SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Defining and measuring
public transit service equity
Alex Karner, PhD
Postdoctoral researcher ● CEDEUS
Defining and measuring
public transit service equity
Alex Karner, PhD
Postdoctoral researcher ● CEDEUS
@AlexKarner
Transportation equity
What is it?
3
• Freeway revolts, urban
unrest (1960s)
– McCone commission
report
• ISTEA (1991)
– “Planning factors”
• Subsequent guidance,
legislation, etc.
Watts, Los Angeles, 1965
Transportation equity
What is it?
4
…a civil and human rights priority. Access to
affordable and reliable transportation
widens opportunity. Current transportation
spending programs do not equally benefit
all communities and populations. Negative
effects of some transportation decisions are
broadly felt and long-lasting.
The Leadership Council on Civil Rights
http://www.civilrights.org/transportation/
Transportation equity
What is it? An illustrative example
• 2004: Minority Citizens Advisory Committee
proposes adoption of four EJ principles:
1. Creation of an empowering public process
2. Collection of data to analyze inequities in
transportation funding
3. Changing discretionary investments to mitigate
such inequities as are found
4. Mitigation of disproportionate project effects
prior to being approved for funding
5
Transportation 2035: MTC’s 2009 RTP
Regional equity analysis
• Critical review
– Geographic aggregation
– Future vs. existing equity
– Treatment of race
6
Karner, A. and D. Niemeier (2013). “Civil rights guidance and equity analysis methods for regional
transportation plans: a critical review of literature and practice.” Journal of Transport Geography 33: 126-134.
Rowangould, D., A. Karner and J. London. “Identifying environmental justice communities for transportation
analysis.” Under review at Transportation Research: Part A.
San Francisco County, California
Photo credit:
Paloma Pavel
Regional equity organizing:
Equity, environment and jobs Scenario
Transit service equity
8
9
Why do we have transit?
• Image and aesthetics
• To use federal funds (FTA’s New Starts)
• Economic development (Chatman and Noland, 2013)
• Congestion and air quality mitigation (Anderson, 2014)
• To provide basic mobility for transit dependent
populations (Grengs, 2005; Garrett and Taylor, 1999)
Who uses transit?
10
Transit dependents
(bus users)
Choice riders
(commuter rail users)
“Simply put, the bus is the mode of the poor.”
Median income $22,500 $62,500
source: Taylor and Morris, 2015 using 2009 NHTS data
Transit goals in tension
• Rail transit service has expanded faster
than bus service over the past 25 years
• Bus patronage declined from 2001-2009
as rail ridership grew
• Bus and rail service and patronage
converging over time
• Shift to serving choice riders with premium
service
11sources: Taylor and Morris, 2015; Wells and Thill, 2012; Grengs, 2005
Title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act
Legal basis for transit equity
12
“No person in the United States shall, on the
ground of race, color, or national origin, be
excluded from participation in, be denied the
benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination
under any program or activity receiving
Federal financial assistance.”
Title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act
13
Fund recipients may not discriminate “with
regard to the routing, scheduling, or quality of
service … furnished” to patrons.
49 CFR §21.5 Appendix C(a)(3)(iii)
14
Equity analysis practice
• Transit agencies evaluate the equity of
“major” service changes according to FTA
guidance FTA Circular 4702.1B
• Process has been contentious in Los Angeles
and the Bay Area
• FTA requires specific data and methods but
these may not reflect actual ridership and
afford wide agency discretion
15
image source: Metropolitan
Transportation Commission
Oakland Airport Connector
• $500 million project
• Doubles fare, no intermediate stops
• $70 million withdrawn by Federal Transit
Administration for civil rights violations
Local bus service cuts
• AC Transit disproportionately serves riders of color
• 2008-11: 8% fewer service miles, 12% fewer trips, fares
increased 11%
17
July, 2010 Metro budget cuts 387,500 bus service hours
Nov., 2010
Bus Riders Union files administrative complaint
with Federal Transit Administration
April 23, 2012 Metro found in violation
April 5, 2013 New Metro service equity analysis
June 27, 2013 Metro found in compliance
Los Angeles
How well do existing methods
work?
18
Study area: Phoenix, Arizona
• 6th largest city in US
(1.4 million people)
• 12th largest metropolitan
area (4.2 million people)
• Urbanized area increased
sevenfold from 1950 –
2000
• 2.4% of workers commute
using transit (half the US
average rate)
19
Congestion on Interstate 10 in Phoenix
image source: ADOT
20
Rapid
Express Local
Light rail
Typical analysis:
1. Establish service area demographics
21
total population people of color
household
income < $25K
Valley Metro system
demographics (buffers)
1,710,309
891,990 177,640
52% 28%
Valley Metro system ridership 242,687
136,729 122,532
56% 50%
Typical analysis:
2. Establish affected population demographics
22
Route 39 – 40th St.
white people of color household income < $25K
77% 23% 17%
3. Compare affected and service area populations
white people of color
household income <
$25K
Valley Metro system
demographics (buffers)
48% 52% 28%
Route 39 – 40th St. 77% 23% 17%
77% > 48% and 17% < 28% Potential impact
Typical analysis: limitations
23
• Either census data or ridership can be
used
• Most analyses based on demographics
proximate to stops
• Academic literature has taken a similar
approach (Wu et al., 2003; Minocha et al., 2008; Mavoa et al., 2012;
Al Mamun and Lownes, 2011)
Accessibility-based analysis?
• Accessibility measures the potential to
meet desired needs
(Wachs and Kumagai, 1973; Handy and Niemeier, 1997)
• Essential for understanding transportation
system benefits (Martens, 2012; Martens et al. 2012)
• Use to supplement demographic analyses
24
Research questions
1. How consistently do existing methods
characterize the equity of transit-related
decisions?
2. How can new data sources aid with
equity determinations?
– Incorporate accessibility
25
Observed ridership and census
demographics
26
Data and methods
27
• Census demographics
– 2010 SF1 (race)
– 2008-2012 ACS (income)
• Ridership
– 2010-2011 Valley Metro
On-board survey
Karner, A. and A. Golub (In press). “Comparing two common
approaches to public transit service equity evaluation.”
Transportation Research Record.
28
Rapid
Express
Local
29
• White ridership
higher than
census on
premium modes
• Black ridership
higher than
census on local
modes
• Latino ridership
lower than
census in all
cases
30
31
Modeling results
dependent variable (ridership proportion)
White Black Latino Asian < $25K > $50K
census 2.1 2.1 24.8
N 92 92 92 92 92 92
R2 0.26 0.024 0.33 0.20 0.003 0.005
32
• Census demographics have some
relationship with ridership for some groups
Modeling results
dependent variable (ridership proportion)
White Black Latino Asian < $25K > $50K
census 2.1 2.1 24.8
N 92 92 92 92 92 92
R2 0.26 0.024 0.33 0.20 0.003 0.005
33
dependent variable (ridership proportion)
White Black Latino Asian < $25K > $50K
census 1.89 12.43 1.76 27.6 2.61
total ridership -0.0419 0.0343 0.0303
mean walk score along
route
0.00829 -0.0184 0.0252
premium mode dummy 0.739 -1.479 -0.546 -1.77 1.58
light rail dummy 1.516 -1.418 -1.258 -1.94
N 92 92 92 92 92 92
R2 0.59 0.54 0.47 0.26 0.52 0.68
• Adding quality-of-service variables improves fit
• Relationships differ by racial category
Modeling results
34
Implications for FTA equity analysis
Rapid routes example
Comparison populations
white
people of
color
household
income < $25K
6,524 7,158 1,396
48% 52% 48%
Reference population (buffers)
48% 52% 28%
35
Comparison populations
white
people of
color
household
income < $25K
1,337 434 205
76% 24% 11.5%
Reference population (ridership)
44% 56% 50%
Census demographics Ridership
48% = 48% and 48% > 28%
No impact under service
improvement
76% > 44% and 11.5% < 50%
Potential impact under service
improvement
Conclusions
• The demographic data used (census or
ridership) can affect the conclusions drawn
regarding equity
• FTA considers both sources valid
• Future work to understand when model
results can be more widely applied
36
Equity in accessibility
37
38
Maricopa Pinal
Maricopa Association of Governments TAZ system
~1 sq. mile
~1/4 sq. mile
~1/10 sq. mile
Data
39
Pedestrian network
OpenStreetMap
Block-level demographics
Longitudinal Employer Household Dynamics
Transit stops
Transit routes
GTFS
Transit schedule
Methods
1. Calculate pedestrian service areas around
stops (1/4 mi. bus, 1/2 mi. rail)
2. Develop service area demographics
3. Calculate travel time between all stop pairs
(64 minute cutoff, ~95% of observed trips)
1. 2 hour morning peak, 24 random departures
(22 GB, ~7 hours on consumer hardware)
2. ESRI network analyst with “Add GTFS to a
Network Dataset”
4. Calculate stop- and route-level accessibility
40
41
Origin
Stopi
Stop1 Stop2 Stopj
Workersw Jobsw
Travel time and geography
General Transit Feed Specification
…
Demographics
Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics
Jobsw
Jobsw
Transit route k
𝐴𝑖
𝑤
= 𝐸𝑗
𝑤
𝑒−𝛽 𝑡 𝑖𝑗
𝑗
Territorial accessibility
𝐴𝑖
𝑤
= 𝑊𝑖
𝑤
𝐸𝑗
𝑤
𝑒−𝛽 𝑡 𝑖𝑗
𝑗
Worker-weighted accessibility
Sum over all workers
for overall accessibility
Take mean over stops
on a route for route-
level accessibility
ti1 t12 t2j
Results: total accessibility
42
Territorial accessibility Worker-weighted accessibility
43
Route-level territorial accessibility
44
Route-level worker-weighted accessibility
Scottsdale
Neighborhood
Circulators
Glendale Urban
Shuttles
Scottsdale
Neighborhood
Circulator
Glendale Urban
Shuttles
45
Implications for FTA analysis
> average low-income riders
worker-weighted route-level accessibility to low-wage jobs
Limitations
• Coarse (and
unchanging) LEHD
thresholds
– Low-wage jobs
definitely low
– Mid-wage jobs less
clear
• No consideration of
unemployed
46
• LEHD also contains
race, occupational
category
• Updated annually
• Possible to open
source the methods
to some degree
Opportunities
Conclusions
• Valley Metro routes appear mostly equitable
• New data allow for the development of
refined indicators of public transit accessibility
• Their application in concert with traditional
demographic measures is likely to improve
public transit decision making
47
Contact
Alex Karner
alex.karner@gmail.com
http://www.alexkarner.com
@AlexKarner
Acknowledgements
Funders
Walton Sustainability Solutions Initiatives
Centro de Desarrollo Sustentable Urbano
California Endowment
Resources Legacy Fund
Sustainable Transportation Center, UC Davis
Colleagues
Deb Niemeier Parisa Fatehi-Weeks
Aaron Golub Lindsay Imai
Jonathan London Richard Marcantonio
Sam Tepperman-Gelfant

More Related Content

What's hot

Hamilton's Streets are Incomplete
Hamilton's Streets are IncompleteHamilton's Streets are Incomplete
Hamilton's Streets are Incomplete
SPRCHamilton
 
Public Vs Private Transportation Systems
Public Vs Private Transportation SystemsPublic Vs Private Transportation Systems
Public Vs Private Transportation Systems
sdeep20
 
Mobility and Management & Economic Development in Southeast Idaho
Mobility and Management & Economic Development in Southeast IdahoMobility and Management & Economic Development in Southeast Idaho
Mobility and Management & Economic Development in Southeast Idaho
RPO America
 
Urban transportation crisis in india
Urban transportation crisis in indiaUrban transportation crisis in india
Urban transportation crisis in india
SAMITINJAY SHARMA
 
KIPDA Regional Freight Mobility Study
KIPDA Regional Freight Mobility StudyKIPDA Regional Freight Mobility Study
KIPDA Regional Freight Mobility Study
RPO America
 
Achieving Safety Results by Addressing Behavioral Issues
Achieving Safety Results by Addressing Behavioral IssuesAchieving Safety Results by Addressing Behavioral Issues
Achieving Safety Results by Addressing Behavioral Issues
RPO America
 
[Urban transportation] city presentation hangzhou(china)
[Urban transportation] city presentation   hangzhou(china)[Urban transportation] city presentation   hangzhou(china)
[Urban transportation] city presentation hangzhou(china)
shrdcinfo
 
Trouble at the Fare Gates
Trouble at the Fare GatesTrouble at the Fare Gates
Trouble at the Fare Gates
Adina Levin
 
Transport problems in urban india
Transport problems in urban indiaTransport problems in urban india
Transport problems in urban india
Neha Budhiraja
 
Need, mobility poverty, and environmental justice
Need, mobility poverty, and environmental justiceNeed, mobility poverty, and environmental justice
Need, mobility poverty, and environmental justice
Institute for Transport Studies (ITS)
 
Transportation problem with relevance to indian cities
Transportation problem with relevance to indian citiesTransportation problem with relevance to indian cities
Transportation problem with relevance to indian cities
Sailish Cephas
 
Transportation System in Bangladesh: Problems and Its Way out
Transportation System in Bangladesh: Problems and Its Way outTransportation System in Bangladesh: Problems and Its Way out
Transportation System in Bangladesh: Problems and Its Way out
University of Dhaka, Bangladesh
 
Revised skipper presentation
Revised skipper presentationRevised skipper presentation
Revised skipper presentation
lydialenker
 
SSC2011_Patricia Hu PPT
SSC2011_Patricia Hu PPTSSC2011_Patricia Hu PPT
Wang et al DRT Greater Manchester presentation TRB 2012
Wang et al DRT Greater Manchester presentation TRB 2012Wang et al DRT Greater Manchester presentation TRB 2012
Wang et al DRT Greater Manchester presentation TRB 2012
Chao Wang
 
14. Literature review on public transport
14. Literature review on public transport14. Literature review on public transport
14. Literature review on public transport
ACCUCT
 
April 7, 2021 CTAC Virtual Workshop
April 7, 2021 CTAC Virtual Workshop April 7, 2021 CTAC Virtual Workshop
April 7, 2021 CTAC Virtual Workshop
Miami-Dade Transportation Planning Organization
 
Texas Transportation Researcher Vol. 52, No. 1 - 2016
Texas Transportation Researcher Vol. 52, No. 1 - 2016Texas Transportation Researcher Vol. 52, No. 1 - 2016
Texas Transportation Researcher Vol. 52, No. 1 - 2016
Texas A&M Transportation Institute
 
Transport System in Bangladesh
Transport System in Bangladesh Transport System in Bangladesh
Transport System in Bangladesh
Md. Omar Faruk
 
ITS National Update 2011 3-01-11 SIU
ITS National Update 2011  3-01-11 SIUITS National Update 2011  3-01-11 SIU
ITS National Update 2011 3-01-11 SIU
raymurphy9533
 

What's hot (20)

Hamilton's Streets are Incomplete
Hamilton's Streets are IncompleteHamilton's Streets are Incomplete
Hamilton's Streets are Incomplete
 
Public Vs Private Transportation Systems
Public Vs Private Transportation SystemsPublic Vs Private Transportation Systems
Public Vs Private Transportation Systems
 
Mobility and Management & Economic Development in Southeast Idaho
Mobility and Management & Economic Development in Southeast IdahoMobility and Management & Economic Development in Southeast Idaho
Mobility and Management & Economic Development in Southeast Idaho
 
Urban transportation crisis in india
Urban transportation crisis in indiaUrban transportation crisis in india
Urban transportation crisis in india
 
KIPDA Regional Freight Mobility Study
KIPDA Regional Freight Mobility StudyKIPDA Regional Freight Mobility Study
KIPDA Regional Freight Mobility Study
 
Achieving Safety Results by Addressing Behavioral Issues
Achieving Safety Results by Addressing Behavioral IssuesAchieving Safety Results by Addressing Behavioral Issues
Achieving Safety Results by Addressing Behavioral Issues
 
[Urban transportation] city presentation hangzhou(china)
[Urban transportation] city presentation   hangzhou(china)[Urban transportation] city presentation   hangzhou(china)
[Urban transportation] city presentation hangzhou(china)
 
Trouble at the Fare Gates
Trouble at the Fare GatesTrouble at the Fare Gates
Trouble at the Fare Gates
 
Transport problems in urban india
Transport problems in urban indiaTransport problems in urban india
Transport problems in urban india
 
Need, mobility poverty, and environmental justice
Need, mobility poverty, and environmental justiceNeed, mobility poverty, and environmental justice
Need, mobility poverty, and environmental justice
 
Transportation problem with relevance to indian cities
Transportation problem with relevance to indian citiesTransportation problem with relevance to indian cities
Transportation problem with relevance to indian cities
 
Transportation System in Bangladesh: Problems and Its Way out
Transportation System in Bangladesh: Problems and Its Way outTransportation System in Bangladesh: Problems and Its Way out
Transportation System in Bangladesh: Problems and Its Way out
 
Revised skipper presentation
Revised skipper presentationRevised skipper presentation
Revised skipper presentation
 
SSC2011_Patricia Hu PPT
SSC2011_Patricia Hu PPTSSC2011_Patricia Hu PPT
SSC2011_Patricia Hu PPT
 
Wang et al DRT Greater Manchester presentation TRB 2012
Wang et al DRT Greater Manchester presentation TRB 2012Wang et al DRT Greater Manchester presentation TRB 2012
Wang et al DRT Greater Manchester presentation TRB 2012
 
14. Literature review on public transport
14. Literature review on public transport14. Literature review on public transport
14. Literature review on public transport
 
April 7, 2021 CTAC Virtual Workshop
April 7, 2021 CTAC Virtual Workshop April 7, 2021 CTAC Virtual Workshop
April 7, 2021 CTAC Virtual Workshop
 
Texas Transportation Researcher Vol. 52, No. 1 - 2016
Texas Transportation Researcher Vol. 52, No. 1 - 2016Texas Transportation Researcher Vol. 52, No. 1 - 2016
Texas Transportation Researcher Vol. 52, No. 1 - 2016
 
Transport System in Bangladesh
Transport System in Bangladesh Transport System in Bangladesh
Transport System in Bangladesh
 
ITS National Update 2011 3-01-11 SIU
ITS National Update 2011  3-01-11 SIUITS National Update 2011  3-01-11 SIU
ITS National Update 2011 3-01-11 SIU
 

Similar to [Webinar] “Public Transit Service Equity: Definition and Measurement Considerations”

Multi-Modal Transportation in North Texas: Increasing Connectivity Between Jo...
Multi-Modal Transportation in North Texas: Increasing Connectivity Between Jo...Multi-Modal Transportation in North Texas: Increasing Connectivity Between Jo...
Multi-Modal Transportation in North Texas: Increasing Connectivity Between Jo...
Rail~Volution
 
RV 2014: Turning Tough Around- Skills for Managing Critics (all presentations)
RV 2014: Turning Tough Around- Skills for Managing Critics (all presentations)RV 2014: Turning Tough Around- Skills for Managing Critics (all presentations)
RV 2014: Turning Tough Around- Skills for Managing Critics (all presentations)
Rail~Volution
 
Assessment of pedestrian accessibility and prioritization of future improvements
Assessment of pedestrian accessibility and prioritization of future improvementsAssessment of pedestrian accessibility and prioritization of future improvements
Assessment of pedestrian accessibility and prioritization of future improvements
Environmental Design Research Association
 
Grid Un-Locked - Week 2
Grid Un-Locked - Week 2Grid Un-Locked - Week 2
Grid Un-Locked - Week 2
Greater Sarasota Chamber of Commerce
 
Community Conversations: 2035 Regional Transportation Plan
Community Conversations: 2035 Regional Transportation PlanCommunity Conversations: 2035 Regional Transportation Plan
Community Conversations: 2035 Regional Transportation Plan
Nashville Area MPO
 
Transit Mobility Program at TTI
Transit Mobility Program at TTI Transit Mobility Program at TTI
Transit Mobility Program at TTI
Texas A&M Transportation Institute
 
Travis County Transportation Plan: Creating Tomorrow's Choice's Today
Travis County Transportation Plan: Creating Tomorrow's Choice's TodayTravis County Transportation Plan: Creating Tomorrow's Choice's Today
Travis County Transportation Plan: Creating Tomorrow's Choice's Today
Paul Schumann
 
Nashville Regional Summit: Lessons Learned in Implementing Mass Transit
Nashville Regional Summit: Lessons Learned in Implementing Mass TransitNashville Regional Summit: Lessons Learned in Implementing Mass Transit
Nashville Regional Summit: Lessons Learned in Implementing Mass Transit
Cumberland Region Tomorrow
 
Atlanta Transportation Plan
Atlanta Transportation PlanAtlanta Transportation Plan
Atlanta Transportation Plan
Tom Wyatt, IOM
 
ACT 2014 How We Move Around New Research on Transportation Impacts of Urban M...
ACT 2014 How We Move Around New Research on Transportation Impacts of Urban M...ACT 2014 How We Move Around New Research on Transportation Impacts of Urban M...
ACT 2014 How We Move Around New Research on Transportation Impacts of Urban M...
Association for Commuter Transportation (ACT)
 
A Tale of Two Streets - Indiana Walk-Bike Summit.pptx
A Tale of Two Streets - Indiana Walk-Bike Summit.pptxA Tale of Two Streets - Indiana Walk-Bike Summit.pptx
A Tale of Two Streets - Indiana Walk-Bike Summit.pptx
Cynthia Hoyle
 
Not Your Grandfather's DOT: The FDOT District 5 and PennDOT Experiences--Bold...
Not Your Grandfather's DOT: The FDOT District 5 and PennDOT Experiences--Bold...Not Your Grandfather's DOT: The FDOT District 5 and PennDOT Experiences--Bold...
Not Your Grandfather's DOT: The FDOT District 5 and PennDOT Experiences--Bold...
Project for Public Spaces & National Center for Biking and Walking
 
GoTriangle Update on DOLRT Project
GoTriangle Update on DOLRT ProjectGoTriangle Update on DOLRT Project
GoTriangle Update on DOLRT Project
The Chamber For a Greater Chapel Hill-Carrboro
 
Competition in the Provision of Local Transportation Services– Sauro Mocetti ...
Competition in the Provision of Local Transportation Services– Sauro Mocetti ...Competition in the Provision of Local Transportation Services– Sauro Mocetti ...
Competition in the Provision of Local Transportation Services– Sauro Mocetti ...
OECDCompetitionDivis
 
Webinar: Land Use-Transport Interactions: Evidence from and Implications for ...
Webinar: Land Use-Transport Interactions: Evidence from and Implications for ...Webinar: Land Use-Transport Interactions: Evidence from and Implications for ...
Webinar: Land Use-Transport Interactions: Evidence from and Implications for ...
BRTCoE
 
Transportation Big Picture Messaging
Transportation Big Picture MessagingTransportation Big Picture Messaging
Transportation Big Picture Messaging
Lloyd Brown
 
A bus ride with Foucalt
A bus ride with FoucaltA bus ride with Foucalt
A bus ride with Foucalt
Institute for Transport Studies (ITS)
 
Inclusive urban mobility - social equity and mass transport systems in Quito,...
Inclusive urban mobility - social equity and mass transport systems in Quito,...Inclusive urban mobility - social equity and mass transport systems in Quito,...
Inclusive urban mobility - social equity and mass transport systems in Quito,...
Institute for Transport Studies (ITS)
 
Urban transport in kathmandu valley: problems and mitigating measures
Urban transport in kathmandu valley: problems and mitigating measuresUrban transport in kathmandu valley: problems and mitigating measures
Urban transport in kathmandu valley: problems and mitigating measures
Bishnu Prasad Devkota
 
Metro's Emerging Technology Strategy, Eliot Rose
Metro's Emerging Technology Strategy, Eliot RoseMetro's Emerging Technology Strategy, Eliot Rose
Metro's Emerging Technology Strategy, Eliot Rose
Forth
 

Similar to [Webinar] “Public Transit Service Equity: Definition and Measurement Considerations” (20)

Multi-Modal Transportation in North Texas: Increasing Connectivity Between Jo...
Multi-Modal Transportation in North Texas: Increasing Connectivity Between Jo...Multi-Modal Transportation in North Texas: Increasing Connectivity Between Jo...
Multi-Modal Transportation in North Texas: Increasing Connectivity Between Jo...
 
RV 2014: Turning Tough Around- Skills for Managing Critics (all presentations)
RV 2014: Turning Tough Around- Skills for Managing Critics (all presentations)RV 2014: Turning Tough Around- Skills for Managing Critics (all presentations)
RV 2014: Turning Tough Around- Skills for Managing Critics (all presentations)
 
Assessment of pedestrian accessibility and prioritization of future improvements
Assessment of pedestrian accessibility and prioritization of future improvementsAssessment of pedestrian accessibility and prioritization of future improvements
Assessment of pedestrian accessibility and prioritization of future improvements
 
Grid Un-Locked - Week 2
Grid Un-Locked - Week 2Grid Un-Locked - Week 2
Grid Un-Locked - Week 2
 
Community Conversations: 2035 Regional Transportation Plan
Community Conversations: 2035 Regional Transportation PlanCommunity Conversations: 2035 Regional Transportation Plan
Community Conversations: 2035 Regional Transportation Plan
 
Transit Mobility Program at TTI
Transit Mobility Program at TTI Transit Mobility Program at TTI
Transit Mobility Program at TTI
 
Travis County Transportation Plan: Creating Tomorrow's Choice's Today
Travis County Transportation Plan: Creating Tomorrow's Choice's TodayTravis County Transportation Plan: Creating Tomorrow's Choice's Today
Travis County Transportation Plan: Creating Tomorrow's Choice's Today
 
Nashville Regional Summit: Lessons Learned in Implementing Mass Transit
Nashville Regional Summit: Lessons Learned in Implementing Mass TransitNashville Regional Summit: Lessons Learned in Implementing Mass Transit
Nashville Regional Summit: Lessons Learned in Implementing Mass Transit
 
Atlanta Transportation Plan
Atlanta Transportation PlanAtlanta Transportation Plan
Atlanta Transportation Plan
 
ACT 2014 How We Move Around New Research on Transportation Impacts of Urban M...
ACT 2014 How We Move Around New Research on Transportation Impacts of Urban M...ACT 2014 How We Move Around New Research on Transportation Impacts of Urban M...
ACT 2014 How We Move Around New Research on Transportation Impacts of Urban M...
 
A Tale of Two Streets - Indiana Walk-Bike Summit.pptx
A Tale of Two Streets - Indiana Walk-Bike Summit.pptxA Tale of Two Streets - Indiana Walk-Bike Summit.pptx
A Tale of Two Streets - Indiana Walk-Bike Summit.pptx
 
Not Your Grandfather's DOT: The FDOT District 5 and PennDOT Experiences--Bold...
Not Your Grandfather's DOT: The FDOT District 5 and PennDOT Experiences--Bold...Not Your Grandfather's DOT: The FDOT District 5 and PennDOT Experiences--Bold...
Not Your Grandfather's DOT: The FDOT District 5 and PennDOT Experiences--Bold...
 
GoTriangle Update on DOLRT Project
GoTriangle Update on DOLRT ProjectGoTriangle Update on DOLRT Project
GoTriangle Update on DOLRT Project
 
Competition in the Provision of Local Transportation Services– Sauro Mocetti ...
Competition in the Provision of Local Transportation Services– Sauro Mocetti ...Competition in the Provision of Local Transportation Services– Sauro Mocetti ...
Competition in the Provision of Local Transportation Services– Sauro Mocetti ...
 
Webinar: Land Use-Transport Interactions: Evidence from and Implications for ...
Webinar: Land Use-Transport Interactions: Evidence from and Implications for ...Webinar: Land Use-Transport Interactions: Evidence from and Implications for ...
Webinar: Land Use-Transport Interactions: Evidence from and Implications for ...
 
Transportation Big Picture Messaging
Transportation Big Picture MessagingTransportation Big Picture Messaging
Transportation Big Picture Messaging
 
A bus ride with Foucalt
A bus ride with FoucaltA bus ride with Foucalt
A bus ride with Foucalt
 
Inclusive urban mobility - social equity and mass transport systems in Quito,...
Inclusive urban mobility - social equity and mass transport systems in Quito,...Inclusive urban mobility - social equity and mass transport systems in Quito,...
Inclusive urban mobility - social equity and mass transport systems in Quito,...
 
Urban transport in kathmandu valley: problems and mitigating measures
Urban transport in kathmandu valley: problems and mitigating measuresUrban transport in kathmandu valley: problems and mitigating measures
Urban transport in kathmandu valley: problems and mitigating measures
 
Metro's Emerging Technology Strategy, Eliot Rose
Metro's Emerging Technology Strategy, Eliot RoseMetro's Emerging Technology Strategy, Eliot Rose
Metro's Emerging Technology Strategy, Eliot Rose
 

More from BRTCoE

BRT+ Workshop
BRT+ WorkshopBRT+ Workshop
BRT+ Workshop
BRTCoE
 
MaaS Trial in Sydney
MaaS Trial in SydneyMaaS Trial in Sydney
MaaS Trial in Sydney
BRTCoE
 
Full cost reliability by Juan Carlos Muñoz
Full cost reliability by Juan Carlos MuñozFull cost reliability by Juan Carlos Muñoz
Full cost reliability by Juan Carlos Muñoz
BRTCoE
 
Congreso nacional chileno 2019 DITL
Congreso nacional chileno 2019 DITLCongreso nacional chileno 2019 DITL
Congreso nacional chileno 2019 DITL
BRTCoE
 
Gabriel Oliveira - BRT in Brazil: state of the practice as from the BRT Stand...
Gabriel Oliveira - BRT in Brazil: state of the practice as from the BRT Stand...Gabriel Oliveira - BRT in Brazil: state of the practice as from the BRT Stand...
Gabriel Oliveira - BRT in Brazil: state of the practice as from the BRT Stand...
BRTCoE
 
Heather Allen - Why do we need to consider how women move in urban transport ...
Heather Allen - Why do we need to consider how women move in urban transport ...Heather Allen - Why do we need to consider how women move in urban transport ...
Heather Allen - Why do we need to consider how women move in urban transport ...
BRTCoE
 
Workshop Innovation in Africa - Manifesto for BRT Lite
Workshop Innovation in Africa - Manifesto for BRT LiteWorkshop Innovation in Africa - Manifesto for BRT Lite
Workshop Innovation in Africa - Manifesto for BRT Lite
BRTCoE
 
Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT Lessons from Nigeria by Dr. Dayo Mobereola
Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT Lessons from Nigeria by Dr. Dayo MobereolaWorkshop Innovation in Africa - BRT Lessons from Nigeria by Dr. Dayo Mobereola
Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT Lessons from Nigeria by Dr. Dayo Mobereola
BRTCoE
 
Workshop Innovation in Africa - Context, challenges & opportunities for urban...
Workshop Innovation in Africa - Context, challenges & opportunities for urban...Workshop Innovation in Africa - Context, challenges & opportunities for urban...
Workshop Innovation in Africa - Context, challenges & opportunities for urban...
BRTCoE
 
Workshop Innovation in Africa - Mobilize
Workshop Innovation in Africa - MobilizeWorkshop Innovation in Africa - Mobilize
Workshop Innovation in Africa - Mobilize
BRTCoE
 
Workshop Innovation in Africa - Day one of operations by Cristina Albuquerque
Workshop Innovation in Africa - Day one of operations by Cristina AlbuquerqueWorkshop Innovation in Africa - Day one of operations by Cristina Albuquerque
Workshop Innovation in Africa - Day one of operations by Cristina Albuquerque
BRTCoE
 
Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT Lessons from Dar es Salaam by Ronald Lwak...
Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT Lessons from Dar es Salaam by Ronald Lwak...Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT Lessons from Dar es Salaam by Ronald Lwak...
Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT Lessons from Dar es Salaam by Ronald Lwak...
BRTCoE
 
Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT, Minibus System and Innovation in African...
Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT, Minibus System and Innovation in African...Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT, Minibus System and Innovation in African...
Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT, Minibus System and Innovation in African...
BRTCoE
 
Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT in South Africa by Christo Venter
Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT in South Africa by Christo VenterWorkshop Innovation in Africa - BRT in South Africa by Christo Venter
Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT in South Africa by Christo Venter
BRTCoE
 
Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT+ Centre of Excellence Presentation
Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT+ Centre of Excellence PresentationWorkshop Innovation in Africa - BRT+ Centre of Excellence Presentation
Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT+ Centre of Excellence Presentation
BRTCoE
 
Camila Balbontin - Do preferences for BRT and LRT change as a voter, citizen,...
Camila Balbontin - Do preferences for BRT and LRT change as a voter, citizen,...Camila Balbontin - Do preferences for BRT and LRT change as a voter, citizen,...
Camila Balbontin - Do preferences for BRT and LRT change as a voter, citizen,...
BRTCoE
 
Cristian Navas - Testing collaborative accessibility-based engagement tools: ...
Cristian Navas - Testing collaborative accessibility-based engagement tools: ...Cristian Navas - Testing collaborative accessibility-based engagement tools: ...
Cristian Navas - Testing collaborative accessibility-based engagement tools: ...
BRTCoE
 
Juan Carlos Muñoz - Connected and automated buses. An opportunity to bring re...
Juan Carlos Muñoz - Connected and automated buses. An opportunity to bring re...Juan Carlos Muñoz - Connected and automated buses. An opportunity to bring re...
Juan Carlos Muñoz - Connected and automated buses. An opportunity to bring re...
BRTCoE
 
BRT Station Design in the Urban Context
BRT Station Design in the Urban ContextBRT Station Design in the Urban Context
BRT Station Design in the Urban Context
BRTCoE
 
Zhao emotional travel 20160920 p
Zhao emotional travel 20160920 pZhao emotional travel 20160920 p
Zhao emotional travel 20160920 p
BRTCoE
 

More from BRTCoE (20)

BRT+ Workshop
BRT+ WorkshopBRT+ Workshop
BRT+ Workshop
 
MaaS Trial in Sydney
MaaS Trial in SydneyMaaS Trial in Sydney
MaaS Trial in Sydney
 
Full cost reliability by Juan Carlos Muñoz
Full cost reliability by Juan Carlos MuñozFull cost reliability by Juan Carlos Muñoz
Full cost reliability by Juan Carlos Muñoz
 
Congreso nacional chileno 2019 DITL
Congreso nacional chileno 2019 DITLCongreso nacional chileno 2019 DITL
Congreso nacional chileno 2019 DITL
 
Gabriel Oliveira - BRT in Brazil: state of the practice as from the BRT Stand...
Gabriel Oliveira - BRT in Brazil: state of the practice as from the BRT Stand...Gabriel Oliveira - BRT in Brazil: state of the practice as from the BRT Stand...
Gabriel Oliveira - BRT in Brazil: state of the practice as from the BRT Stand...
 
Heather Allen - Why do we need to consider how women move in urban transport ...
Heather Allen - Why do we need to consider how women move in urban transport ...Heather Allen - Why do we need to consider how women move in urban transport ...
Heather Allen - Why do we need to consider how women move in urban transport ...
 
Workshop Innovation in Africa - Manifesto for BRT Lite
Workshop Innovation in Africa - Manifesto for BRT LiteWorkshop Innovation in Africa - Manifesto for BRT Lite
Workshop Innovation in Africa - Manifesto for BRT Lite
 
Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT Lessons from Nigeria by Dr. Dayo Mobereola
Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT Lessons from Nigeria by Dr. Dayo MobereolaWorkshop Innovation in Africa - BRT Lessons from Nigeria by Dr. Dayo Mobereola
Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT Lessons from Nigeria by Dr. Dayo Mobereola
 
Workshop Innovation in Africa - Context, challenges & opportunities for urban...
Workshop Innovation in Africa - Context, challenges & opportunities for urban...Workshop Innovation in Africa - Context, challenges & opportunities for urban...
Workshop Innovation in Africa - Context, challenges & opportunities for urban...
 
Workshop Innovation in Africa - Mobilize
Workshop Innovation in Africa - MobilizeWorkshop Innovation in Africa - Mobilize
Workshop Innovation in Africa - Mobilize
 
Workshop Innovation in Africa - Day one of operations by Cristina Albuquerque
Workshop Innovation in Africa - Day one of operations by Cristina AlbuquerqueWorkshop Innovation in Africa - Day one of operations by Cristina Albuquerque
Workshop Innovation in Africa - Day one of operations by Cristina Albuquerque
 
Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT Lessons from Dar es Salaam by Ronald Lwak...
Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT Lessons from Dar es Salaam by Ronald Lwak...Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT Lessons from Dar es Salaam by Ronald Lwak...
Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT Lessons from Dar es Salaam by Ronald Lwak...
 
Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT, Minibus System and Innovation in African...
Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT, Minibus System and Innovation in African...Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT, Minibus System and Innovation in African...
Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT, Minibus System and Innovation in African...
 
Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT in South Africa by Christo Venter
Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT in South Africa by Christo VenterWorkshop Innovation in Africa - BRT in South Africa by Christo Venter
Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT in South Africa by Christo Venter
 
Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT+ Centre of Excellence Presentation
Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT+ Centre of Excellence PresentationWorkshop Innovation in Africa - BRT+ Centre of Excellence Presentation
Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT+ Centre of Excellence Presentation
 
Camila Balbontin - Do preferences for BRT and LRT change as a voter, citizen,...
Camila Balbontin - Do preferences for BRT and LRT change as a voter, citizen,...Camila Balbontin - Do preferences for BRT and LRT change as a voter, citizen,...
Camila Balbontin - Do preferences for BRT and LRT change as a voter, citizen,...
 
Cristian Navas - Testing collaborative accessibility-based engagement tools: ...
Cristian Navas - Testing collaborative accessibility-based engagement tools: ...Cristian Navas - Testing collaborative accessibility-based engagement tools: ...
Cristian Navas - Testing collaborative accessibility-based engagement tools: ...
 
Juan Carlos Muñoz - Connected and automated buses. An opportunity to bring re...
Juan Carlos Muñoz - Connected and automated buses. An opportunity to bring re...Juan Carlos Muñoz - Connected and automated buses. An opportunity to bring re...
Juan Carlos Muñoz - Connected and automated buses. An opportunity to bring re...
 
BRT Station Design in the Urban Context
BRT Station Design in the Urban ContextBRT Station Design in the Urban Context
BRT Station Design in the Urban Context
 
Zhao emotional travel 20160920 p
Zhao emotional travel 20160920 pZhao emotional travel 20160920 p
Zhao emotional travel 20160920 p
 

Recently uploaded

李易峰祝绪丹做爱视频流出【网芷:ht28.co】可爱学生妹>>>[网趾:ht28.co】]<<<
李易峰祝绪丹做爱视频流出【网芷:ht28.co】可爱学生妹>>>[网趾:ht28.co】]<<<李易峰祝绪丹做爱视频流出【网芷:ht28.co】可爱学生妹>>>[网趾:ht28.co】]<<<
李易峰祝绪丹做爱视频流出【网芷:ht28.co】可爱学生妹>>>[网趾:ht28.co】]<<<
amzhoxvzidbke
 
Python programming Introduction about Python
Python programming Introduction about PythonPython programming Introduction about Python
Python programming Introduction about Python
Senthil Vit
 
21EC63_Module1B.pptx VLSI design 21ec63 MOS TRANSISTOR THEORY
21EC63_Module1B.pptx VLSI design 21ec63 MOS TRANSISTOR THEORY21EC63_Module1B.pptx VLSI design 21ec63 MOS TRANSISTOR THEORY
21EC63_Module1B.pptx VLSI design 21ec63 MOS TRANSISTOR THEORY
PradeepKumarSK3
 
readers writers Problem in operating system
readers writers Problem in operating systemreaders writers Problem in operating system
readers writers Problem in operating system
VADAPALLYPRAVEENKUMA1
 
Girls Call Chennai 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Chennai 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in CityGirls Call Chennai 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Chennai 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
sunnuchadda
 
Thermodynamics Digital Material basics subject
Thermodynamics Digital Material basics subjectThermodynamics Digital Material basics subject
Thermodynamics Digital Material basics subject
JigneshChhatbar1
 
SCADAmetrics Instrumentation for Sensus Water Meters - Core and Main Training...
SCADAmetrics Instrumentation for Sensus Water Meters - Core and Main Training...SCADAmetrics Instrumentation for Sensus Water Meters - Core and Main Training...
SCADAmetrics Instrumentation for Sensus Water Meters - Core and Main Training...
Jim Mimlitz, P.E.
 
printing of ic circuits.pdf
printing       of        ic     circuits.pdfprinting       of        ic     circuits.pdf
printing of ic circuits.pdf
chidambaramnatarajar
 
Online toll plaza booking system project report.doc.pdf
Online toll plaza booking system project report.doc.pdfOnline toll plaza booking system project report.doc.pdf
Online toll plaza booking system project report.doc.pdf
Kamal Acharya
 
Online airline reservation system project report.pdf
Online airline reservation system project report.pdfOnline airline reservation system project report.pdf
Online airline reservation system project report.pdf
Kamal Acharya
 
Top EPC companies in India - Best EPC Contractor
Top EPC companies in India - Best EPC  ContractorTop EPC companies in India - Best EPC  Contractor
Top EPC companies in India - Best EPC Contractor
MangeshK6
 
Concepts Basic/ Technical Electronic Material.pdf
Concepts Basic/ Technical Electronic Material.pdfConcepts Basic/ Technical Electronic Material.pdf
Concepts Basic/ Technical Electronic Material.pdf
OBD II
 
Rockets and missiles notes engineering ppt
Rockets and missiles notes engineering pptRockets and missiles notes engineering ppt
Rockets and missiles notes engineering ppt
archithaero
 
Metrology Book, Bachelors in Mechanical Engineering
Metrology Book, Bachelors in Mechanical EngineeringMetrology Book, Bachelors in Mechanical Engineering
Metrology Book, Bachelors in Mechanical Engineering
leakingvideo
 
Introduction And Differences Between File System And Dbms.pptx
Introduction And Differences Between File System And Dbms.pptxIntroduction And Differences Between File System And Dbms.pptx
Introduction And Differences Between File System And Dbms.pptx
SerendipityYoon
 
EAAP2023 : Durabilité et services écosystémiques de l'élevage ovin de montagne
EAAP2023 : Durabilité et services écosystémiques de l'élevage ovin de montagneEAAP2023 : Durabilité et services écosystémiques de l'élevage ovin de montagne
EAAP2023 : Durabilité et services écosystémiques de l'élevage ovin de montagne
idelewebmestre
 
libro de modelado de diseño-part-1[160-250].pdf
libro de modelado de diseño-part-1[160-250].pdflibro de modelado de diseño-part-1[160-250].pdf
libro de modelado de diseño-part-1[160-250].pdf
celiosilva66
 
Best Practices of Clothing Businesses in Talavera, Nueva Ecija, A Foundation ...
Best Practices of Clothing Businesses in Talavera, Nueva Ecija, A Foundation ...Best Practices of Clothing Businesses in Talavera, Nueva Ecija, A Foundation ...
Best Practices of Clothing Businesses in Talavera, Nueva Ecija, A Foundation ...
IJAEMSJORNAL
 
Gas Turbine Principle and its Major Components.pdf
Gas Turbine Principle and its Major Components.pdfGas Turbine Principle and its Major Components.pdf
Gas Turbine Principle and its Major Components.pdf
Enrique Zuppelli
 
Adv. Digital Signal Processing LAB MANUAL.pdf
Adv. Digital Signal Processing LAB MANUAL.pdfAdv. Digital Signal Processing LAB MANUAL.pdf
Adv. Digital Signal Processing LAB MANUAL.pdf
T.D. Shashikala
 

Recently uploaded (20)

李易峰祝绪丹做爱视频流出【网芷:ht28.co】可爱学生妹>>>[网趾:ht28.co】]<<<
李易峰祝绪丹做爱视频流出【网芷:ht28.co】可爱学生妹>>>[网趾:ht28.co】]<<<李易峰祝绪丹做爱视频流出【网芷:ht28.co】可爱学生妹>>>[网趾:ht28.co】]<<<
李易峰祝绪丹做爱视频流出【网芷:ht28.co】可爱学生妹>>>[网趾:ht28.co】]<<<
 
Python programming Introduction about Python
Python programming Introduction about PythonPython programming Introduction about Python
Python programming Introduction about Python
 
21EC63_Module1B.pptx VLSI design 21ec63 MOS TRANSISTOR THEORY
21EC63_Module1B.pptx VLSI design 21ec63 MOS TRANSISTOR THEORY21EC63_Module1B.pptx VLSI design 21ec63 MOS TRANSISTOR THEORY
21EC63_Module1B.pptx VLSI design 21ec63 MOS TRANSISTOR THEORY
 
readers writers Problem in operating system
readers writers Problem in operating systemreaders writers Problem in operating system
readers writers Problem in operating system
 
Girls Call Chennai 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Chennai 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in CityGirls Call Chennai 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Chennai 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
 
Thermodynamics Digital Material basics subject
Thermodynamics Digital Material basics subjectThermodynamics Digital Material basics subject
Thermodynamics Digital Material basics subject
 
SCADAmetrics Instrumentation for Sensus Water Meters - Core and Main Training...
SCADAmetrics Instrumentation for Sensus Water Meters - Core and Main Training...SCADAmetrics Instrumentation for Sensus Water Meters - Core and Main Training...
SCADAmetrics Instrumentation for Sensus Water Meters - Core and Main Training...
 
printing of ic circuits.pdf
printing       of        ic     circuits.pdfprinting       of        ic     circuits.pdf
printing of ic circuits.pdf
 
Online toll plaza booking system project report.doc.pdf
Online toll plaza booking system project report.doc.pdfOnline toll plaza booking system project report.doc.pdf
Online toll plaza booking system project report.doc.pdf
 
Online airline reservation system project report.pdf
Online airline reservation system project report.pdfOnline airline reservation system project report.pdf
Online airline reservation system project report.pdf
 
Top EPC companies in India - Best EPC Contractor
Top EPC companies in India - Best EPC  ContractorTop EPC companies in India - Best EPC  Contractor
Top EPC companies in India - Best EPC Contractor
 
Concepts Basic/ Technical Electronic Material.pdf
Concepts Basic/ Technical Electronic Material.pdfConcepts Basic/ Technical Electronic Material.pdf
Concepts Basic/ Technical Electronic Material.pdf
 
Rockets and missiles notes engineering ppt
Rockets and missiles notes engineering pptRockets and missiles notes engineering ppt
Rockets and missiles notes engineering ppt
 
Metrology Book, Bachelors in Mechanical Engineering
Metrology Book, Bachelors in Mechanical EngineeringMetrology Book, Bachelors in Mechanical Engineering
Metrology Book, Bachelors in Mechanical Engineering
 
Introduction And Differences Between File System And Dbms.pptx
Introduction And Differences Between File System And Dbms.pptxIntroduction And Differences Between File System And Dbms.pptx
Introduction And Differences Between File System And Dbms.pptx
 
EAAP2023 : Durabilité et services écosystémiques de l'élevage ovin de montagne
EAAP2023 : Durabilité et services écosystémiques de l'élevage ovin de montagneEAAP2023 : Durabilité et services écosystémiques de l'élevage ovin de montagne
EAAP2023 : Durabilité et services écosystémiques de l'élevage ovin de montagne
 
libro de modelado de diseño-part-1[160-250].pdf
libro de modelado de diseño-part-1[160-250].pdflibro de modelado de diseño-part-1[160-250].pdf
libro de modelado de diseño-part-1[160-250].pdf
 
Best Practices of Clothing Businesses in Talavera, Nueva Ecija, A Foundation ...
Best Practices of Clothing Businesses in Talavera, Nueva Ecija, A Foundation ...Best Practices of Clothing Businesses in Talavera, Nueva Ecija, A Foundation ...
Best Practices of Clothing Businesses in Talavera, Nueva Ecija, A Foundation ...
 
Gas Turbine Principle and its Major Components.pdf
Gas Turbine Principle and its Major Components.pdfGas Turbine Principle and its Major Components.pdf
Gas Turbine Principle and its Major Components.pdf
 
Adv. Digital Signal Processing LAB MANUAL.pdf
Adv. Digital Signal Processing LAB MANUAL.pdfAdv. Digital Signal Processing LAB MANUAL.pdf
Adv. Digital Signal Processing LAB MANUAL.pdf
 

[Webinar] “Public Transit Service Equity: Definition and Measurement Considerations”

  • 1. Defining and measuring public transit service equity Alex Karner, PhD Postdoctoral researcher ● CEDEUS
  • 2. Defining and measuring public transit service equity Alex Karner, PhD Postdoctoral researcher ● CEDEUS @AlexKarner
  • 3. Transportation equity What is it? 3 • Freeway revolts, urban unrest (1960s) – McCone commission report • ISTEA (1991) – “Planning factors” • Subsequent guidance, legislation, etc. Watts, Los Angeles, 1965
  • 4. Transportation equity What is it? 4 …a civil and human rights priority. Access to affordable and reliable transportation widens opportunity. Current transportation spending programs do not equally benefit all communities and populations. Negative effects of some transportation decisions are broadly felt and long-lasting. The Leadership Council on Civil Rights http://www.civilrights.org/transportation/
  • 5. Transportation equity What is it? An illustrative example • 2004: Minority Citizens Advisory Committee proposes adoption of four EJ principles: 1. Creation of an empowering public process 2. Collection of data to analyze inequities in transportation funding 3. Changing discretionary investments to mitigate such inequities as are found 4. Mitigation of disproportionate project effects prior to being approved for funding 5 Transportation 2035: MTC’s 2009 RTP
  • 6. Regional equity analysis • Critical review – Geographic aggregation – Future vs. existing equity – Treatment of race 6 Karner, A. and D. Niemeier (2013). “Civil rights guidance and equity analysis methods for regional transportation plans: a critical review of literature and practice.” Journal of Transport Geography 33: 126-134. Rowangould, D., A. Karner and J. London. “Identifying environmental justice communities for transportation analysis.” Under review at Transportation Research: Part A. San Francisco County, California
  • 7. Photo credit: Paloma Pavel Regional equity organizing: Equity, environment and jobs Scenario
  • 9. 9 Why do we have transit? • Image and aesthetics • To use federal funds (FTA’s New Starts) • Economic development (Chatman and Noland, 2013) • Congestion and air quality mitigation (Anderson, 2014) • To provide basic mobility for transit dependent populations (Grengs, 2005; Garrett and Taylor, 1999)
  • 10. Who uses transit? 10 Transit dependents (bus users) Choice riders (commuter rail users) “Simply put, the bus is the mode of the poor.” Median income $22,500 $62,500 source: Taylor and Morris, 2015 using 2009 NHTS data
  • 11. Transit goals in tension • Rail transit service has expanded faster than bus service over the past 25 years • Bus patronage declined from 2001-2009 as rail ridership grew • Bus and rail service and patronage converging over time • Shift to serving choice riders with premium service 11sources: Taylor and Morris, 2015; Wells and Thill, 2012; Grengs, 2005
  • 12. Title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act Legal basis for transit equity 12
  • 13. “No person in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, or national origin, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.” Title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act 13
  • 14. Fund recipients may not discriminate “with regard to the routing, scheduling, or quality of service … furnished” to patrons. 49 CFR §21.5 Appendix C(a)(3)(iii) 14
  • 15. Equity analysis practice • Transit agencies evaluate the equity of “major” service changes according to FTA guidance FTA Circular 4702.1B • Process has been contentious in Los Angeles and the Bay Area • FTA requires specific data and methods but these may not reflect actual ridership and afford wide agency discretion 15
  • 16. image source: Metropolitan Transportation Commission Oakland Airport Connector • $500 million project • Doubles fare, no intermediate stops • $70 million withdrawn by Federal Transit Administration for civil rights violations Local bus service cuts • AC Transit disproportionately serves riders of color • 2008-11: 8% fewer service miles, 12% fewer trips, fares increased 11%
  • 17. 17 July, 2010 Metro budget cuts 387,500 bus service hours Nov., 2010 Bus Riders Union files administrative complaint with Federal Transit Administration April 23, 2012 Metro found in violation April 5, 2013 New Metro service equity analysis June 27, 2013 Metro found in compliance Los Angeles
  • 18. How well do existing methods work? 18
  • 19. Study area: Phoenix, Arizona • 6th largest city in US (1.4 million people) • 12th largest metropolitan area (4.2 million people) • Urbanized area increased sevenfold from 1950 – 2000 • 2.4% of workers commute using transit (half the US average rate) 19 Congestion on Interstate 10 in Phoenix image source: ADOT
  • 21. Typical analysis: 1. Establish service area demographics 21 total population people of color household income < $25K Valley Metro system demographics (buffers) 1,710,309 891,990 177,640 52% 28% Valley Metro system ridership 242,687 136,729 122,532 56% 50%
  • 22. Typical analysis: 2. Establish affected population demographics 22 Route 39 – 40th St. white people of color household income < $25K 77% 23% 17% 3. Compare affected and service area populations white people of color household income < $25K Valley Metro system demographics (buffers) 48% 52% 28% Route 39 – 40th St. 77% 23% 17% 77% > 48% and 17% < 28% Potential impact
  • 23. Typical analysis: limitations 23 • Either census data or ridership can be used • Most analyses based on demographics proximate to stops • Academic literature has taken a similar approach (Wu et al., 2003; Minocha et al., 2008; Mavoa et al., 2012; Al Mamun and Lownes, 2011)
  • 24. Accessibility-based analysis? • Accessibility measures the potential to meet desired needs (Wachs and Kumagai, 1973; Handy and Niemeier, 1997) • Essential for understanding transportation system benefits (Martens, 2012; Martens et al. 2012) • Use to supplement demographic analyses 24
  • 25. Research questions 1. How consistently do existing methods characterize the equity of transit-related decisions? 2. How can new data sources aid with equity determinations? – Incorporate accessibility 25
  • 26. Observed ridership and census demographics 26
  • 27. Data and methods 27 • Census demographics – 2010 SF1 (race) – 2008-2012 ACS (income) • Ridership – 2010-2011 Valley Metro On-board survey Karner, A. and A. Golub (In press). “Comparing two common approaches to public transit service equity evaluation.” Transportation Research Record.
  • 29. 29 • White ridership higher than census on premium modes • Black ridership higher than census on local modes • Latino ridership lower than census in all cases
  • 30. 30
  • 31. 31
  • 32. Modeling results dependent variable (ridership proportion) White Black Latino Asian < $25K > $50K census 2.1 2.1 24.8 N 92 92 92 92 92 92 R2 0.26 0.024 0.33 0.20 0.003 0.005 32 • Census demographics have some relationship with ridership for some groups
  • 33. Modeling results dependent variable (ridership proportion) White Black Latino Asian < $25K > $50K census 2.1 2.1 24.8 N 92 92 92 92 92 92 R2 0.26 0.024 0.33 0.20 0.003 0.005 33 dependent variable (ridership proportion) White Black Latino Asian < $25K > $50K census 1.89 12.43 1.76 27.6 2.61 total ridership -0.0419 0.0343 0.0303 mean walk score along route 0.00829 -0.0184 0.0252 premium mode dummy 0.739 -1.479 -0.546 -1.77 1.58 light rail dummy 1.516 -1.418 -1.258 -1.94 N 92 92 92 92 92 92 R2 0.59 0.54 0.47 0.26 0.52 0.68 • Adding quality-of-service variables improves fit • Relationships differ by racial category
  • 35. Implications for FTA equity analysis Rapid routes example Comparison populations white people of color household income < $25K 6,524 7,158 1,396 48% 52% 48% Reference population (buffers) 48% 52% 28% 35 Comparison populations white people of color household income < $25K 1,337 434 205 76% 24% 11.5% Reference population (ridership) 44% 56% 50% Census demographics Ridership 48% = 48% and 48% > 28% No impact under service improvement 76% > 44% and 11.5% < 50% Potential impact under service improvement
  • 36. Conclusions • The demographic data used (census or ridership) can affect the conclusions drawn regarding equity • FTA considers both sources valid • Future work to understand when model results can be more widely applied 36
  • 38. 38 Maricopa Pinal Maricopa Association of Governments TAZ system ~1 sq. mile ~1/4 sq. mile ~1/10 sq. mile
  • 39. Data 39 Pedestrian network OpenStreetMap Block-level demographics Longitudinal Employer Household Dynamics Transit stops Transit routes GTFS Transit schedule
  • 40. Methods 1. Calculate pedestrian service areas around stops (1/4 mi. bus, 1/2 mi. rail) 2. Develop service area demographics 3. Calculate travel time between all stop pairs (64 minute cutoff, ~95% of observed trips) 1. 2 hour morning peak, 24 random departures (22 GB, ~7 hours on consumer hardware) 2. ESRI network analyst with “Add GTFS to a Network Dataset” 4. Calculate stop- and route-level accessibility 40
  • 41. 41 Origin Stopi Stop1 Stop2 Stopj Workersw Jobsw Travel time and geography General Transit Feed Specification … Demographics Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics Jobsw Jobsw Transit route k 𝐴𝑖 𝑤 = 𝐸𝑗 𝑤 𝑒−𝛽 𝑡 𝑖𝑗 𝑗 Territorial accessibility 𝐴𝑖 𝑤 = 𝑊𝑖 𝑤 𝐸𝑗 𝑤 𝑒−𝛽 𝑡 𝑖𝑗 𝑗 Worker-weighted accessibility Sum over all workers for overall accessibility Take mean over stops on a route for route- level accessibility ti1 t12 t2j
  • 42. Results: total accessibility 42 Territorial accessibility Worker-weighted accessibility
  • 44. 44 Route-level worker-weighted accessibility Scottsdale Neighborhood Circulators Glendale Urban Shuttles Scottsdale Neighborhood Circulator Glendale Urban Shuttles
  • 45. 45 Implications for FTA analysis > average low-income riders worker-weighted route-level accessibility to low-wage jobs
  • 46. Limitations • Coarse (and unchanging) LEHD thresholds – Low-wage jobs definitely low – Mid-wage jobs less clear • No consideration of unemployed 46 • LEHD also contains race, occupational category • Updated annually • Possible to open source the methods to some degree Opportunities
  • 47. Conclusions • Valley Metro routes appear mostly equitable • New data allow for the development of refined indicators of public transit accessibility • Their application in concert with traditional demographic measures is likely to improve public transit decision making 47
  • 48. Contact Alex Karner alex.karner@gmail.com http://www.alexkarner.com @AlexKarner Acknowledgements Funders Walton Sustainability Solutions Initiatives Centro de Desarrollo Sustentable Urbano California Endowment Resources Legacy Fund Sustainable Transportation Center, UC Davis Colleagues Deb Niemeier Parisa Fatehi-Weeks Aaron Golub Lindsay Imai Jonathan London Richard Marcantonio Sam Tepperman-Gelfant