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ITALIAN CONTEXT
Supporting Survivors of Sexual Violence in
Universities – learning from pan-Eurpean
practice
London, 9th November 2017
Norma De Piccoli, Mara Martini, Roberta
Bosisio, Mia Caielli, Paola Deiana, Joelle Long,
Federica Turco
http://usvreact.eu #USVreact
Some data
• 31% of 16-70 year old Italian women had experienced any forms of
violence along her life.
• 20% had experienced physical violence,
• 21% had experienced sexual violence
Sexual harassment is the most frequent experienced type of sexual violence
(74%)
• 77% of sexual harassment are perpetrated by unknown individuals
• Most of rapes or attempted rapes are perpetrated by partners, ex-partners
or friends
• Most of victims are divorced and young women
• Among the youngest victims, we found the most educated and those
working in high level jobs
National Institute of statistics (ISTAT, 2014)
CULTURAL CONTEXT: ITALY
A comparison of the 2014 results with the previous research conducted in
2006 shows that:
• less severe forms of violence are declining
• women show a greater ability to get out of violent relationships due to an
increased awareness of violence
• women report more the violence and talk more about it
• more victims see sexual violence as a crime (from 14,3% to 29,6%)
In Italy if data about rape are declining, a culture based on sexism and
paternalism remains. For example Italy is among the European countries
with the worst gender equity indexes
GENERAL CONTEXT: ITALY
• Even if some positive exceptions can be reported, a large part of media
(television, newspapers, ..) that report news about gender violence point
attention on the victims behaviour and/or describe the violence as a not
controllable “raptus”: in many cases the gender violence is in some way
“justified” and not definitely condemned.
• It can be , in our context, expression of a still existing patriarchal culture
and, as someone (Corradi, 2009) describes, gender violence is an
expression of male affirming power (or looking for affirming power) on
women.
GENERAL CONTEXT: ITALY
National and Regional Legislation
Sexual violence in Italy was considered a «crime against public decency
and morality» until two decades ago. Law no. 66 of 1996, establishing
"Provisions against sexual violence", turned the crime of sexual abuse
into a crime against the person, introducing the crimes of sexual
violence, sexual acts with children, corruption of a minor and gang rape.
GENERAL CONTEXT: ITALY
National and Regional Legislation
Law no. 38 of 2009 has exacerbated the punishment for sexual acts and
introduced stalking as a type of offence punishable with imprisonment
ranging from six months up to four years for any continuative harassing,
threatening or persecuting behaviour which: (1) causes a state of anxiety
and fear in the victim(s), or; (2) ingenerates with in the victim(s) a
motivated fear for his/her own safety or for the safety of relatives, kin, or
others associated with the victim him/herself by an affective relationship,
or; (3), forces the victim(s) to change his/her living habits».
Quite recently a new law has been approved to contrast the
phenomenon of feminicide. Law no. 93 of 2013 further exacerbates
the punishments and improves tools for victims' protection.
GENERAL CONTEXT: ITALY
More than 67,000 students (62% female)
Teaching staff 1,953 (42% female)
Administrative staff 1,879 (67% female).
THE UNIVERSITY OF TURIN
Resources and services available at the University of Turin
Guarantee Committee (Comitato Unico Di Garanzia, CUG)
The Guarantee Committee for equal opportunities, the enhancement of the
welfare at work and against discrimination (CUG)
• aims to ensure university personnel and students a serene working and
studying environment, where interpersonal relationships are characterized
by fairness, mutual respect, freedom and dignity
• promotes a culture of equality and operates against any form of
discrimination under the University Code of Conduct
The Confidential Counsellor (Consigliera di fiducia)
• provides information, advice and assistance free of charge to University
personnel and students suffering from discrimination, harassment and
infringements to their dignity or bullying
• does not belong to the University personnel and is therefore independent
and impartial .
THE UNIVERSITY OF TURIN
Resources and services available at the University of Turin
Counselling
• Provides listening and support for students encountering difficulties in
interpersonal relationships, in situations of stress or anxiety related to their
studies
• provides professional help to students who live personal difficulties such as
to prevent the achievement of academic goals;
• help students in severe personal crisis to identify the source of their
discomfort and to develop adaptation strategies.
Other possible resources are
• University Office of Personal and Disability Services
• Students’ Council.
THE UNIVERSITY OF TURIN
Resources and services available at the University of Turin
Services in the Turin area (partner of the Project)
The City and Provincial Coordination against Violence on Women (CCPCVD):
it provides expertise and health, psychological, legal, public policy, cultural,
social welfare and educational services, in order to protect the fundamental
rights of women and to offer them support, countering gender violence and
promoting a culture of respect, reciprocity and equality between women
and men.
THE UNIVERSITY OF TURIN
• April 2018
The first course titled "History of Homosexuality" will be held at the University
of Turin, showing that the institution paid attention to guarantee equal
opportunities and is sensitive to develop a thought that creates inclusion
THE UNIVERSITY OF TURIN
University of Turin shows attention to the matter and
offers to employees and to students institutional
services to manage cases of gender or sexual based
discrimination and harassment.
QUESTION FOR DISCUSSION: CRITICS and
CHALLENGES
In spite of this, both norms and services for these
matters seem not so known and, more, awareness of
the topic is not very spread in the cultureTo maintain
a constant vigilance within the institution to avoid a
culture that tends to underestimate - or not to see -
cases of "subtle" violence in study and work places,
justifying stereotypes and attitudes (see data of our
research on a sample of 5,000 students )
QUESTION FOR DISCUSSION: CRITICS and
CHALLENGES
Thanks to our project it is planned to establish a coordination between the
various existing resources in order to:
• improve the knowledge of existing services among all the social actors of
the University;
• create a network between the different services within the University so to
answer to questions related to violence and discrimination
• develop periodic training pathways in order to maintain a high sensitivity on
these issues
USV REACT for THE UNIVERSITY OF TURIN

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Keynote Panel: How different national, cultural and institutional contexts frame sexual violence and disclosure.

  • 1. ITALIAN CONTEXT Supporting Survivors of Sexual Violence in Universities – learning from pan-Eurpean practice London, 9th November 2017 Norma De Piccoli, Mara Martini, Roberta Bosisio, Mia Caielli, Paola Deiana, Joelle Long, Federica Turco http://usvreact.eu #USVreact
  • 2. Some data • 31% of 16-70 year old Italian women had experienced any forms of violence along her life. • 20% had experienced physical violence, • 21% had experienced sexual violence Sexual harassment is the most frequent experienced type of sexual violence (74%) • 77% of sexual harassment are perpetrated by unknown individuals • Most of rapes or attempted rapes are perpetrated by partners, ex-partners or friends • Most of victims are divorced and young women • Among the youngest victims, we found the most educated and those working in high level jobs National Institute of statistics (ISTAT, 2014) CULTURAL CONTEXT: ITALY
  • 3. A comparison of the 2014 results with the previous research conducted in 2006 shows that: • less severe forms of violence are declining • women show a greater ability to get out of violent relationships due to an increased awareness of violence • women report more the violence and talk more about it • more victims see sexual violence as a crime (from 14,3% to 29,6%) In Italy if data about rape are declining, a culture based on sexism and paternalism remains. For example Italy is among the European countries with the worst gender equity indexes GENERAL CONTEXT: ITALY
  • 4. • Even if some positive exceptions can be reported, a large part of media (television, newspapers, ..) that report news about gender violence point attention on the victims behaviour and/or describe the violence as a not controllable “raptus”: in many cases the gender violence is in some way “justified” and not definitely condemned. • It can be , in our context, expression of a still existing patriarchal culture and, as someone (Corradi, 2009) describes, gender violence is an expression of male affirming power (or looking for affirming power) on women. GENERAL CONTEXT: ITALY
  • 5. National and Regional Legislation Sexual violence in Italy was considered a «crime against public decency and morality» until two decades ago. Law no. 66 of 1996, establishing "Provisions against sexual violence", turned the crime of sexual abuse into a crime against the person, introducing the crimes of sexual violence, sexual acts with children, corruption of a minor and gang rape. GENERAL CONTEXT: ITALY
  • 6. National and Regional Legislation Law no. 38 of 2009 has exacerbated the punishment for sexual acts and introduced stalking as a type of offence punishable with imprisonment ranging from six months up to four years for any continuative harassing, threatening or persecuting behaviour which: (1) causes a state of anxiety and fear in the victim(s), or; (2) ingenerates with in the victim(s) a motivated fear for his/her own safety or for the safety of relatives, kin, or others associated with the victim him/herself by an affective relationship, or; (3), forces the victim(s) to change his/her living habits». Quite recently a new law has been approved to contrast the phenomenon of feminicide. Law no. 93 of 2013 further exacerbates the punishments and improves tools for victims' protection. GENERAL CONTEXT: ITALY
  • 7. More than 67,000 students (62% female) Teaching staff 1,953 (42% female) Administrative staff 1,879 (67% female). THE UNIVERSITY OF TURIN
  • 8. Resources and services available at the University of Turin Guarantee Committee (Comitato Unico Di Garanzia, CUG) The Guarantee Committee for equal opportunities, the enhancement of the welfare at work and against discrimination (CUG) • aims to ensure university personnel and students a serene working and studying environment, where interpersonal relationships are characterized by fairness, mutual respect, freedom and dignity • promotes a culture of equality and operates against any form of discrimination under the University Code of Conduct The Confidential Counsellor (Consigliera di fiducia) • provides information, advice and assistance free of charge to University personnel and students suffering from discrimination, harassment and infringements to their dignity or bullying • does not belong to the University personnel and is therefore independent and impartial . THE UNIVERSITY OF TURIN
  • 9. Resources and services available at the University of Turin Counselling • Provides listening and support for students encountering difficulties in interpersonal relationships, in situations of stress or anxiety related to their studies • provides professional help to students who live personal difficulties such as to prevent the achievement of academic goals; • help students in severe personal crisis to identify the source of their discomfort and to develop adaptation strategies. Other possible resources are • University Office of Personal and Disability Services • Students’ Council. THE UNIVERSITY OF TURIN
  • 10. Resources and services available at the University of Turin Services in the Turin area (partner of the Project) The City and Provincial Coordination against Violence on Women (CCPCVD): it provides expertise and health, psychological, legal, public policy, cultural, social welfare and educational services, in order to protect the fundamental rights of women and to offer them support, countering gender violence and promoting a culture of respect, reciprocity and equality between women and men. THE UNIVERSITY OF TURIN
  • 11. • April 2018 The first course titled "History of Homosexuality" will be held at the University of Turin, showing that the institution paid attention to guarantee equal opportunities and is sensitive to develop a thought that creates inclusion THE UNIVERSITY OF TURIN
  • 12. University of Turin shows attention to the matter and offers to employees and to students institutional services to manage cases of gender or sexual based discrimination and harassment. QUESTION FOR DISCUSSION: CRITICS and CHALLENGES
  • 13. In spite of this, both norms and services for these matters seem not so known and, more, awareness of the topic is not very spread in the cultureTo maintain a constant vigilance within the institution to avoid a culture that tends to underestimate - or not to see - cases of "subtle" violence in study and work places, justifying stereotypes and attitudes (see data of our research on a sample of 5,000 students ) QUESTION FOR DISCUSSION: CRITICS and CHALLENGES
  • 14. Thanks to our project it is planned to establish a coordination between the various existing resources in order to: • improve the knowledge of existing services among all the social actors of the University; • create a network between the different services within the University so to answer to questions related to violence and discrimination • develop periodic training pathways in order to maintain a high sensitivity on these issues USV REACT for THE UNIVERSITY OF TURIN