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Journalism: The Future
of the Fourth Estate
Week 1 – How did the media get where it is today?
What? So What? Now What?
“There are only two forces that can
carry light to all corners of the
globe — the sun in the
heavens and The Associated
Press down here.”
Some truths about the future…
• We are in a profoundly different age of human
communication.
• Every American generation grows up with a
different form of media on the rise.
• Young people always play key roles in inventing
new forms of news media.
• In the long run, science fiction writers are better
at predicting the future than the experts.
– Eric Newton, Knight Foundation
Searchlightsandsunglasses.org
Evolution of Human Communication
Anything one man can
imagine, other men can
make real.
– Jules Verne
Video phone – Blade Runner with Harrison Ford
forecasted Skype and Facetime Star Trek’s tri-corder hinted
at the iPad and tablets. Also cell phones
Dick Tracy’s
“talking watch”
is now the Apple
Watch.
Evolution of Human Communication
Communications Exponential Rise
Source: Eric Newton, Knight Foundation
searchlightsandsunglasses.org
Evolution of Human Communication
Age Human Capacity Date (c.) Concept of time
Visual Curiosity 1-2 m BC Natural
Language Orally 100,000 BC Cyclical
Written
Mass Media Literacy 1450 AD Linear
Digital Fluency 1991 AD Multi
Source: Eric Newton, Knight Foundation
searchlightsandsunglasses.org
Evolution of Human Communication
Communications Exponential Rise
Source: Eric Newton, Knight Foundation
searchlightsandsunglasses.org
Evolution of Human Communication
In America, every generation has grown up with a
different form of media in ascendance.
Generation Age (midpoint) Rising Media
Republican 1775 Pamphlets
(Amer. Revolution) “Common Sense” – Thomas Paine
Compromise 1800 Partisan weekly newspapers
Facilitated by US Postal Serv., 1st Amend
Transcendental 1830 Populist daily newspapers
The Penny Press
Gilded 1851 The Associated Press
The telegraph
Source: Generations and Cyles, The Fourth Turning, William
Strauss and Neil Howe.
Evolution of Human Communication
In America, every generation has grown up with a
different form of media in ascendence.
Generation Age (midpoint) Rising Media
Progressive 1868 Illustrated magazines and
niche publications
Missionary 1891 Major metropolitan dailies
Industrial era inventions: light bulb, telephone, linotype, film, etc.
Lost 1909 Photography in print
GI 1933 Radio newscasts, movies,
The Depression, WWII newsreels
Source: Generations and Cyles, The Fourth Turning, William
Strauss and Neil Howe.
Evolution of Human Communication
In America, every generation has grown up with a
different form of media in ascendence.
Generation Age (midpoint) Rising Media
Silent 1951 Glossy color magazines, TV
Color TV, home telephones
Baby Boomers 1969 TV newscasts
Satellite, cable, video tape
Generation X 1990 World Wide Web
Digital era inventions, personal computers, Internet, email, chat, video games, MM
Millennial 2009 Mobile & social media
9/11, Recession – cell phones, search engines, blogs, smart phones, tablets,
global Internet, e-commerce, wearable media.
Evolution of Human Communication
Despite the changing media over the centuries, people’s need for
information has remained constant.
In their book The Elements of Journalism, Bill Kovach and Tom
Rosenstiel call this the “awareness instinct” — how people in
different eras and cultures share similar definitions of news. The
instinct to seek news is natural.
As self-government and civilization grew, the need for independent
information grew. Journalism evolved into a profession. Over time,
the best journalists came to believe in a specific set of principles
that continue to this day to guide their reporting. These are…
THE PRINCIPLES OF JOURNALISM
The PRINCIPLES OF JOURNALISM
• Obligation to the truth
• Loyalty to citizens
• Discipline of verification
• Independence from those they cover
• Monitor power
• Provide forum for public criticism and compromise
• Make the significant relevant and interesting
• Keep the news comprehensive and in proportion
• Practitioners are obliged to exercise their conscience
• Citizens have both rights and responsibilities
regarding the news
The PRINCIPLES OF JOURNALISM
• Obligation to the truth
• Loyalty to citizens
• Discipline of verification
• Independence from those they cover
• Monitor power
• Provide forum for public criticism and compromise
• Make the significant relevant and interesting
• Keep the news comprehensive and in proportion
• Practitioners are obliged to exercise their conscience
• Citizens have both rights and responsibilities
regarding the news
Evolution of Human Communication
In our lifetimes for the last 80 years, consider this metaphor
For the 1930s through the 1980s – Journalists as the GATEKEEPERS
Evolution of Human Communication
In our lifetimes for the last 80 years, consider this metaphor
From 1990s on with the rise of cable, Internet, social media –
Audience as the EDITORS of their own news consumption
Equal Time Rule
• Originated with the Radio Act of 1927;
superseded by the Communications
Act of 1934
• Applies to political candidates only
• Requires radio and TV stations
to give equivalent time to any
opposing candidate who
requests it, and at the same
price if applicable.
• Exceptions: 1) in a documentary
2) part of bona fide news interview
3) scheduled newscast, 4) on-the-
spot news event
Fairness Doctrine
• Established by FCC in 1949
• Applied to holders of broadcast
licenses
• Required stations to 1) devote time
to controversial issues of public
interest and importance and 2) air
contrasting views of those issues
• Under pressure from Pres. Reagan,
In 1987, FCC eliminated the Doctrine
• Formally eliminated the language
that implemented it in August 2011
Evolution of Human Communication
“There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to
conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the
introduction of a new order of things. [The innovator] “has for
enemies all those who have done well under the old conditions.”
– Renaissance philosopher Niccolò Machiavelli.
But the old conditions are gone and the speed of change
is increasing exponentially. Next, we will
examine the new reality of how America perceives…
THE FOURTH ESTATE
Polarized America
Political Polarization in the American Public
Pew Research Center, June 2014
Polarized America
Political Polarization in the American Public
Pew Research Center, June 2014
Polarized America
Political Polarization in the American Public
Pew Research Center, June 2014
Polarized America & Media Habits
Political
Polarization
& Media
Habits
Pew
Research
Center,
October
2014
Polarized America
& Media Habits
Political Polarization & Media Habits
Pew Research Center, October 2014
Political
Polarization &
Media Habits
Pew Research
Center, October
2014
Polarized America & Media Habits
Political
Polarization
& Media
Habits
Pew
Research
Center,
October
2014
Polarized America & Media Habits
Political
Polarization
& Media
Habits
Pew
Research
Center,
October
2014
Polarized America & Media Habits
Political
Polarization
& Media
Habits
Pew
Research
Center,
October
2014
Polarized America & Media Habits
Political
Polarization
& Media
Habits
Pew
Research
Center,
October
2014
Study Conclusions
Are more likely to have friends who share their own political views. Two-thirds (66%) say most of
their close friends share their views on government and politics.
Are more likely to follow issue-based groups, rather than political parties or candidates, in their
Facebook feeds.
The study finds that consistent conservatives compared to consistent liberals:
Are tightly clustered around a single news source, far more than any other group in the
survey, with 47% citing Fox News as their main source for news about government and
politics.
Are less unified in their media loyalty; they rely on a greater range of news outlets, including
some – like NPR and the New York Times– that others use far less.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Express greater distrust than trust of 24 of the 36 news sources measured in the survey. At
the same time, fully 88% of consistent conservatives trust Fox News.
Express more trust than distrust of 28 of the 36 news outlets in the survey. NPR, PBS, and
the BBC are the most trusted news sources for consistent liberals.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Are, when on Facebook, more likely than those in other ideological groups to hear
political opinions that are in line with their own views.
Are more likely than those in other ideological groups to block or “defriend” someone on
a social network – as well as to end a personal friendship – because of politics.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Media Trends Today
• Democrats and Republicans, who already tend
to place their trust in different news sources
and rely on different outlets for political news,
now disagree more than ever on a
fundamental issue of the news media’s role in
society: “whether news organizations’
criticism of political leaders primarily keeps
them from doing things they shouldn’t – or
keeps them from doing their job.”
Media Trends Today
Americans’ Attitudes about the Media Sharply
Divided along Partisan Lines
Pew Research Center, May 2017
Americans’
Attitudes about
the Media
Sharply
Divided along
Partisan Lines
Pew Research
Center, May
2017
Media Trends Today
Americans’ Attitudes about the Media Sharply
Divided along Partisan Lines
Pew Research Center, May 2017
Media Trends Today
Americans’ Attitudes about the Media Sharply
Divided along Partisan Lines
Pew Research Center, May 2017
Media Trends Today
Americans’ Attitudes about the Media Sharply
Divided along Partisan Lines
Pew Research Center, May 2017
Media Trends Today
Americans’ Attitudes about the Media Sharply
Divided along Partisan Lines
Pew Research Center, May 2017
Media Trends Today
Blur: How to Know What’s True in the Age
of Information Overload
Bill Kovach & Tom Rosentiel, 2010
Media Trends Today
What kind of
content is this?
News?
Propaganda?
Advertising?
Publicity?
Entertainment?Raw Information?
Blur: How to Know What’s True in the Age
of Information Overload
Bill Kovach & Tom Rosentiel, 2010
4 Models of Journalism Today
#1 – Journalism of Verification
• Traditional model of journalism that puts the highest
value on accuracy, context, and completeness;
i.e. mainstream news
• Based on the Principles of Journalism and codes of
ethics
• “If your mother says she loves you, check it out.”
• Includes opinion journalism – editorials and op-eds
The PRINCIPLES OF JOURNALISM
• Obligation to the truth
• Loyalty to citizens
• Discipline of verification
• Independence from those they cover
• Monitor power
• Provide forum for public criticism and compromise
• Make the significant relevant and interesting
• Keep the news comprehensive and in proportion
• Practitioners are obliged to exercise their conscience
• Citizens have both rights and responsibilities
regarding the news
Blur: How to Know What’s True in the Age
of Information Overload
Bill Kovach & Tom Rosentiel, 2010
4 Models of Journalism Today
#2 – Journalism of Assertion
• A newer model that puts the highest value on
immediacy and volume, as a byproduct of 24/7
news culture
• News sources can more easily assert whatever they
want with less vetting, filtering, or challenges. Creates
an “Argument Culture”
• A passive conduit of information
THANKS
Blur: How to Know What’s True in the Age
of Information Overload
Bill Kovach & Tom Rosentiel, 2010
4 Models of Journalism Today
#3 – Journalism of Affirmation
• A new political model that builds loyalty less on
accuracy, completeness, or verification than on
affirming the beliefs and preconceptions of its audience
• Hosts or practitioners are strongly ideological, often
dogmatic. Creates an “Answer Culture” – the “answers
the hosts have arrived at before the show even began.”
• Will cherry-pick information to gain audience loyalty
and then convert that loyalty into ad revenue.
Blur: How to Know What’s True in the Age
of Information Overload
Bill Kovach & Tom Rosentiel, 2010
4 Models of Journalism Today
#4 – Interest Group Journalism
• Political interest groups whose primary purpose is not
producing journalism, but effecting political outcomes.
• Think tanks, political action groups, etc. It’s often
difficult to find out the group’s backers and/or
origins. Funding sources may lack transparency.
• Want to shape public discourse as a means to advance
their own beliefs
• Designed to look like news
What? So What?... Takeaways
• Roughly every 80 years, the modes of communication
have changed. We are in the midst of a significant shift.
• The rise of cable TV, the Internet, social media, etc. has
reduced the homogeneity of America’s knowledge.
• Over our lifetimes, the roles have moved from journalists
being the gatekeepers of information to the audience as
editors of their own knowledge. The audience must now
be active, not passive consumers.
• America’s political polarization has a symbiotic relationship with
the polarization of the media. The audience must become
consciously aware of a news organization’s bias.
• New models of journalism have emerged to blend with
the journalism of verification. It’s now the audience’s
responsibility to recognize one from the others.
- In your inbox -
For a more in-depth look
• “28 newsrooms asked their audiences if they pay
for the news. 70 percent said yes.”
– Poynter, July 27, 2017
• “Political Polarization in the American Public”
– Pew Research Center, June 2014
• “Political Polarization & Media Habits”
– Pew Research Center, Oct. 2014
• “Americans’ Attitudes about the Media Sharply
Divided along Partisan Lines”
– Pew Research Center, May 2017
Now What? Next Week
Dennis Ryerson, retired editor of
The Indianapolis Star
• What must journalists be and do in 2017?
• What new skills must journalists possess?

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Journalism lesson 1

  • 1. Journalism: The Future of the Fourth Estate Week 1 – How did the media get where it is today?
  • 2. What? So What? Now What? “There are only two forces that can carry light to all corners of the globe — the sun in the heavens and The Associated Press down here.”
  • 3. Some truths about the future… • We are in a profoundly different age of human communication. • Every American generation grows up with a different form of media on the rise. • Young people always play key roles in inventing new forms of news media. • In the long run, science fiction writers are better at predicting the future than the experts. – Eric Newton, Knight Foundation Searchlightsandsunglasses.org
  • 4. Evolution of Human Communication Anything one man can imagine, other men can make real. – Jules Verne Video phone – Blade Runner with Harrison Ford forecasted Skype and Facetime Star Trek’s tri-corder hinted at the iPad and tablets. Also cell phones Dick Tracy’s “talking watch” is now the Apple Watch.
  • 5. Evolution of Human Communication Communications Exponential Rise Source: Eric Newton, Knight Foundation searchlightsandsunglasses.org
  • 6. Evolution of Human Communication Age Human Capacity Date (c.) Concept of time Visual Curiosity 1-2 m BC Natural Language Orally 100,000 BC Cyclical Written Mass Media Literacy 1450 AD Linear Digital Fluency 1991 AD Multi Source: Eric Newton, Knight Foundation searchlightsandsunglasses.org
  • 7. Evolution of Human Communication Communications Exponential Rise Source: Eric Newton, Knight Foundation searchlightsandsunglasses.org
  • 8. Evolution of Human Communication In America, every generation has grown up with a different form of media in ascendance. Generation Age (midpoint) Rising Media Republican 1775 Pamphlets (Amer. Revolution) “Common Sense” – Thomas Paine Compromise 1800 Partisan weekly newspapers Facilitated by US Postal Serv., 1st Amend Transcendental 1830 Populist daily newspapers The Penny Press Gilded 1851 The Associated Press The telegraph Source: Generations and Cyles, The Fourth Turning, William Strauss and Neil Howe.
  • 9. Evolution of Human Communication In America, every generation has grown up with a different form of media in ascendence. Generation Age (midpoint) Rising Media Progressive 1868 Illustrated magazines and niche publications Missionary 1891 Major metropolitan dailies Industrial era inventions: light bulb, telephone, linotype, film, etc. Lost 1909 Photography in print GI 1933 Radio newscasts, movies, The Depression, WWII newsreels Source: Generations and Cyles, The Fourth Turning, William Strauss and Neil Howe.
  • 10. Evolution of Human Communication In America, every generation has grown up with a different form of media in ascendence. Generation Age (midpoint) Rising Media Silent 1951 Glossy color magazines, TV Color TV, home telephones Baby Boomers 1969 TV newscasts Satellite, cable, video tape Generation X 1990 World Wide Web Digital era inventions, personal computers, Internet, email, chat, video games, MM Millennial 2009 Mobile & social media 9/11, Recession – cell phones, search engines, blogs, smart phones, tablets, global Internet, e-commerce, wearable media.
  • 11. Evolution of Human Communication Despite the changing media over the centuries, people’s need for information has remained constant. In their book The Elements of Journalism, Bill Kovach and Tom Rosenstiel call this the “awareness instinct” — how people in different eras and cultures share similar definitions of news. The instinct to seek news is natural. As self-government and civilization grew, the need for independent information grew. Journalism evolved into a profession. Over time, the best journalists came to believe in a specific set of principles that continue to this day to guide their reporting. These are… THE PRINCIPLES OF JOURNALISM
  • 12. The PRINCIPLES OF JOURNALISM • Obligation to the truth • Loyalty to citizens • Discipline of verification • Independence from those they cover • Monitor power • Provide forum for public criticism and compromise • Make the significant relevant and interesting • Keep the news comprehensive and in proportion • Practitioners are obliged to exercise their conscience • Citizens have both rights and responsibilities regarding the news
  • 13. The PRINCIPLES OF JOURNALISM • Obligation to the truth • Loyalty to citizens • Discipline of verification • Independence from those they cover • Monitor power • Provide forum for public criticism and compromise • Make the significant relevant and interesting • Keep the news comprehensive and in proportion • Practitioners are obliged to exercise their conscience • Citizens have both rights and responsibilities regarding the news
  • 14. Evolution of Human Communication In our lifetimes for the last 80 years, consider this metaphor For the 1930s through the 1980s – Journalists as the GATEKEEPERS
  • 15. Evolution of Human Communication In our lifetimes for the last 80 years, consider this metaphor From 1990s on with the rise of cable, Internet, social media – Audience as the EDITORS of their own news consumption
  • 16. Equal Time Rule • Originated with the Radio Act of 1927; superseded by the Communications Act of 1934 • Applies to political candidates only • Requires radio and TV stations to give equivalent time to any opposing candidate who requests it, and at the same price if applicable. • Exceptions: 1) in a documentary 2) part of bona fide news interview 3) scheduled newscast, 4) on-the- spot news event Fairness Doctrine • Established by FCC in 1949 • Applied to holders of broadcast licenses • Required stations to 1) devote time to controversial issues of public interest and importance and 2) air contrasting views of those issues • Under pressure from Pres. Reagan, In 1987, FCC eliminated the Doctrine • Formally eliminated the language that implemented it in August 2011
  • 17. Evolution of Human Communication “There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things. [The innovator] “has for enemies all those who have done well under the old conditions.” – Renaissance philosopher Niccolò Machiavelli. But the old conditions are gone and the speed of change is increasing exponentially. Next, we will examine the new reality of how America perceives… THE FOURTH ESTATE
  • 18. Polarized America Political Polarization in the American Public Pew Research Center, June 2014
  • 19. Polarized America Political Polarization in the American Public Pew Research Center, June 2014
  • 20. Polarized America Political Polarization in the American Public Pew Research Center, June 2014
  • 21. Polarized America & Media Habits Political Polarization & Media Habits Pew Research Center, October 2014
  • 22. Polarized America & Media Habits Political Polarization & Media Habits Pew Research Center, October 2014
  • 23. Political Polarization & Media Habits Pew Research Center, October 2014
  • 24. Polarized America & Media Habits Political Polarization & Media Habits Pew Research Center, October 2014
  • 25. Polarized America & Media Habits Political Polarization & Media Habits Pew Research Center, October 2014
  • 26. Polarized America & Media Habits Political Polarization & Media Habits Pew Research Center, October 2014
  • 27. Polarized America & Media Habits Political Polarization & Media Habits Pew Research Center, October 2014
  • 28. Study Conclusions Are more likely to have friends who share their own political views. Two-thirds (66%) say most of their close friends share their views on government and politics. Are more likely to follow issue-based groups, rather than political parties or candidates, in their Facebook feeds. The study finds that consistent conservatives compared to consistent liberals: Are tightly clustered around a single news source, far more than any other group in the survey, with 47% citing Fox News as their main source for news about government and politics. Are less unified in their media loyalty; they rely on a greater range of news outlets, including some – like NPR and the New York Times– that others use far less. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Express greater distrust than trust of 24 of the 36 news sources measured in the survey. At the same time, fully 88% of consistent conservatives trust Fox News. Express more trust than distrust of 28 of the 36 news outlets in the survey. NPR, PBS, and the BBC are the most trusted news sources for consistent liberals. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Are, when on Facebook, more likely than those in other ideological groups to hear political opinions that are in line with their own views. Are more likely than those in other ideological groups to block or “defriend” someone on a social network – as well as to end a personal friendship – because of politics. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  • 29. Media Trends Today • Democrats and Republicans, who already tend to place their trust in different news sources and rely on different outlets for political news, now disagree more than ever on a fundamental issue of the news media’s role in society: “whether news organizations’ criticism of political leaders primarily keeps them from doing things they shouldn’t – or keeps them from doing their job.”
  • 30. Media Trends Today Americans’ Attitudes about the Media Sharply Divided along Partisan Lines Pew Research Center, May 2017
  • 31. Americans’ Attitudes about the Media Sharply Divided along Partisan Lines Pew Research Center, May 2017 Media Trends Today
  • 32. Americans’ Attitudes about the Media Sharply Divided along Partisan Lines Pew Research Center, May 2017 Media Trends Today
  • 33. Americans’ Attitudes about the Media Sharply Divided along Partisan Lines Pew Research Center, May 2017 Media Trends Today
  • 34. Americans’ Attitudes about the Media Sharply Divided along Partisan Lines Pew Research Center, May 2017 Media Trends Today
  • 35. Americans’ Attitudes about the Media Sharply Divided along Partisan Lines Pew Research Center, May 2017 Media Trends Today
  • 36. Blur: How to Know What’s True in the Age of Information Overload Bill Kovach & Tom Rosentiel, 2010 Media Trends Today What kind of content is this? News? Propaganda? Advertising? Publicity? Entertainment?Raw Information?
  • 37. Blur: How to Know What’s True in the Age of Information Overload Bill Kovach & Tom Rosentiel, 2010 4 Models of Journalism Today #1 – Journalism of Verification • Traditional model of journalism that puts the highest value on accuracy, context, and completeness; i.e. mainstream news • Based on the Principles of Journalism and codes of ethics • “If your mother says she loves you, check it out.” • Includes opinion journalism – editorials and op-eds
  • 38. The PRINCIPLES OF JOURNALISM • Obligation to the truth • Loyalty to citizens • Discipline of verification • Independence from those they cover • Monitor power • Provide forum for public criticism and compromise • Make the significant relevant and interesting • Keep the news comprehensive and in proportion • Practitioners are obliged to exercise their conscience • Citizens have both rights and responsibilities regarding the news
  • 39. Blur: How to Know What’s True in the Age of Information Overload Bill Kovach & Tom Rosentiel, 2010 4 Models of Journalism Today #2 – Journalism of Assertion • A newer model that puts the highest value on immediacy and volume, as a byproduct of 24/7 news culture • News sources can more easily assert whatever they want with less vetting, filtering, or challenges. Creates an “Argument Culture” • A passive conduit of information THANKS
  • 40. Blur: How to Know What’s True in the Age of Information Overload Bill Kovach & Tom Rosentiel, 2010 4 Models of Journalism Today #3 – Journalism of Affirmation • A new political model that builds loyalty less on accuracy, completeness, or verification than on affirming the beliefs and preconceptions of its audience • Hosts or practitioners are strongly ideological, often dogmatic. Creates an “Answer Culture” – the “answers the hosts have arrived at before the show even began.” • Will cherry-pick information to gain audience loyalty and then convert that loyalty into ad revenue.
  • 41. Blur: How to Know What’s True in the Age of Information Overload Bill Kovach & Tom Rosentiel, 2010 4 Models of Journalism Today #4 – Interest Group Journalism • Political interest groups whose primary purpose is not producing journalism, but effecting political outcomes. • Think tanks, political action groups, etc. It’s often difficult to find out the group’s backers and/or origins. Funding sources may lack transparency. • Want to shape public discourse as a means to advance their own beliefs • Designed to look like news
  • 42. What? So What?... Takeaways • Roughly every 80 years, the modes of communication have changed. We are in the midst of a significant shift. • The rise of cable TV, the Internet, social media, etc. has reduced the homogeneity of America’s knowledge. • Over our lifetimes, the roles have moved from journalists being the gatekeepers of information to the audience as editors of their own knowledge. The audience must now be active, not passive consumers. • America’s political polarization has a symbiotic relationship with the polarization of the media. The audience must become consciously aware of a news organization’s bias. • New models of journalism have emerged to blend with the journalism of verification. It’s now the audience’s responsibility to recognize one from the others.
  • 43. - In your inbox - For a more in-depth look • “28 newsrooms asked their audiences if they pay for the news. 70 percent said yes.” – Poynter, July 27, 2017 • “Political Polarization in the American Public” – Pew Research Center, June 2014 • “Political Polarization & Media Habits” – Pew Research Center, Oct. 2014 • “Americans’ Attitudes about the Media Sharply Divided along Partisan Lines” – Pew Research Center, May 2017
  • 44. Now What? Next Week Dennis Ryerson, retired editor of The Indianapolis Star • What must journalists be and do in 2017? • What new skills must journalists possess?

Editor's Notes

  1. My goals: * That when you think of journalists and media, you will think more critically about what those words mean in terms of principles, ethics, and purposes. * That you will be aware of the events and forces that are changing journalism not only today, but throughout the past, and will continue to change journalism as we move ahead. • That you will not only understand the rights and responsibilities of journalists as defined by law and tradition, but be aware of your own rights and responsibilities as the audience and the consumers of journalism.
  2. The right ages of communication? The author offers his own version of the four ages of communication: visual, language, mass media and digital. Previous scholars have divided the history of human communication differently. Below are the Ages of Human Literacy as discussed by Marshall McLuhan in 1967 and later referenced by Neil Postman. Oral Age: Communication, particularly storytelling, was done by word of mouth. Stories survived when they were remembered within a community. Literary Age: Symbols and then written language radically altered the communication environment. With writing, the same message could easily be repeated exactly and transported without distortion over a long distance. Print Age: Mass production of printed materials began due to the development of the modern printing press — moveable metal type used in an old wine press. Identical messages can reach large numbers of people, though less community interaction is needed to consume media. Electronic Age: A time of instant communication. First was the telegraph, then the telephone, then radio, television, computers, video games, the Internet and mobile phones. Before the Internet, McLuhan used the term Global Village to illustrate that humans were no longer in isolation. This age is also characterized by technological convergence, the tendency of different technologies to evolve toward performing similar tasks.
  3. • Ancient Phoenicians had news networks, with merchants sharing political news along ancient trade routes. Minstrels and other traveling artists carried info about social change. In Middle Ages, town criers spread news in town squares. • From printed newsletters distributed twice a day to Twitter feeds refreshed two or more times per minute, we now live in a global village.
  4. The right ages of communication? The author offers his own version of the four ages of communication: visual, language, mass media and digital. Previous scholars have divided the history of human communication differently. Below are the Ages of Human Literacy as discussed by Marshall McLuhan in 1967 and later referenced by Neil Postman. Oral Age: Communication, particularly storytelling, was done by word of mouth. Stories survived when they were remembered within a community. Literary Age: Symbols and then written language radically altered the communication environment. With writing, the same message could easily be repeated exactly and transported without distortion over a long distance. Print Age: Mass production of printed materials began due to the development of the modern printing press — moveable metal type used in an old wine press. Identical messages can reach large numbers of people, though less community interaction is needed to consume media. Electronic Age: A time of instant communication. First was the telegraph, then the telephone, then radio, television, computers, video games, the Internet and mobile phones. Before the Internet, McLuhan used the term Global Village to illustrate that humans were no longer in isolation. This age is also characterized by technological convergence, the tendency of different technologies to evolve toward performing similar tasks. Marshall McLuhan in 1967, later Neil Postman
  5. Did traditional media see this coming? Very few. Early on, only the Wall Street Journal pushed for computers. In 2009, ASNE removed the word “newspaper” from its name, replacing it with “news.” Knight Ridder did spend decades developing editorial ideas for a table, but it had no idea what kind of technology would make it a reality.
  6. In 1983 historian Benedict Anderson published a book, Imagined Communities, in which he argued that political structures, like states, depend upon a set of shared values, the “imagined community.” In a TED talk, Ethan Zuckerman, founder of Global Voices, points out that is no longer the case. According to the World Bank, of the world’s 7 billion people, only 80% have access to the electricity needed for computers and televisions. 75% have mobile phones, and only 35% can access the Internet.
  7. Before the 20th century, all journalists were assumed to be opinion writers. Reporters went to places to report, made up their own minds about a topic, and wrote an account that included not only facts, but an argument for what position readers at home should take and what political actions might follow. George Orwell – essays from SE Asia. Mark Twain. Early explorers.
  8. • With the beginning of the Cold War, in the democratic West, journalists began to strive for objective impartiality, to distinguish their work from the obvious, state-sponsored Soviet propaganda. Objectivity = journalistic ideal. • We connect to the Internet to link up with the whole world, and imagine we live in a global village. In practice, we spend most of our time reading news shared by our FB friends, whose lives and interests are very similar to our own. Zuckerman calls this the “imagined cosmopolitanism.”
  9. having timely knowledge of the world around them helps people live their lives, protect themselves and bond with one another. As civilization grew and self-government spread, the need for independent information grew. Journalism evolved into a profession. The best journalists came to believe in a specific set of principles. Kovach and Rosenstiel call them The Elements of Journalism: Obligation to the truth “The Elements of Journalism” Loyalty to citizens Discipline of verification Independence from those they cover Monitor power Provide forum for public criticism and compromise Make the significant relevant and interesting Keep news comprehensive and in proportion Practitioners are obliged to exercise their conscience Citizens have both rights and responsibilities regarding the news Questions for students: What do you need to know to be free and self-governing? Ask your peers, your parents, your professors. Do they have different needs? Does news you consume come with all the elements of good journalism? Do you agree these are the best elements? If you had to choose, would you say it is getting harder or easier to find excellent journalism?
  10. having timely knowledge of the world around them helps people live their lives, protect themselves and bond with one another. As civilization grew and self-government spread, the need for independent information grew. Journalism evolved into a profession. The best journalists came to believe in a specific set of principles. Kovach and Rosenstiel call them The Elements of Journalism: Obligation to the truth “The Elements of Journalism” Loyalty to citizens Discipline of verification Independence from those they cover Monitor power Provide forum for public criticism and compromise Make the significant relevant and interesting Keep news comprehensive and in proportion Practitioners are obliged to exercise their conscience Citizens have both rights and responsibilities regarding the news Questions for students: What do you need to know to be free and self-governing? Ask your peers, your parents, your professors. Do they have different needs? Does news you consume come with all the elements of good journalism? Do you agree these are the best elements? If you had to choose, would you say it is getting harder or easier to find excellent journalism?
  11. The rise of cable news and the Internet made the Fairness Doctrine impossible. Loop holes let stations get around the Equal Time Rule
  12. • With the beginning of the Cold War, in the democratic West, journalists began to strive for objective impartiality, to distinguish their work from the obvious, state-sponsored Soviet propaganda. Objectivity = journalistic ideal. • We connect to the Internet to link up with the whole world, and imagine we live in a global village. In practice, we spend most of our time reading news shared by our FB friends, whose lives and interests are very similar to our own. Zuckerman calls this the “imagined cosmopolitanism.”
  13. The overall share of Americans who express consistently conservative or consistently liberal opinions has doubled over the past two decades from 10% to 21%. And ideological thinking is now much more closely aligned with partisanship than in the past. As a result, ideological overlap betw een the two parties has diminished: Today, 92% of Republicans are to the right of the median Democrat, and 94% of Democrats are to the left of the median Republican.
  14. The overall share of Americans who express consistently conservative or consistently liberal opinions has doubled over the past two decades from 10% to 21%. And ideological thinking is now much more closely aligned with partisanship than in the past. As a result, ideological overlap between the two parties has diminished: Today, 92% of Republicans are to the right of the median Democrat, and 94% of Democrats are to the left of the median Republican.
  15. The overall share of Americans who express consistently conservative or consistently liberal opinions has doubled over the past two decades from 10% to 21%. And ideological thinking is now much more closely aligned with partisanship than in the past. As a result, ideological overlap between the two parties has diminished: Today, 92% of Republicans are to the right of the median Democrat, and 94% of Democrats are to the left of the median Republican.
  16. having timely knowledge of the world around them helps people live their lives, protect themselves and bond with one another. As civilization grew and self-government spread, the need for independent information grew. Journalism evolved into a profession. The best journalists came to believe in a specific set of principles. Questions for students: What do you need to know to be free and self-governing? Ask your peers, your parents, your professors. Do they have different needs? Does news you consume come with all the elements of good journalism? Do you agree these are the best elements? If you had to choose, would you say it is getting harder or easier to find excellent journalism?