambiguity Generally speaking, management standard use natural language to standardize an abstract material: rules, processes, and so on. Given that there is nothing tangible, concrete to refer to, only words and abstractions, these standards have to include some manner of terminology. That’s the use of their T&D section. This is what we studied. Illustration : http://www.flickr.com/photos/double-m2/4341910416/
  • 11. Here you can see the beginning of the T&D of ISO 31000:2009. It’s a glossary, either thematic or alphabetical. We chose to study T&D because we witnessed some heated discussion about them during the writing process of certain ISO standards. They seemed to be some kind of focal point where we could observe the different influences at play. This was confirmed by the AFNOR experts we worked with: it’s not easy to agree on a terminology when writing international standards.
  • 12. Consensus If I oversimplify things a bit, the international standardization process goes something like this: Illustration : http://www.flickr.com/photos/double-m2/4324115629/
  • 13. • Each standards organization can define its own vocabulary • International standards have to choose between several concurrent vocabularies • The writing process follows a so- called ‘consensual procedure’. On a given topic, several countries write their own national standard. Each one comes with its own T&D. When ISO decides to write an international standard on this topic, these countries send delegations and of course, each country wants his own terminology to prevail, as it would give a competitive advantage to those who have already adopted its national standard. There is this competition between several vocabularies, none of which can be seen as more valid as the others. Illustration : http://www.flickr.com/photos/double-m2/4324115629/
  • 14. Experts This is where the ‘experts’ come in. Experts is a generic term to describe the people sent by each organisation and country to ISO. They are mostly consultants or from corporate background. When writing a standard, a so-called ‘consensual procedure’ is used, where one expert (secretary) will review each definition proposal and every other expert can ask for modifications. There is no formal definition of this procedure. Illustration : http://www.flickr.com/photos/beatnic/3683822225/
  • 15. The way a standard will be implemented depends largely on its T&D • T&D are a product of the notional systems of the experts who wrote them • T&D are an economical, sometimes political issue Since the way a standard will be implemented depends largely on its T&D, the T&D can become economical and political issues. The hypothesis we are trying to verify is this: can the power plays and maneuvers that took place when writing international standards be traced in their T&D? Illustration : http://www.flickr.com/photos/beatnic/3683822225/
  • 16. Authority? International standardization has one major specificity compared to other terminology-heavy fields - like, say, industry. No one has authority. Illustration : http://www.flickr.com/photos/double-m2/4324611290/
  • 17. • ISO has no authority over national standardization organisations • ISO vocabularies do not replace nor supercede other terminologies • ISO itself is not monolithic. Different subgroups coexist among ISO. Standards are not laws. They are only references. An organization is free to use a standard or not. In the same way, ISO has no authority over national organisations.
  • 18. “resilience” ISO/IEC 27031:2011 ISO DIS 22300:2011 “The ability of an “The adaptive capacity organization to resist being of an organization in a affected by an incident” complex and changing environment” For example here are two definitions of the word ‘resilience’ in two ISO standards written in 2011. Resilience is a key concept in business continuity. But more on that later.
  • 19. Borrowings & References As I said, each country *can* create its own vocabulary. That does not mean that they always do. Photo : http://www.flickr.com/photos/linneberg/6976347269/
  • 20. • Creating a new terminology is a tedious and costly process • Standards frequently recycle or reuse other definitions • These quotes and reuses sometimes go unacknowledged As I am sure you are all aware, creating a terminology can be a long, daunting, costly process. Often a standard will reuse the T&D of an existing standard, in part or in total, or at least refer to it. These quotes and borrowings create a complex network, which is what we want our system to track. Photo : http://www.flickr.com/photos/linneberg/6976347269/
  • 21. Reuse The most simple case is a straight reuse. In effect it is similar to ‘importing’ a library in a programming language. Source : ISO DIS 22301:2010
  • 22. Quote When a standard quotes a single definition, the ID of the original standard is in brackets.
  • 23. Modified Quote Some quotes are shortened or modified.
  • 24. Quote? Some even go unacknowledged, which is, of course, of particular interest to us. Guide 81 vs. BS 25999 1 - impact
  • 25. Reference Some definitions also refer to another one.
  • 26. • A wide range of terminological systems are coexisting • They are interlinked by a complex network of influence, borrowings, adaptations and reuses • How can we represent them simultaneously without alignement? Photo : http://www.flickr.com/photos/moofbong/4240137966/
  • 27. II. Model Here is the termino-ontological model we designed to address these issues. Photo : http://www.flickr.com/photos/esm723/3573226450/
  • 28. A contrastive ontological glossary As you will see, it is not a ‘proper’ ontoterminology, so we call it a contrastive ontological glossary instead. Photo : http://www.flickr.com/photos/esm723/3573226450/
  • 29. • A 2 part-model : - Terminological Data - Structural Data It’s a 2-part structure. Photo : http://www.flickr.com/photos/esm723/3573226450/
  • 30. Terminological Data Photo : http://www.flickr.com/photos/fijneman/2971217479/
  • 31. Terminology in standards offers unique challenges to knowledge engineering • How can several semi-identical concepts coexist? • We built on the operational properties of OWL ontologies with a twist: an unorthodox definition of the ‘concept’ The main challenge is that we had to represent several conflicting concepts at the same time, without alignment and without any central authority to choose the ‘right one’.
  • 32. In Kontrast a ‘concept’ is the relationship between a term, a context of use and a definition.
  • 33. “An unstable condition involving an impending abrupt or significant change...”@en Définition This allowed us to designed a scattered, decentralised model, where the individual representing concepts are nothing more than the reification of a ternary relationship between a term, a standard and a definition. Please allow me to reiterate: this was a technical design decision.
  • 34. One of the first advantages of this definition was that it worked well with the concept as defined by SKOS. SKOS is designed to represent several thesaurus that may share terms and / or definitions, which worked well for us. Illustration : http://www.w3.org/TR/2005/WD-swbp-skos-core-guide-20051102/
  • 35. Ontology Building Here is how we worked.
  • 36. A linear XML glossary is converted to RDF/OWL • XSLT perform most of the work • Python scripts extract relationships between concepts In a different part of the NOTSEG project, a glossary was manually compiled from the 20 standards of our corpus. We then applied automatic and manual treatments over this glossary. I’ll walk you over the different steps.
  • 37. Here is an entry of the XML glossary.
  • 38. 31000:2009 Here is a diagram representing the same entry in Kontrast.
  • 40. 31000:2009 It is used in several places in the ontology: as a term (left), as part of the ID for the concept (center), and as a label (right).
  • 42. 31000:2009 Transposed as a concept property
  • 43. The standards in which the concept appears...
  • 44. 31000:2009 ... are represented as skos:conceptSchemes, which makes them independent thesaurus.
  • 45. Relationship Extraction Next step is extracting relationships
  • 46. “vulnerability” ISO Guide 73:2009 ASIS SPC.1:2009 intrinsic properties of something resulting in Intrinsic properties of something that create susceptibility to a risk source (3.5.1.2) that can susceptibility to a source of risk (3.53) that can lead to an event with a consequence (3.6.1.3) lead to a consequence. [ISO/IEC Guide 73:2002] AS/NZS 5050:2010 ISO DIS 22300:2011 Intrinsic properties of something resulting in susceptibility to a risk source that can lead to an intrinsic properties of something resulting in event with a consequence. susceptibility to a risk source that can lead to an [ISO Guide 73:2009, Risk Management— event with a consequence Vocabulary, definition 3.6.1.6] Another example. Here are four definitions of ʻvulnerabilityʼ.
  • 47. “vulnerability” ISO Guide 73:2009 ASIS SPC.1:2009 intrinsic properties of something resulting in Intrinsic properties of something that create susceptibility to a risk source (3.5.1.2) that can susceptibility to a source of risk (3.53) that can lead to an event with a consequence (3.6.1.3) lead to a consequence. [ISO/IEC Guide 73:2002] AS/NZS 5050:2010 ISO DIS 22300:2011 Intrinsic properties of something resulting in susceptibility to a risk source that can lead to an intrinsic properties of something resulting in event with a consequence. susceptibility to a risk source that can lead to an [ISO Guide 73:2009, Risk Management— event with a consequence Vocabulary, definition 3.6.1.6] To compare them, we normalize the text — i.e. get rid of everything in brackets, of punctuation and capital letters.
  • 48. “vulnerability” ISO Guide 73:2009 ASIS SPC.1:2009 intrinsic properties of something resulting in Intrinsic properties of something that create susceptibility to a risk source (3.5.1.2) that can susceptibility to a source of risk (3.53) that can lead to an event with a consequence (3.6.1.3) lead to a consequence. [ISO/IEC Guide 73:2002] AS/NZS 5050:2010 ISO DIS 22300:2011 Intrinsic properties of something resulting in susceptibility to a risk source that can lead to an intrinsic properties of something resulting in event with a consequence. susceptibility to a risk source that can lead to an [ISO Guide 73:2009, Risk Management— event with a consequence Vocabulary, definition 3.6.1.6] Three of them match: we create a skos:exactMatch relationship.
  • 49. “vulnerability” ISO Guide 73:2009 ASIS SPC.1:2009 intrinsic properties of something resulting in Intrinsic properties of something that create susceptibility to a risk source (3.5.1.2) that can susceptibility to a source of risk (3.53) that can lead to an event with a consequence (3.6.1.3) lead to a consequence. [ISO/IEC Guide 73:2002] AS/NZS 5050:2010 ISO DIS 22300:2011 Intrinsic properties of something resulting in susceptibility to a risk source that can lead to an intrinsic properties of something resulting in event with a consequence. susceptibility to a risk source that can lead to an [ISO Guide 73:2009, Risk Management— event with a consequence Vocabulary, definition 3.6.1.6] The fourth one is slightly different. Itʼs very close, but we have no way to confirm it automatically. On such short texts, a variation of a few words can be huge. A human analysis is still needed. The best we can do is to create a temporary file for humans to check afterwards.
  • 50. exactMatch closeMatch relatedMatch Recall 1.0 0.38 0.21 Precision 1.0 1.0 1.0 Our test are designed for maximum precision. They cannot fail. The obvious downside is that recall is very low.
  • 51. •20 standards • 291 terms • 649 concepts • 1107 matching relationships • 486 skos:relatedMatch • 85 skos:exactMatch • 535 skos:closeMatch
  • 52. Structural Data Briefly, here is the other part of the resource. Photo : http://www.flickr.com/photos/hindrik/1919291052/
  • 53. Data about... • the standards: release date, version, current status, reach... • the standardization process: publishers, working groups, institutions... It contains mostly metadata about the standars and the writing process. Photo : http://www.flickr.com/photos/hindrik/1919291052/
  • 54. This data is linked with the terminological data through the individuals representing standards. We used Dublin Core (dcterms) whenever possible to ensure maximum interoperability.
  • 55. Standards are revised regularly. Through the borrowings and quotes, an ‘older’ definition can remain in use even if a new version of the standard has been published. So we have to represent several versions of the same standard at the same time. We also used dcterms.
  • 56. Some standards of our corpus are present in DBPedia. We used owl:sameAs or dcterms:isPartOf assertions to connect Kontrast with the Linked Data.
  • 57. Decentralized, simple and extensible model • Uses standard semantic web vocabularies • Connected to the linked data Photo : http://www.flickr.com/photos/sperkyajachtu/5497757852/
  • 58. III. Use Case Photo : http://www.flickr.com/photos/daynoir/2180507271/
  • 59. ‘resilience’ Kontrast does not have its own GUI. We used third-party tools such as RDF Gravity or Ontograf to display a graphical representation of Kontrast.
  • 60. “resilience” ISO/IEC 27031:2011 ISO DIS 22300:2011 “The ability of an “The adaptive capacity organization to resist being of an organization in a affected by an incident” complex and changing environment” Let’s get back to resilience.
  • 61. “resilience” Here are the concepts using the term resilience in Kontrast In yellow, skos:closeMatches, in green skos:exactMatches, in brown skos:relatedMatches. Capture : Ontograf (Protégé plug-in)
  • 62. “resilience” These three nodes are British standards — the two parts of the BS25999 standard, and the associated good practice guide.
  • 63. “resilience” “The ability of an organization to resist being affected by an incident” They use the same definition of ‘resilience’. The UK has worked on emergy planning since the 1980’s. It has been a business continuity leader since then, and their standards have been used as international references for a long time. It led the BSI to a prominent position within ISO for business continuity standards.
  • 64. “resilience” “The ability of an organization to resist being affected by an incident” ISO 27031 was recently published and uses the british definition.
  • 65. “resilience” On the other side of the graph are definitions under American influence.
  • 66. “resilience” Towars the center you can see the ASIS SPC.1:2009 definition.
  • 67. “resilience” ASIS SPC.1:2009 The adaptive capacity of an organization in a complex and changing environment. - NOTE 1: Resilience is the ability of an organization to resist being affected by an event or the ability to return to an acceptable level of performance in an acceptable period of time after being affected by an event. «The adaptive capacity of an organization in a complex and changing environment.» At first, the definition seems different. But if you take a closer look...
  • 68. “resilience” ASIS SPC.1:2009 The adaptive capacity of an organization in a complex and changing environment. - NOTE 1: Resilience is the ability of an organization to resist being affected by an event or the ability to return to an acceptable level of performance in an acceptable period of time after being affected by an event. The first note reproduces the british definition. In 2009, when the ASIS standard was published, the british influence was still very strong and completely foregoing the british definition would have handicapped the standard.
  • 69. “resilience” “The adaptive capacity of an organization in a complex and changing environment” After the publication of this standard, the US used a different strategy. They kind of went around the british influence and pushed to have their definition of ‘resilience’ adopted in broader standards — the ISO 31000 series which deals with risk management. With the help of an Israeli expert, the US managed to get their definition in the 2009 version of the ISO Guide 73 (rightmost node). This was a good move because the definitions of ISO Guide are often quoted or borrowed, as we can see at here at the bottom of the graph (the Australia / New Zealand standard).
  • 70. “resilience” “The adaptive capacity of an organization in a complex and changing environment, to achieve the organizations objectives NOTE 1 Resilience is the ability of an organization to manage the risks of events” In 2011, the US pushed for a new definition to be adopted in the ISO 22300 series. This caused quite a stir, as the 22300 series is a purely BC standard series, where the british concepts usually prevail. The debate is still ongoing.
  • 71. “resilience” And that’s how you end up with two conflicting definitions of an important concept in two standards written within the same organization, during the same year.
  • 72. “resilience” ISO/IEC 27031:2011 ISO DIS 22300:2011 “The ability of an “The adaptive capacity organization to resist being of an organization in a affected by an incident” complex and changing environment” These definitions are important because they translate two different visions of business continuity: in short, the US / Israeli position is about the planning and reactive capacities of an organisation, whereas the british experts believe that risk assessment is costly and not very realistic, as it is impossible to anticipate all possible risks. Photos : http://www.flickr.com/photos/pmillera4/6366227011/ & http://www.flickr.com/ photos/adrianclarkmbbs/3050195566/
  • 74. • Standardization terminology offers unique challenges to knowledge engineering • Influence can be traced in terms and definitions and Kontrast can be a useful tool to assist human analysis • Many possible optimizations: use Lemon instead of SKOS, automate relationship extraction... SKOS was great for us because it was readily available and simple to set-up, but now we begin to feel its limits. Lemon would allow us to push our idea further. Photo : http://www.flickr.com/photos/bruceberrien/4262228892/