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KM2.0 Social KM in libraries
       Case study
          Karolien Selhorst
     Digital Library/Knowledge
    Manager Library of Vlissingen
“Libraries excel in managing information and
knowledge captured in books and documents,
but they fail in locating and managing the
knowledge potential in the heads of their own
people.”
• What is (social) knowledge management?
• Why is it relevant for libraries?
• Case study: Social KM in the Public Library of
  Vlissingen
• Questions?
What is knowledge management?
“Knowledge management is concerned with the exploitation
and development of the knowledge assets of an organisation
with a view to furthering the organisation‟s objectives. The
knowledge to be managed includes both explicit, documented
knowledge, and tacit, subjective knowledge. Management
entails all of those processes associated with the identification,
sharing and creation of knowledge (…).” Rowley (1999: 418)
The value of KM for libraries

• “(…) to promote relationship in and between libraries,
  between library and user, to strenghten knowledge
  internetworking and to quicken knowledge flow.” Shangong
  (2000)
• “(…) one more tool for designing effective library service.”
  Townley (2001: 51) => improving the quality of the library-
  customer relationship
Question

What do YOU think the value of KM is for libraries?
What is „social‟ KM?

• Knowledge management +
  social tools
• People-centric
• Culture of teamwork + open,
  transparent management
KM 1.0
• The old traditional, techno-centric
  command and control form of KM
  (< D. Gurteen)
KM2.0 or social KM
• People-centric KM (after action
  reviews, communities of practice,
  storytelling, etc.)
• Social tools
  (wikis, blogs, social networks, etc.)
KM1.0 versus KM2.0

KM 1.0                                 KM2.0
•   Top down                           • Bottom up
•   Command and control                • Distributed
•   Centralised                        • Decentralised
•   Focus on the technology            • Focus on the people
•   Knowledge is power                 • Knowledge sharing
•   Closed culture (closed doors)      • Open and transparent culture
•   Directories provide contact info     of trust (open doors)
                                       • Social networks reflect
                                         connections
KM2.0
• Don‟t focus on the tools, but look at the goals you want to achieve
• “Technology is a tool and like all tools it should fit your hand when
  you pick it up, you shouldn't have to bio-re-engineer your hand to
  fit the tool” (Dave Snowden)
• quot;Participatory service and change are the heart of Library 2.0, and
  technology is a tool that can help us get there“ (Michael Casey)
Question
How do YOU see social knowledge management?
Case study
SOCIAL KM IN THE PUBLIC LIBRARY OF VLISSINGEN
The Public Library of Vlissingen

• The public library of Vlissingen
  lies at the heart of Zeeland
• Apart from the main building
  the library provides services in
  the nearby situated village, in
  several local schools and the
  nearby hospital
• The library has 45 staff
  members
The Public Library of Vlissingen

• The customer-focused physical
  and digital library:
   – Customer-focused: we want to
     provide a tailor-made service
     to our customers
   – The digital library: we aim to
     be where our users are
     (library2.0)
Why knowledge management?

• Library services are highly personal; the quality depends on the
  interaction between library staff members and customers
• The public library of Vlissingen aims to improve customer service by
  making it less dependent on an individual‟s expertise and
  knowledge
• Customer service needs to be based on teamwork and shared
  knowledge
KM issues and drivers
• In the last few years, knowledge transfer between staff members
  and library customers has been far from ideal
• The library has several locations, which hampers internal knowledge
  transfer
• Library management has become aware of the importance of KM in
  order to efficiently reach the library‟s goals
KM strategy
•   Step 1: knowledge audit
•   Step 2: implementing the recommendations that follow the K-audit
•   Step 3: integrating KM tools and practices
•   Step 4: evaluating and monitoring KM (plan, do, check, act)
Social KM with two dimensions

   Internal dimension           External dimension
Step 1:The knowledge audit

• Goals of the K-audit
   – To map and to evaluate the current knowledge practices and
     culture and to identify potential knowledge gaps or overlaps
   – Analysing the knowledge flow in three dimensions:
     people, systems and processes
   – Making the hidden knowledge potential more explicit.
The knowledge audit in 5 phases
•   Planning the audit
•   Collecting data
•   Analysing and evaluating data
•   Formulating and communicating recommendations
•   Implementing recommendations => evaluating and monitoring
Doing a K-audit in 5 steps

                                      Planning




            Implementi
                ng                                          Collecting
           recommend                                          data
              ations
                                       Audit
                                   stakeholders




                   Formulating,c
                    ommunicatin                    Analysing
                         g                        ,evaluating
                   recommendat                       data
                       ions
The knowledge audit: findings
•   The intranet did not meet the needs of library workers
•   No collective knowledge sharing and learning
•   Library workers lacked a sense of „collective ambition‟
•   Knowledge gap: web2.0-knowledge was missing
The knowledge audit:findings
• More than 50% of all library staff members was unaware of each
  other‟s knowledge
• Thanks to the audit we now have detailed knowledge profiles of all
  library staff members
The K-audit: recommendations

• The knowledge flow in 3 dimensions:
   – People: The introduction of a new team-based service
     concept => cultural change in order to stimulate team spirit
     and the collective ambition
   – Systems: The introduction of an internal wiki as a central
     knowledge base and as a virtual means to exchange
     knowledge throughout the library
   – Knowledge processes: The initiation of „communities of
     practice‟
The K-audit: recommendations
• Bridging the knowledge gap through an online web2.0-course
  („23Things‟)
• Mapping and making explicit staff members‟ hidden knowledge
  through wiki knowledge profiles
Step 2: Implementation: Culture

• The introduction of a new service concept based upon
  teamwork and knowledge sharing
• Staff members no longer serve customers on an individual
  basis, but in teams (clusters)
• Goal: providing a better and „richer‟ customer service
Cultural change
Step 2: Implementation: a library wiki

• Official launch in March 2009
• Goal: facilitating library knowledge management
• 2nd phase of the wiki: integration of the wiki with learning network
  through „Question Manager‟
• 3rd phase of the wiki: integration with „my library‟ application
Setting up a wiki in 6 steps

•   Step 1: planning the wiki
•   Step 2: designing the wiki
•   Step 3: testing the wiki
•   Step 4: training the users and launching the wiki
•   Step 5: maintaining the wiki
•   Step 6: evaluating the wiki
Wiki adoption

•   Wiki users go through 5 phases (< Kübler-Ross):
     – Denial “Why does our library need a wiki? What was wrong with the
       intranet?”
     – Anger “Stupid wiki”
     – Bargaining: “I only want to contribute if the background is pink””
     – Depression: “What‟s next?”
     – Acceptance: “Maybe I should give it a try?”
•   Where are we now?
     – 60% is in the acceptance phase
     – 30% is in the bargaining phase
     – 10% is in the depression phase
Km2.0 in libraries
Step 2: Implementation: QM
• „Question Manager‟: a new software that supports and makes
  transparent the way customer enquiries are handled
• Customer enquiries are allocated to the librarian/expert with the
  knowledge profile that matches the topic of the question
• QM enables staff members to work together on a „richer‟ answer for
  the customer
• Answers – and library expertise - become more visible in Google
  search results
Km2.0 in libraries
Step 2: Implementation: bridging the knowledge gap

• Goal: bridging the knowledge gap in order to improve the
  quality of customer service
• Web2.0 course: „23 Things‟
• „23 Things‟: learn about web2.0 in 23 steps
• Learning by playing and teamwork
• From April 2008 until October 2008
Km2.0 in libraries
Step 2: Implementation: Coops
• Initiation of communities of practice that share
  knowledge about the use of web2.0 in the library
• Goal: to stimulate people to share knowledge
  beyond borders of their own teams + the bottom-up
  realisation of „library2.0‟
• Results: the realisation/initiation of several
  innovative web2.0-services and projects
Phase 2: social KM: external dimension

• Goal: sharing knowledge and communicating more
  interactively with local community members
• Examples:
   – A library blog
   – LibraryThing
   – Flickr
Km2.0 in libraries
Km2.0 in libraries
Km2.0 in libraries
Phase 2: social KM: external dimension
• Sharing knowledge within the library is limited
• Sharing knowledge with other libraries offers new opportunities!
• The Zeeuwse Bibliotheek and the public libraries of Rotterdam and
  Haarlem participate in one knowledge project
• Sharing knowledge on a national level in the Netherlands is the
  ambition: QM makes this possible
• The public library becomes an important node in the knowledge
  economy
Thank you for your attention!

          Questions?
     karosel64@gmail.com

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Km2.0 in libraries

  • 1. KM2.0 Social KM in libraries Case study Karolien Selhorst Digital Library/Knowledge Manager Library of Vlissingen
  • 2. “Libraries excel in managing information and knowledge captured in books and documents, but they fail in locating and managing the knowledge potential in the heads of their own people.”
  • 3. • What is (social) knowledge management? • Why is it relevant for libraries? • Case study: Social KM in the Public Library of Vlissingen • Questions?
  • 4. What is knowledge management? “Knowledge management is concerned with the exploitation and development of the knowledge assets of an organisation with a view to furthering the organisation‟s objectives. The knowledge to be managed includes both explicit, documented knowledge, and tacit, subjective knowledge. Management entails all of those processes associated with the identification, sharing and creation of knowledge (…).” Rowley (1999: 418)
  • 5. The value of KM for libraries • “(…) to promote relationship in and between libraries, between library and user, to strenghten knowledge internetworking and to quicken knowledge flow.” Shangong (2000) • “(…) one more tool for designing effective library service.” Townley (2001: 51) => improving the quality of the library- customer relationship
  • 6. Question What do YOU think the value of KM is for libraries?
  • 7. What is „social‟ KM? • Knowledge management + social tools • People-centric • Culture of teamwork + open, transparent management
  • 8. KM 1.0 • The old traditional, techno-centric command and control form of KM (< D. Gurteen)
  • 9. KM2.0 or social KM • People-centric KM (after action reviews, communities of practice, storytelling, etc.) • Social tools (wikis, blogs, social networks, etc.)
  • 10. KM1.0 versus KM2.0 KM 1.0 KM2.0 • Top down • Bottom up • Command and control • Distributed • Centralised • Decentralised • Focus on the technology • Focus on the people • Knowledge is power • Knowledge sharing • Closed culture (closed doors) • Open and transparent culture • Directories provide contact info of trust (open doors) • Social networks reflect connections
  • 11. KM2.0 • Don‟t focus on the tools, but look at the goals you want to achieve • “Technology is a tool and like all tools it should fit your hand when you pick it up, you shouldn't have to bio-re-engineer your hand to fit the tool” (Dave Snowden) • quot;Participatory service and change are the heart of Library 2.0, and technology is a tool that can help us get there“ (Michael Casey)
  • 12. Question How do YOU see social knowledge management?
  • 13. Case study SOCIAL KM IN THE PUBLIC LIBRARY OF VLISSINGEN
  • 14. The Public Library of Vlissingen • The public library of Vlissingen lies at the heart of Zeeland • Apart from the main building the library provides services in the nearby situated village, in several local schools and the nearby hospital • The library has 45 staff members
  • 15. The Public Library of Vlissingen • The customer-focused physical and digital library: – Customer-focused: we want to provide a tailor-made service to our customers – The digital library: we aim to be where our users are (library2.0)
  • 16. Why knowledge management? • Library services are highly personal; the quality depends on the interaction between library staff members and customers • The public library of Vlissingen aims to improve customer service by making it less dependent on an individual‟s expertise and knowledge • Customer service needs to be based on teamwork and shared knowledge
  • 17. KM issues and drivers • In the last few years, knowledge transfer between staff members and library customers has been far from ideal • The library has several locations, which hampers internal knowledge transfer • Library management has become aware of the importance of KM in order to efficiently reach the library‟s goals
  • 18. KM strategy • Step 1: knowledge audit • Step 2: implementing the recommendations that follow the K-audit • Step 3: integrating KM tools and practices • Step 4: evaluating and monitoring KM (plan, do, check, act)
  • 19. Social KM with two dimensions Internal dimension External dimension
  • 20. Step 1:The knowledge audit • Goals of the K-audit – To map and to evaluate the current knowledge practices and culture and to identify potential knowledge gaps or overlaps – Analysing the knowledge flow in three dimensions: people, systems and processes – Making the hidden knowledge potential more explicit.
  • 21. The knowledge audit in 5 phases • Planning the audit • Collecting data • Analysing and evaluating data • Formulating and communicating recommendations • Implementing recommendations => evaluating and monitoring
  • 22. Doing a K-audit in 5 steps Planning Implementi ng Collecting recommend data ations Audit stakeholders Formulating,c ommunicatin Analysing g ,evaluating recommendat data ions
  • 23. The knowledge audit: findings • The intranet did not meet the needs of library workers • No collective knowledge sharing and learning • Library workers lacked a sense of „collective ambition‟ • Knowledge gap: web2.0-knowledge was missing
  • 24. The knowledge audit:findings • More than 50% of all library staff members was unaware of each other‟s knowledge • Thanks to the audit we now have detailed knowledge profiles of all library staff members
  • 25. The K-audit: recommendations • The knowledge flow in 3 dimensions: – People: The introduction of a new team-based service concept => cultural change in order to stimulate team spirit and the collective ambition – Systems: The introduction of an internal wiki as a central knowledge base and as a virtual means to exchange knowledge throughout the library – Knowledge processes: The initiation of „communities of practice‟
  • 26. The K-audit: recommendations • Bridging the knowledge gap through an online web2.0-course („23Things‟) • Mapping and making explicit staff members‟ hidden knowledge through wiki knowledge profiles
  • 27. Step 2: Implementation: Culture • The introduction of a new service concept based upon teamwork and knowledge sharing • Staff members no longer serve customers on an individual basis, but in teams (clusters) • Goal: providing a better and „richer‟ customer service
  • 29. Step 2: Implementation: a library wiki • Official launch in March 2009 • Goal: facilitating library knowledge management • 2nd phase of the wiki: integration of the wiki with learning network through „Question Manager‟ • 3rd phase of the wiki: integration with „my library‟ application
  • 30. Setting up a wiki in 6 steps • Step 1: planning the wiki • Step 2: designing the wiki • Step 3: testing the wiki • Step 4: training the users and launching the wiki • Step 5: maintaining the wiki • Step 6: evaluating the wiki
  • 31. Wiki adoption • Wiki users go through 5 phases (< Kübler-Ross): – Denial “Why does our library need a wiki? What was wrong with the intranet?” – Anger “Stupid wiki” – Bargaining: “I only want to contribute if the background is pink”” – Depression: “What‟s next?” – Acceptance: “Maybe I should give it a try?” • Where are we now? – 60% is in the acceptance phase – 30% is in the bargaining phase – 10% is in the depression phase
  • 33. Step 2: Implementation: QM • „Question Manager‟: a new software that supports and makes transparent the way customer enquiries are handled • Customer enquiries are allocated to the librarian/expert with the knowledge profile that matches the topic of the question • QM enables staff members to work together on a „richer‟ answer for the customer • Answers – and library expertise - become more visible in Google search results
  • 35. Step 2: Implementation: bridging the knowledge gap • Goal: bridging the knowledge gap in order to improve the quality of customer service • Web2.0 course: „23 Things‟ • „23 Things‟: learn about web2.0 in 23 steps • Learning by playing and teamwork • From April 2008 until October 2008
  • 37. Step 2: Implementation: Coops • Initiation of communities of practice that share knowledge about the use of web2.0 in the library • Goal: to stimulate people to share knowledge beyond borders of their own teams + the bottom-up realisation of „library2.0‟ • Results: the realisation/initiation of several innovative web2.0-services and projects
  • 38. Phase 2: social KM: external dimension • Goal: sharing knowledge and communicating more interactively with local community members • Examples: – A library blog – LibraryThing – Flickr
  • 42. Phase 2: social KM: external dimension • Sharing knowledge within the library is limited • Sharing knowledge with other libraries offers new opportunities! • The Zeeuwse Bibliotheek and the public libraries of Rotterdam and Haarlem participate in one knowledge project • Sharing knowledge on a national level in the Netherlands is the ambition: QM makes this possible • The public library becomes an important node in the knowledge economy
  • 43. Thank you for your attention! Questions? karosel64@gmail.com