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More Than Words – Establishing Sustainability in Group Discussion A  Presentation by  Mariska Kappmeier, University of Hamburg
Problems – Group Discussion Slow process Chaotic or unstructured Difficult to reach results
Benefits Group Discussion Allows to develop  Shared Visions  between (antagonistic) participants Boosts commitment and motivation of the participants Bases the decision on the contribution of all participants and are therefore longer lasting
To reach these benefits, the group discussion  HAS TO BE  moderated The role of the moderator is crucial
9 Guidelines When Moderating 3.) Remind about the overall goals/common interest! 4.) Encourage: Believe in a long-lasting solution 8.)  Structure dialogue: Understanding interest on both side 6.)  Foster trust 5.)  Save face: Respect   Values, Identity, Equality, Self-determination!  7.)  No superficial compromises 9.)  Develop concrete measure rather than abstract solution formula 2.) Avoid time pressure!  1.) Assume good intention and trustworthiness!
Two Extremes in the Moderation Option Pushing for quick decision Top-down implementation of the decision Advantage: Quick decision is reached,  Disadvantage: Know-how and concern of group members gets ignored Less like to sustain, because of lack in support Create resistant and tension when implemented
Tolerating deliberate diligence Bottom–up implementation of decision Advantage:   The know how, concern and preference of each group member is taken into account More likely to rise early red alerts, where possible  problems and obstacles lies Likely the majority of group member support the decision Disadvantage: Tend to take a long time and to be unproductive Discussion runs try
Role  of the Moderator Provides structure for dialogue  Engages the participation of each group member Keeps the balance between participant orientated and goal orientated style Enables not only mutual decision but also relationship building
1. Contracting or Forming a Working Alliance 2. Collecting & Selecting Topics 4. Creating Action 5. Ensuring Sustainability 3. Understanding and Clarification The Process: Five Steps from Contract to Action
A guide to structuring the process Opening Closing 1)  Objective  of the step (e.g. First we set the agenda) 3) The  next step  would be (e.g. After collecting the topics, we’ll select the topics we want to work on next) 4)  Agreement Is it Ok for you to move on? 2)  Current status  (e.g. We agreed to come together to talk about the water problem we’re facing in our communities)
Contracting or Forming a Working Alliance Creating transparency  Objective and agenda Fix time, location, scope “ The next 1.5h we are meet to discuss how  to ensure results and sustainability out of  group discussions and negotiations” Ensure that the group agrees Explaining your role as a moderator Will you just moderate? (Being in charge for the process?) Will you also take part in the discussion by contributing input?
Key Notes Moderator Preparation Prepare the meeting Create a tentative agenda Adding topics from the participants Possible questions:  „If it would be only up to you, what would we discuss today and why?” Process orientated, but also reveals motivations, wishes and concerns of the participants
1. Contracting or Forming a Working Alliance 2. Collecting & Selecting Topics 4. Creating Action 5. Ensuring Sustainability 3. Understanding and Clarification The Process: Five Steps from Contract to Action
2. Collecting and Selecting Topics Collecting topics Visualizing the issues Rephrase critical statements into constructive statements Selecting issues Rated by the participants,  Possible rating criteria: Most important Most urgent Easiest to work on Etc.
What if there is disagreement? If there is disagreement, ask what the underlying motivation is to choose a specific topic: Why does it matter for the group to start with this specific topic? Can reveal deeper lying concerns and needs!!! Be aware, this could open up a conflict mediation session, as a facilitator you steer the process Possible Proposals Can we start with topic A and then turn toward topic B? Would that work? If not, why not? Assigned time 1hour for topic A, 1hour for topic B Choose randomly (flip a coin) Work with Caucasus groups Each group prepares the topic that matter the most for them in break away groups Etc.
1. Contracting or Forming a Working Alliance 2. Collecting & Selecting Topics 4. Creating Action 5. Ensuring Sustainability 3. Understanding and Clarification The Process: Five Steps from Contract to Action
3. Understanding and Clarification Exploration of the interest, concern and wishes of the group behind the topic What matter about the topic to each participants?  What impact has the topic for them? What has to be consider about this issue? Brings clarification of perceptions Without moral assessment or conflict resolution The participants should gain a understanding of the other participant’s perspectives
Key Notes Moderator Ensurement that everybody is heard, also the quiet members Channeled dialogue No visualization Summarizes the statements (interest, concern wishes) of the participants in during this step, so it won’t be forgotten Deferral of Solutions!!!!
Channeled dialogue Explore the interests and concern of the parties
1. Contracting or Forming a Working Alliance 2. Collecting & Selecting Topics 4. Creating Action 5. Ensuring Sustainability 3. Understanding and Clarification The Process: Five Steps from Contract to Action
4.  Creating Action  Development of cooperatively solutions, which are mutually accepted Brainstorming Based on the concern, fears and wishes raised red-alerts in Clarification No superficial compromises
Key notes Moderator Use of concrete question  Brainstorming Concrete and binding agreements
or How can we in the future …  (e.g. cooperate in the water supply), in order that…  (our communities are served better), without …  (without facing conflicts and violence) ? How can we in the future  … , (e.g. cooperate)  in order  … (to improve the water supply), without on the one hand site … (fight to much) and on the other side … (harmonize everything) ? Concrete question
Brainstorming If there aren‘t any new ideas: Break and after that 2 nd  round Invite to combine different ideas Use many options: Brainwriting, analogies, walk around, what would create the opposite effect etc.   Separate groups to collect ideas Deferral of critics and discussions Create many ideas for solutions and do not focus on a single idea
4. Creating Action  From Brainstorming to Action Assess quickly where everybody stands: Is there a mutual “best” solution? Which is an obvious solution? Rate the decision  Negotiate around the “sticky points” Which conditions have to be meet, so everybody can agree? How can you joint difference priorities? Can you compensate for concessions? No result?  Clarify, what could be the reason? Back to brainstorming – try again
WHO?   DOES WHAT WITH WHOM?  UNTIL WHEN?  How   assessed ?  Concrete and binding agreements
1. Contracting or Forming a Working Alliance 2. Collecting & Selecting Topics 4. Creating Action 5. Ensuring Sustainability 3. Understanding and Clarification The Process: Five Steps from Contract to Action
5.  Sustaining the work Risk assessment If we move on with the plan – what could go wrong? Any red-alerts? If the plan fails, how damaging is it? Which measure do we need, to prevent the failing? Development of action plans, if the conflict erupts again or if the conditions worsen again What do we do, if the condition worsen? How do we know that the condition worsen? Guidelines for further cooperation As a moderator – take on the role of the  devil’s advocate and  probe the solutions
9 Guidelines When Moderating 3.) Remind about the overall goals/common interest! 4.) Encourage: Believe in a long-lasting solution 8.)  Structure dialogue: Understanding interest on both side 6.)  Foster trust 5.)  Save face: Respect   Values, Identity, Equality, Self-determination!  7.)  No superficial compromises 9.)  Develop concrete measure rather than abstract solution formula 2.) Avoid time pressure!  1.) Assume good intention and trustworthiness!
Thank you for your attention Question? Comments?

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FCT Mitrovica - Mariska KAPPMEIER

  • 1. More Than Words – Establishing Sustainability in Group Discussion A Presentation by Mariska Kappmeier, University of Hamburg
  • 2. Problems – Group Discussion Slow process Chaotic or unstructured Difficult to reach results
  • 3. Benefits Group Discussion Allows to develop Shared Visions between (antagonistic) participants Boosts commitment and motivation of the participants Bases the decision on the contribution of all participants and are therefore longer lasting
  • 4. To reach these benefits, the group discussion HAS TO BE moderated The role of the moderator is crucial
  • 5. 9 Guidelines When Moderating 3.) Remind about the overall goals/common interest! 4.) Encourage: Believe in a long-lasting solution 8.) Structure dialogue: Understanding interest on both side 6.) Foster trust 5.) Save face: Respect Values, Identity, Equality, Self-determination! 7.) No superficial compromises 9.) Develop concrete measure rather than abstract solution formula 2.) Avoid time pressure! 1.) Assume good intention and trustworthiness!
  • 6. Two Extremes in the Moderation Option Pushing for quick decision Top-down implementation of the decision Advantage: Quick decision is reached, Disadvantage: Know-how and concern of group members gets ignored Less like to sustain, because of lack in support Create resistant and tension when implemented
  • 7. Tolerating deliberate diligence Bottom–up implementation of decision Advantage: The know how, concern and preference of each group member is taken into account More likely to rise early red alerts, where possible problems and obstacles lies Likely the majority of group member support the decision Disadvantage: Tend to take a long time and to be unproductive Discussion runs try
  • 8. Role of the Moderator Provides structure for dialogue Engages the participation of each group member Keeps the balance between participant orientated and goal orientated style Enables not only mutual decision but also relationship building
  • 9. 1. Contracting or Forming a Working Alliance 2. Collecting & Selecting Topics 4. Creating Action 5. Ensuring Sustainability 3. Understanding and Clarification The Process: Five Steps from Contract to Action
  • 10. A guide to structuring the process Opening Closing 1) Objective of the step (e.g. First we set the agenda) 3) The next step would be (e.g. After collecting the topics, we’ll select the topics we want to work on next) 4) Agreement Is it Ok for you to move on? 2) Current status (e.g. We agreed to come together to talk about the water problem we’re facing in our communities)
  • 11. Contracting or Forming a Working Alliance Creating transparency Objective and agenda Fix time, location, scope “ The next 1.5h we are meet to discuss how to ensure results and sustainability out of group discussions and negotiations” Ensure that the group agrees Explaining your role as a moderator Will you just moderate? (Being in charge for the process?) Will you also take part in the discussion by contributing input?
  • 12. Key Notes Moderator Preparation Prepare the meeting Create a tentative agenda Adding topics from the participants Possible questions: „If it would be only up to you, what would we discuss today and why?” Process orientated, but also reveals motivations, wishes and concerns of the participants
  • 13. 1. Contracting or Forming a Working Alliance 2. Collecting & Selecting Topics 4. Creating Action 5. Ensuring Sustainability 3. Understanding and Clarification The Process: Five Steps from Contract to Action
  • 14. 2. Collecting and Selecting Topics Collecting topics Visualizing the issues Rephrase critical statements into constructive statements Selecting issues Rated by the participants, Possible rating criteria: Most important Most urgent Easiest to work on Etc.
  • 15. What if there is disagreement? If there is disagreement, ask what the underlying motivation is to choose a specific topic: Why does it matter for the group to start with this specific topic? Can reveal deeper lying concerns and needs!!! Be aware, this could open up a conflict mediation session, as a facilitator you steer the process Possible Proposals Can we start with topic A and then turn toward topic B? Would that work? If not, why not? Assigned time 1hour for topic A, 1hour for topic B Choose randomly (flip a coin) Work with Caucasus groups Each group prepares the topic that matter the most for them in break away groups Etc.
  • 16. 1. Contracting or Forming a Working Alliance 2. Collecting & Selecting Topics 4. Creating Action 5. Ensuring Sustainability 3. Understanding and Clarification The Process: Five Steps from Contract to Action
  • 17. 3. Understanding and Clarification Exploration of the interest, concern and wishes of the group behind the topic What matter about the topic to each participants? What impact has the topic for them? What has to be consider about this issue? Brings clarification of perceptions Without moral assessment or conflict resolution The participants should gain a understanding of the other participant’s perspectives
  • 18. Key Notes Moderator Ensurement that everybody is heard, also the quiet members Channeled dialogue No visualization Summarizes the statements (interest, concern wishes) of the participants in during this step, so it won’t be forgotten Deferral of Solutions!!!!
  • 19. Channeled dialogue Explore the interests and concern of the parties
  • 20. 1. Contracting or Forming a Working Alliance 2. Collecting & Selecting Topics 4. Creating Action 5. Ensuring Sustainability 3. Understanding and Clarification The Process: Five Steps from Contract to Action
  • 21. 4. Creating Action Development of cooperatively solutions, which are mutually accepted Brainstorming Based on the concern, fears and wishes raised red-alerts in Clarification No superficial compromises
  • 22. Key notes Moderator Use of concrete question Brainstorming Concrete and binding agreements
  • 23. or How can we in the future … (e.g. cooperate in the water supply), in order that… (our communities are served better), without … (without facing conflicts and violence) ? How can we in the future … , (e.g. cooperate) in order … (to improve the water supply), without on the one hand site … (fight to much) and on the other side … (harmonize everything) ? Concrete question
  • 24. Brainstorming If there aren‘t any new ideas: Break and after that 2 nd round Invite to combine different ideas Use many options: Brainwriting, analogies, walk around, what would create the opposite effect etc. Separate groups to collect ideas Deferral of critics and discussions Create many ideas for solutions and do not focus on a single idea
  • 25. 4. Creating Action From Brainstorming to Action Assess quickly where everybody stands: Is there a mutual “best” solution? Which is an obvious solution? Rate the decision Negotiate around the “sticky points” Which conditions have to be meet, so everybody can agree? How can you joint difference priorities? Can you compensate for concessions? No result? Clarify, what could be the reason? Back to brainstorming – try again
  • 26. WHO? DOES WHAT WITH WHOM? UNTIL WHEN? How assessed ? Concrete and binding agreements
  • 27. 1. Contracting or Forming a Working Alliance 2. Collecting & Selecting Topics 4. Creating Action 5. Ensuring Sustainability 3. Understanding and Clarification The Process: Five Steps from Contract to Action
  • 28. 5. Sustaining the work Risk assessment If we move on with the plan – what could go wrong? Any red-alerts? If the plan fails, how damaging is it? Which measure do we need, to prevent the failing? Development of action plans, if the conflict erupts again or if the conditions worsen again What do we do, if the condition worsen? How do we know that the condition worsen? Guidelines for further cooperation As a moderator – take on the role of the devil’s advocate and probe the solutions
  • 29. 9 Guidelines When Moderating 3.) Remind about the overall goals/common interest! 4.) Encourage: Believe in a long-lasting solution 8.) Structure dialogue: Understanding interest on both side 6.) Foster trust 5.) Save face: Respect Values, Identity, Equality, Self-determination! 7.) No superficial compromises 9.) Develop concrete measure rather than abstract solution formula 2.) Avoid time pressure! 1.) Assume good intention and trustworthiness!
  • 30. Thank you for your attention Question? Comments?