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Importance of fisheries in NAPs
A case study from the Pacific Islands
Johann Bell
Content of SOFIA
• Production (171 million t)
• Status
• Value ($362 billion)
• Contribution to food security
and livelihoods
• An much more…..
Global importance of fish
Provides
Food security
• Fish provides 3.2
billion people with
20% of average daily
animal protein
• Fish consumption is
growing at 3.2% p.a.
Other meat = 2.8%
Population = 1.6%
Source: FAO (2018)
%
11
%
%
%
11%
%
%
%
Examples only
Range x-y%
90
150
98
50
200
61
115
62
43
25
21
55
33
75
Source: Bell et al. (2009), Gillett (2009)
Fish consumption (kg/person/year)
77
10
Animal
protein
50-94 %
Subsistence
fishing
47-91 %
20
Pacific Island countries
Pacific Island countries
• 47% of surveyed
coastal households in
17 countries derive
1st or 2nd income from
catching or selling fish
Photos: Johann Bell and SPC
Livelihoods
PNA members
Other countries
Fish processing
Transhipping
Transhipping
(minor)
PALAU
Catch: 7,094 Mt
Gov’t revenue: ~13%
FSM
Catch: 186,048 Mt
Gov’t revenue: 47%
MARSHALL Is
Catch: 58,620 Mt
Gov’t revenue: 45%
SOLOMON Is
Catch: 136,694 Mt
Gov’t revenue: 10%
VANUATU
Catch: 8,438 Mt
FIJI
Catch: 7,362 Mt
COOK Is
Catch: 19,957 Mt
Catch data are 5-year
averages (2013-2017)
Gov’t revenue data are
for 2016
Pacific Island countries
Government
revenue
Source: Pacific Community, Forum Fisheries Agency and Conservation International
Six countries receive >45%
of all government revenue
from tuna fishing licence fees
Regional plans
Goals
• Sustainability
• Increase value of the catch
• Create more employment
• Contribute to food security
- provide 35 kg per person per year
Source: FFA and SPC 2015, SPC 2016
How could climate change disrupt these plans?
Approach
https://www.spc.int/cces/climate-book/spc-publications-on-climate-change#tab-682-2
Projections for coastal fisheries production
2050 (-20%) (-50%?)Today
Source: Pratchett et al. (2011); Asch et al. (2018)
• Production based mainly on coral reefs
How should we adapt?
Long-term loss Long-term benefit
Address climate change
Short-termlossShort-termbenefit
Addresspresentchallenges
After Grafton (2010)
✓✓
✓
✓
xx x
x
Co-benefits
Government
revenue
Government
revenue
Government
revenue
Government
revenue
Government
revenue
Government
revenue
Bell et al. (2015)
Key present challenge is population growth
Year Population
2013 10,566,300
2020 12,069,000
2035 15,513,300
Coral reef resources are limited Population growth A gap in fish supply is emerging
Increased
coral
bleaching
Reduced
reef fish
production
Effects of climate change
Source: Bell et al. (2011)
Today 2050 (-20%) (-50%?)
Purpose of adaptations
Minimize the gap
Fill the gap
Manage and restore vegetation in
catchments
L-W
W-W
L-L
W-L
Improves resilience of
coral reef, mangrove
and seagrass habitats
Adaptations to minimize the gap
• Maintain water quality
• Conserve structural
complexity of reefs
• Prohibit physical
damage to seagrass
• Manage timber
collection in
mangroves
Reverse degradation of
habitats
Source: Bell et al. (2011)
Provide for landward migration
of fish habitats
L-W
W-W
L-L
W-L
Source: Bell et al. (2011)
Adaptations to minimize the gap
Sustain production
of fish stocks
Maintaining spawning
adults needed for regular
replenishment will help
build resilience of stocks
L-W
W-W
L-L
W-L
Maintain habitat mosaics and
herbivorous fish species
Connectivity between reefs, seagrass & mangroves
Control of macroalgae by herbivorous fish
Source: Bell et al. (2011)
Adaptations to minimize the gap
Considerations for NAPs
Foster effective co-management based on:
• A climate-informed, community-based, ecosystem
approach to fisheries management (CBEAFM) to
maintain fish habitats and fish stocks
• Integrated development plans for agriculture, forestry,
infrastructure and fisheries to avoid maladaptation
• National fisheries regulations to underpin CBEAFM
Communities
Governments
L-W
W-W
L-L
W-L
Source: Bell et al. (2011)
Adaptations to fill the gap
Skipjack tuna > 1 million Mt p.a.
Yellowfin tuna > 300,000 Mt p.a.
Assist communities to catch tuna
by expanding use of nearshore
fish aggregating devices (FADs)
Provide training in
safe FAD-fishing
methods
Source: Bell et al. (2015)
Adaptations to fill the gap
• Preliminary modelling for skipjack tuna
2005
Mt/km2
Mt/km2
2050
Source: Senina et al. (2018)
Adaptations to fill the gap
Considerations for NAPs
• Include nearshore FADs as part of the national
infrastructure for food security
• Evaluate whether industrial fishing exclusion zones
provide adequate access to tuna for small-scale fishers
• Develop forecasting tools for small-scale fishers
• Store spare FAD materials in cyclone-proof containers
• Collaborate with other countries that share tuna
resources to increase confidence in modelling tuna
Governments
Principle Pacific Island example
Logical approach ✓ End-to-end framework
Win-win ✓ Nearshore FADs
National co-ordination ✓ Planning across sectors to
avoid maladaptation
Co-management ✓ Filling food gap requires
communities & govt support
Fill gaps in knowledge ✓ Improved modelling of
tropical tuna
Principles for including fisheries in NAPS
Global fisheries adaptation resource
http://www.fao.org/3/i9705en/i9705en.pdf
Thank you

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KN-5 Johann Pacific marine fisheries

  • 1. Importance of fisheries in NAPs A case study from the Pacific Islands Johann Bell
  • 2. Content of SOFIA • Production (171 million t) • Status • Value ($362 billion) • Contribution to food security and livelihoods • An much more…..
  • 3. Global importance of fish Provides Food security • Fish provides 3.2 billion people with 20% of average daily animal protein • Fish consumption is growing at 3.2% p.a. Other meat = 2.8% Population = 1.6% Source: FAO (2018)
  • 4. % 11 % % % 11% % % % Examples only Range x-y% 90 150 98 50 200 61 115 62 43 25 21 55 33 75 Source: Bell et al. (2009), Gillett (2009) Fish consumption (kg/person/year) 77 10 Animal protein 50-94 % Subsistence fishing 47-91 % 20 Pacific Island countries
  • 5. Pacific Island countries • 47% of surveyed coastal households in 17 countries derive 1st or 2nd income from catching or selling fish Photos: Johann Bell and SPC Livelihoods
  • 6. PNA members Other countries Fish processing Transhipping Transhipping (minor) PALAU Catch: 7,094 Mt Gov’t revenue: ~13% FSM Catch: 186,048 Mt Gov’t revenue: 47% MARSHALL Is Catch: 58,620 Mt Gov’t revenue: 45% SOLOMON Is Catch: 136,694 Mt Gov’t revenue: 10% VANUATU Catch: 8,438 Mt FIJI Catch: 7,362 Mt COOK Is Catch: 19,957 Mt Catch data are 5-year averages (2013-2017) Gov’t revenue data are for 2016 Pacific Island countries Government revenue Source: Pacific Community, Forum Fisheries Agency and Conservation International Six countries receive >45% of all government revenue from tuna fishing licence fees
  • 7. Regional plans Goals • Sustainability • Increase value of the catch • Create more employment • Contribute to food security - provide 35 kg per person per year Source: FFA and SPC 2015, SPC 2016
  • 8. How could climate change disrupt these plans? Approach https://www.spc.int/cces/climate-book/spc-publications-on-climate-change#tab-682-2
  • 9. Projections for coastal fisheries production 2050 (-20%) (-50%?)Today Source: Pratchett et al. (2011); Asch et al. (2018) • Production based mainly on coral reefs
  • 10. How should we adapt? Long-term loss Long-term benefit Address climate change Short-termlossShort-termbenefit Addresspresentchallenges After Grafton (2010) ✓✓ ✓ ✓ xx x x Co-benefits
  • 11. Government revenue Government revenue Government revenue Government revenue Government revenue Government revenue Bell et al. (2015) Key present challenge is population growth Year Population 2013 10,566,300 2020 12,069,000 2035 15,513,300 Coral reef resources are limited Population growth A gap in fish supply is emerging
  • 12. Increased coral bleaching Reduced reef fish production Effects of climate change Source: Bell et al. (2011) Today 2050 (-20%) (-50%?)
  • 13. Purpose of adaptations Minimize the gap Fill the gap
  • 14. Manage and restore vegetation in catchments L-W W-W L-L W-L Improves resilience of coral reef, mangrove and seagrass habitats Adaptations to minimize the gap • Maintain water quality • Conserve structural complexity of reefs • Prohibit physical damage to seagrass • Manage timber collection in mangroves Reverse degradation of habitats Source: Bell et al. (2011)
  • 15. Provide for landward migration of fish habitats L-W W-W L-L W-L Source: Bell et al. (2011) Adaptations to minimize the gap
  • 16. Sustain production of fish stocks Maintaining spawning adults needed for regular replenishment will help build resilience of stocks L-W W-W L-L W-L Maintain habitat mosaics and herbivorous fish species Connectivity between reefs, seagrass & mangroves Control of macroalgae by herbivorous fish Source: Bell et al. (2011) Adaptations to minimize the gap
  • 17. Considerations for NAPs Foster effective co-management based on: • A climate-informed, community-based, ecosystem approach to fisheries management (CBEAFM) to maintain fish habitats and fish stocks • Integrated development plans for agriculture, forestry, infrastructure and fisheries to avoid maladaptation • National fisheries regulations to underpin CBEAFM Communities Governments
  • 18. L-W W-W L-L W-L Source: Bell et al. (2011) Adaptations to fill the gap Skipjack tuna > 1 million Mt p.a. Yellowfin tuna > 300,000 Mt p.a. Assist communities to catch tuna by expanding use of nearshore fish aggregating devices (FADs) Provide training in safe FAD-fishing methods
  • 19. Source: Bell et al. (2015) Adaptations to fill the gap
  • 20. • Preliminary modelling for skipjack tuna 2005 Mt/km2 Mt/km2 2050 Source: Senina et al. (2018) Adaptations to fill the gap
  • 21. Considerations for NAPs • Include nearshore FADs as part of the national infrastructure for food security • Evaluate whether industrial fishing exclusion zones provide adequate access to tuna for small-scale fishers • Develop forecasting tools for small-scale fishers • Store spare FAD materials in cyclone-proof containers • Collaborate with other countries that share tuna resources to increase confidence in modelling tuna Governments
  • 22. Principle Pacific Island example Logical approach ✓ End-to-end framework Win-win ✓ Nearshore FADs National co-ordination ✓ Planning across sectors to avoid maladaptation Co-management ✓ Filling food gap requires communities & govt support Fill gaps in knowledge ✓ Improved modelling of tropical tuna Principles for including fisheries in NAPS
  • 23. Global fisheries adaptation resource http://www.fao.org/3/i9705en/i9705en.pdf