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SYNTHESISMAPS
as design constructs	
  
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
3	
  
CONTEXT	
  
	
  
We as designers can make progress on the historic opportunity
to re-envision and redesign existing social systems through
frameworks for understanding, a shared view of the problem,
and tools to allow us to innovate, and provide transformative
systemic change.

Design provides a variety of visual tools and frameworks.
	
  
	
  

…and the wicked systemic problem?...
	
  

how to deal with systemic complexity
3	
  Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
4	
  
CONTEXT	
  

Provide context, precedent and relationship to other systemic
mapping approaches

Outline elements & aspects of a Synthesis Map creation with
examples

	
  

The GIGA-synthesis map as a key systemic
visual tool for complex problem understanding
4	
  Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
Democratization of Farming,, Conor Holler, Doug Moxon, Jason Last, Leah Shelley, Understanding Systems & Systemic
Design, Strategic Foresight & Innovation Student Project, OCAD U
Synthesis Map
how is it a systemic tool?
1
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
 
	
  	
  
	
  	
  Choosing	
  a	
  topic	
  –	
  What	
  are	
  the	
  essenFals?	
  
• 	
  A	
  topic	
  that	
  interests	
  you	
  
• 	
  It	
  should	
  be	
  challenging	
  and	
  have	
  enough	
  scope	
  
• 	
  Is	
  adequate	
  research	
  is	
  available	
  
• 	
  Who	
  is	
  the	
  appropriate	
  audience?	
  
	
  
	
  Thinking	
  it	
  Through:	
  A	
  PracFcal	
  Guide	
  to	
  Academic	
  Essay	
  WriFng,	
  Avery	
  et	
  al..	
  
	
  Bruce	
  Mau,	
  Design	
  and	
  the	
  Welfare	
  of	
  All	
  Life,	
  Design	
  Ecologies:	
  Essays	
  on	
  the	
  Nature	
  of	
  Design,	
  Tilder	
  and	
  Blostein	
  
	
  
6	
  
SCAFFOLDS	
  &	
  INTEGRATES	
  EXISTING	
  DESIGN	
  METHODS	
  TO	
  CREATE	
  A	
  
DIALOGUE	
  AROUND	
  A	
  TOPIC	
  
7	
  
	
  The	
  MINDMAP	
  
as	
  a	
  research	
  
plan?	
  
	
  Thinking	
  it	
  Through:	
  A	
  PracFcal	
  Guide	
  for	
  Academic	
  Essay	
  wriFng,	
  Avery	
  
	
  
Drawing	
  an	
  informal	
  and	
  pictorial	
  
outline,	
  someFmes	
  known	
  as	
  a	
  mind	
  
map,	
  can	
  be	
  a	
  way	
  of	
  freeing	
  yourself	
  
from	
  the	
  constraints	
  of	
  sentences	
  and	
  
paragraphs	
  so	
  that	
  you	
  can	
  explore	
  
ideas	
  more	
  creaFvely.	
  To	
  draw	
  a	
  mind	
  
map,	
  begin	
  by	
  placing	
  a	
  tentaFve	
  thesis	
  
in	
  the	
  centre	
  of	
  a	
  blank	
  page.	
  Explore	
  
the	
  thesis	
  by	
  drawing	
  branches	
  from	
  it	
  
to	
  represent	
  ideas	
  and	
  concepts	
  that,	
  
from	
  reading	
  and	
  research,	
  you	
  now	
  
associate	
  with	
  the	
  topic	
  thesis.	
  As	
  you	
  
are	
  drawing	
  /	
  composing	
  your	
  map,	
  
create	
  as	
  many	
  branches	
  as	
  you	
  can,	
  
and	
  as	
  many	
  twigs	
  as	
  possible	
  from	
  the	
  
branches.	
  	
  The	
  mind	
  map	
  can	
  be	
  used	
  
as	
  an	
  exploratory	
  method	
  only	
  if	
  you	
  
push	
  yourself	
  to	
  explore;	
  restricFng	
  
your	
  thinking	
  to	
  the	
  main	
  branches	
  will	
  
never	
  allow	
  you	
  to	
  recognize	
  the	
  
smaller,	
  more	
  subtle	
  possibiliFes	
  of	
  
your	
  topic.	
  
	
  	
  
A	
  mind	
  map	
  for	
  the	
  “waste	
  land”	
  sample	
  essay	
  
might	
  look	
  something	
  like	
  the	
  diagram	
  to	
  the	
  
le.	
  Thinking	
  it	
  Through,	
  Avery	
  
SCAFFOLDING	
  	
  ON	
  EXISTING	
  DESIGN	
  METHODS	
  
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
8	
  
	
  	
  
Converging	
  your	
  
ideas?	
  
	
  
Based	
  on	
  your	
  research	
  
about	
  developments	
  in	
  
your	
  topical	
  area,	
  and	
  the	
  
overlaps	
  between	
  related	
  
topics,	
  create	
  diagrams	
  
which	
  idenFfy	
  
commonaliFes.	
  
	
  	
  
• 	
  For	
  example	
  if”diabetes”	
  
is	
  the	
  project	
  topic	
  and	
  /	
  
or	
  concern,	
  your	
  research	
  
might	
  suggest	
  that	
  “food”	
  
and	
  “wellness,	
  and	
  maybe	
  
“food	
  producFon”	
  are	
  
topics	
  that	
  overlap	
  with	
  it.	
  
	
  101	
  Design	
  Methods,	
  A	
  Structured	
  Approach	
  for	
  Driving	
  InnovaFon	
  in	
  Your	
  OrganizaFon,	
  Kumar	
  	
  
SCAFFOLDING	
  	
  ON	
  EXISTING	
  DESIGN	
  METHODS	
  
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
9	
  

•  the ”referential sketch” as a visual
pneumonic to understand a system of
complexity
•  the model & prototype to test team
ideas, and create a dialogue around
conceptual development
•  A design process artifact needs to do
both

SCAFFOLDING	
  	
  ON	
  EXISTING	
  DESIGN	
  METHODS	
  
Paolo Soleri’s Sketche, and ongoing study model for
Arcosanti
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
10	
  
Rowe,	
  Design	
  Thinking,	
  Case	
  Studies	
  
SCAFFOLDING	
  	
  ON	
  EXISTING	
  DESIGN	
  METHODS	
  
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
11	
  

•  Checkland’s idealized model, as a
“learning” model (LUMAS)
•  framed with the idea of the “soft system”
as a more visual and qualitative method of
seeing systems through an “ idealized
model”
•  a systemic map that is a shared vehicle
for learning
Checkland,, soft systems approach
	
  Language	
  
of	
  systems	
  
“Real	
  world”	
  acGviGes	
  
SCAFFOLDING	
  	
  ON	
  EXISTING	
  DESIGN	
  METHODS	
  
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
12	
  

Visual Support for:
Problem Solving, Decision Making, Strategic Planning,
Creative Design, Team Building, Change Management
Knowledge Management & Communication
	
  
Ideogram	
  diagram	
  of	
  explicit	
  model	
  
as	
  a	
  shared	
  toolSCAFFOLDING	
  	
  ON	
  
EXISTING	
  DESIGN	
  
METHODS	
  
•  system stock and flow, and
the representation of causal
or systemic elemental
relations. (Meadows)
•  builds on system literacy

•  includes influence maps, and
other systemic diagrams
similar to systemigrams 
SCAFFOLDING	
  	
  ON	
  EXISTING	
  DESIGN	
  
METHODS	
  
Diagram	
  of	
  Prac/cing	
  Physicians	
  in	
  Ontario
The average age of family physicians in Ontario is 52 years old.
9.8% of family physicians in Ontario practice in rural communities,
where as 13% of Ontarians live in rural communities. One third of
physicians in Canada practice family medicine, but to meet the
need, it should be closer to one half of all physicians.
Diagram of Practicing Physicians in Ontario, Josina Vink,
Jessica Mills, Phouphet Sihavong, Social Systems project,
Strategic Foresight & Innovation, OCAD U
HEALTHY HEALTHCARE, Oksana Kachur, Jonathan
Resnick, KarlShroeder, SFI Student Project, identifying
points of intervention
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
14	
  
Hugh Dubberley, Paul Pangaro, illustration of Play

•  uses the designed map, to
represent a conversation and
dialogue around the activity as
demonstrated in Dubberley
Pangaro work.
•  develops a “rich picture”
as outlined by Checkland to engage
with the design problem

•  co-creates a shared visual model
as in the GIGAmaps by Sevaldson.
SCAFFOLDING	
  	
  ON	
  EXISTING	
  DESIGN	
  APPROACHES	
  
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
15	
  
Age-Related Obesity Trends & Factors, Kumori, Read, Shewchuk, Understanding Systems & Systemic Design, Strategic Foresight &
Innovation Student Project, OCAD U
SCAFFOLDING	
  	
  ON	
  EXISTING	
  DESIGN	
  APPROACHES	
  
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
16	
  

•  System diagrams, cause and effect, influence diagrams, etc.
•  “Systemigrams” by Boardman and Sauser
Protecting Workers in Global Economy ,	
  Maggie	
  Dempster,	
  Pansy	
  Lee,	
  and	
  
Simon	
  Trevarthen	
  ,	
  Understanding Systems & Systemic Design, Strategic
Foresight & Innovation Student Project, OCAD U
SCAFFOLDING	
  	
  ON	
  EXISTING	
  DESIGN	
  APPROACHES	
  
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
Protecting Workers in Global Economy ,	
  Maggie	
  Dempster,	
  Pansy	
  Lee,	
  and	
  Simon	
  Trevarthen	
  ,	
  
Understanding Systems & Systemic Design, Strategic Foresight & Innovation Student Project, OCAD U
SCAFFOLDING	
  	
  ON	
  EXISTING	
  DESIGN	
  APPROACHES	
  
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
18	
  

Basic systemic stock & flow
diagrams, Meadows
Iterative Context diagrams,
Structure, Processes, Function
and Purpose Gharajedaghi 

Influence maps, Warfield 

Causal loop diagrams, System
Design, Meadows 
Soft Systems / Rich Pictures,
Checkland, Sevaldson 

Systemigrams, Boardman 

Gigamaps, Sevaldson
Mind maps, affinity diagrams,
concept, & cognitive maps

Affinity	
  Diagrams	
   CogniIve	
  Maps	
  
Collage	
   Draw	
  the	
  Experience	
   Flow	
  Analysis	
  
Scenarios	
  
SCAFFOLDING	
  	
  ON	
  EXISTING	
  DESIGN	
  APPROACHES	
  
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
Images from IDEO Methods cards
Synthesis Map CreaIon	
  
what are the principles?

Toronto Urban Ecology Group, Cathy Clark, Heather Russek, Mike Greenwood, Tara O’Neil, Understanding Systems &
Systemic Design, Strategic Foresight & Innovation Student Project, OCAD U
2
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
20	
  
Collaborative transdisciplinary inquiry
into real world problems to co-design
solutions	
  
Practice based approach to studio work
& research, collecting user-based
information integrated into the
understanding of the complex system

Use of design and system thinking to
provide a holistic lens, to understand
systemic and social system relations, big
picture - ecosystem thinking 

Synthesis Map creation
SYNTHESIS	
  MAP	
  CREATION	
  -­‐	
  PRINCIPLES	
  
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
21	
  

Visual Support for:
Problem Solving, Decision Making, Strategic Planning,
Creative Design, Team Building, Change Management
Knowledge Management & Communication
	
  
The application of “soft” systems
qualitative thinking, to intuitively
understand complexity of the system






The use of a synthetic “synthesis map”
as a shared representation - mental
model of the complex problem for
collaborative work. “rich picture”
SYNTHESIS	
  MAP	
  CREATION	
  -­‐	
  PRINCIPLES	
  
Ideogram	
  diagram	
  of	
  explicit	
  model	
  
as	
  a	
  shared	
  tool
22	
  
Establishing of a “shared view” of the
systemic problem

Creation of the map as a process of
discovery, ordering, identifying and
simplifying problem issues, working
through ambiguity, not definitive
solutions

Creation of narrative of the map as a
problem dialogue around the issues


 SYNTHESIS	
  MAP	
  CREATION	
  -­‐	
  PRINCIPLES	
  
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
Synthesis Map method	
  
how are they created?

3
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
24	
  
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
101	
  Methods,	
  InnovaFon	
  Modes,	
  Kumar	
  
 
	
  	
  
	
  Seven	
  Modes	
  of	
  the	
  Design	
  InnovaGon	
  Process	
  
	
  	
  
	
  Sense	
  Intent	
  -­‐	
  Gather	
  info,	
  map	
  overviews,	
  reframe	
  problems	
  
	
  
	
  Know	
  Context	
  -­‐	
  Workplan	
  for	
  research,	
  search	
  knowledge	
  base,	
  map	
  development	
  and	
  make	
  
comparisons,	
  ask	
  experts	
  
	
  
	
  Know	
  People	
  -­‐	
  Observe	
  and	
  engage	
  people,	
  collect	
  and	
  organize	
  observaFons	
  of	
  acFviFes,	
  
interacFons,	
  and	
  findings	
  
	
  
	
  Frame	
  Insights	
  -­‐	
  Find	
  insights,	
  pacerns,	
  map	
  values	
  and	
  experiences,	
  create	
  frameworks	
  
	
  
	
  Explore	
  Concepts	
  -­‐	
  Frame	
  concept	
  space,	
  principles,	
  assumpFons,	
  organizing	
  concepts,	
  make	
  
diagrams,	
  sketches,	
  prototypes	
  
	
  
	
  Frame	
  SoluGons	
  -­‐	
  Generate	
  opFons,	
  cluster	
  conceptual	
  ideas,	
  idenFfy	
  soluFon	
  narraFves	
  and	
  
areas	
  
	
  
	
  Realize	
  Offerings	
  &	
  Implement	
  –	
  create	
  prototypes,	
  strategies	
  and	
  tacFcs,	
  evaluate	
  feasibility	
  
	
  
	
  	
  
	
  Thinking	
  it	
  Through:	
  A	
  PracFcal	
  Guide	
  to	
  Academic	
  Essay	
  WriFng,	
  Avery	
  et	
  al..	
  
	
  	
  
25	
  
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
RESEARCH	
  
SYNTHESIS	
  
ANALYSIS	
  
COMMUNICATION	
  
DEVELOPMENT	
  
PROGRAMMING	
  
RESEARCH	
  QUESTIONS	
  
DATA	
  COLLECTION	
  /	
  STATS	
  
STAKEHOLDERS	
  /	
  USERS	
  
UNPACKING	
  SYSTEM	
  
ORGANIZATION	
  
STAKEHOLDER	
  ANALYSIS	
  
CAUSAL	
  RELATIONS	
  &	
  
ELEMENT	
  MAPPING	
  
SYSTEMIC	
  PURPOSE	
  STRUCTURE	
  
FUNCTION	
  PROCESS	
  MAPPING	
  
KEY	
  CRITERIA	
  &	
  ISSUES	
  
VISUAL	
  LANGUAGE	
  
SYSTEM	
  CONSTRUCT	
  
VISUAL	
  MAPPING	
  &	
  SENSEMAKING	
  SHARED	
  VIEW	
  
SYMBOLS	
  ANALOGY	
  METAPHOR	
  
NARRATIVE	
  
INFORMATION	
  LAYERS	
  &	
  
CATEGORIES	
  
PATTERNS	
  OF	
  EMERGENCE	
  
SCENARIOS	
  
RELATED	
  SYSTEMIC	
  	
  
	
  BEHAVIOUR	
  MODELS	
  
3	
  HORIZONS	
  
IMPLEMENTATION	
  PLANS	
  
PROTOTYPES	
  
TESTING	
  &	
  VERIFICATION	
  
SYNTHESIS	
  MAP	
  -­‐	
  PROCESS	
  METHODS	
  &	
  TECHNIQUES	
  
26	
  
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
27	
  
SYNTHESIS	
  MAP	
  CREATION	
  
How do you create a GIGA-synthesis map?

•  Research, analyze and summarize –
evidence & analysis, brief of stakeholder
analysis
•  
•  Problem statement – research question,
scope, description, and boundaries of the
social system / service.
•  Identify user research and terms in
different fields, synthesized across different
fields, evidence – based
•  Unpacking of elements of system, and
clarification of the systemic purpose
function, structure and processes.
	
  

CreaIng	
  a	
  	
  GIGAsynthesis Map
Student	
  team	
  sharing	
  research	
  in	
  a	
  working	
  session	
  for	
  the	
  
Synthesis	
  Map	
  project	
  
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
SYNTHESIS	
  MAP	
  CREATION	
  
•  Systemic Principles, and associated visual
design language and symbols identified
 
•  Visual mapping of components and 
relationships of the social system 

•  Framework model – selection of a system
construct /scaffold to test the framework for
solutions, inform a possible way to model /
visualize the problem

•  Prefigured judgements of the solution set,
mapping key issues / aspects of the problem; for
“the shared view”; development of a narrative
•  Look for analogies, metaphors & iconographic
symbols that could serve as a vehicle for
integration and assembly
Student	
  team	
  of	
  Icons	
  describing	
  different	
  aspects	
  of	
  
wellness	
  for	
  the	
  Culture	
  of	
  Wellness	
  Map	
  project,	
  and	
  
top	
  an	
  archetypal	
  diagram	
  of	
  ReputaIon	
  growth	
  and	
  
investment	
  at	
  TIFF
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
Toronto Urban Ecology Group, Cathy Clark, Heather Russek, Mike Greenwood, Tara O’Neil, Understanding Systems &
Systemic Design, Strategic Foresight & Innovation Student Project, OCAD U
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
Learning in the 21st Century,	
  ChrisIne	
  McGlade,	
  Donna	
  Dupont,Kelly	
  Payne	
  ,	
  Understanding Systems & Systemic Design,
Strategic Foresight & Innovation Student Project, OCAD U
SYNTHESIS	
  MAP	
  CREATION	
  
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
Learning in the 21st Century,	
  ChrisIne	
  McGlade,	
  Donna	
  Dupont,Kelly	
  Payne	
  ,	
  Understanding Systems & Systemic Design,
Strategic Foresight & Innovation Student Project, OCAD U
SYNTHESIS	
  MAP	
  CREATION	
  
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
33	
  
SYNTHESIS	
  MAP	
  CREATION	
  
•  Sensemaking visualizing the systemic
story, and explores the possibilities for
design intervention and change – making

•  Layers and categories / groupings of
information, analysis, visuals, stats etc. to
describe complexity
•  Patterns of emergence as possibility, 

future scenarios, and horizons of possible

change and outcomes.

•  Synthesis map as artefact.
•  What other challenges or influences affect 

the narrative vision?
Top:	
  Birger	
  Sevaldson	
  teaching	
  his	
  GIGAmap	
  technique	
  
at	
  an	
  OCADU	
  workshop,	
  and	
  above:	
  students	
  drawing	
  a	
  
systemic	
  influence	
  map	
  of	
  TTC	
  ridership	
  factors
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
Underpinning Student Success,	
  Shawn	
  Hewia,	
  Laura	
  Mills,	
  Steve	
  truong,	
  Sheldon	
  Perera,	
  Understanding Systems & Systemic
Design, Strategic Foresight & Innovation Student Project, OCAD U
CASE	
  STUDIES	
  
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
CASE	
  STUDIES	
  
Culture of Wellness,	
  Melissa	
  Tullio,	
  Stephanie	
  Massot,	
  Sunita	
  Ferrao,	
  Tyler	
  Calder,	
  Understanding Systems & Systemic Design,
Strategic Foresight & Innovation Student Project, OCAD U, 2016
CASE	
  STUDIES	
  
Culture of Wellness,	
  Melissa	
  Tullio,	
  Stephanie	
  Massot,	
  Sunita	
  Ferrao,	
  Tyler	
  Calder,	
  Understanding Systems & Systemic Design,
Strategic Foresight & Innovation Student Project, OCAD U, 2016
Do	
  Ontario	
  university	
  wellness	
  programs	
  effec/vely	
  
manage	
  and	
  support	
  the	
  mental	
  health	
  of	
  their	
  
students?	
  
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
CASE	
  STUDIES	
  
Culture of Wellness,	
  Melissa	
  Tullio,	
  Stephanie	
  Massot,	
  Sunita	
  Ferrao,	
  Tyler	
  Calder,	
  Understanding Systems & Systemic Design,
Strategic Foresight & Innovation Student Project, OCAD U, 2016
How	
  might	
  Ontario	
  university	
  administrators	
  achieve	
  their	
  
job	
  requirements	
  while	
  also	
  creaIng	
  a	
  culture	
  of	
  wellness	
  
across	
  campuses?	
  
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
39	
  
SYNTHESIS	
  MAP	
  CREATION	
  

Maps that illustrate and make sense of
the complex network of elements
Narrative, graphs, behaviour over time
graphs
Systemic and organizational diagrams
Photos, illustrations
Timelines and gant charts etc.
Iconography and symbols
Charts, Graphs, statistics and key
quotes
	
  

Elements	
  of	
  Synthesis Maps
Student	
  team	
  sharing	
  research	
  in	
  a	
  working	
  session	
  for	
  the	
  
Synthesis	
  Map	
  project	
  
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
GIGA Synthesis Map Cases
iK-12disRuptU Technology & Innovation in Education, Buajitti, Hastrich, Maxwell, Segal, Roopani, Understanding
Systems & Systemic Design, Strategic Foresight & Innovation Student Project, OCAD U
4
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
Regent Park,	
  Ecological	
  Balance	
  in	
  A	
  Mixed	
  Income	
  Community,	
  Laura	
  Dempsey,	
  Ioyope	
  	
  Jbodu,	
  Carolina	
  Quiros,	
  Amy	
  Saaerwaithe,	
  
Understanding Systems & Systemic Design, Strategic Foresight & Innovation Student Project, OCAD U
CASE	
  STUDIES	
  
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
thank you
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  
 
Bibliography Resources
Ackoff, Russell. (2001). A brief guide to interactive planning and Idealized Design. Ackoff Library,
May 31, 2001.
Boardman, John, Sauser, B., Systems Thinking: Coping With 21st Century Problems, CRC Press,
Taylor & Francis, USA, 2008
Dubberly, Hugh. (2010). Design in the age of biology. Dubberly Design Office.
Dubberly Design Office http://dubberly.com On Modeling and mapping
Gharajedaghi, Jamshid, Systems Thinking: Managing Chaos and Complexity: A Platform for
Designing Business Architecture, Butterworth Heinemann, California, 2006
Kumar, Vijay, 101 Design Methods, A Structured Approach for Driving Innovation in your
Organization, John Wiley & Sons, 2013
Lawson, Brian, How Designers Think, The Process Demystified, Architectural Press, London, 1983
Sevaldson, B. (2011). Gigamapping: Visualization for Complexity and Systems Thinking in Design.
Helsinki: Nordic Design Research Conference.
Senge, Peter et al. The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization, Penguin
Putnam, 2001
45	
  
Professor	
  Jeremy	
  Bowes,	
  OCAD	
  University,	
  Oct.2016,	
  RSD5	
  

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Jeremy Bowes and Peter Jones: Synthesis Maps as Design Constructs

  • 1. SYNTHESISMAPS as design constructs   Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 2.
  • 3. 3   CONTEXT     We as designers can make progress on the historic opportunity to re-envision and redesign existing social systems through frameworks for understanding, a shared view of the problem, and tools to allow us to innovate, and provide transformative systemic change. Design provides a variety of visual tools and frameworks.     …and the wicked systemic problem?...   how to deal with systemic complexity 3  Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 4. 4   CONTEXT   Provide context, precedent and relationship to other systemic mapping approaches Outline elements & aspects of a Synthesis Map creation with examples   The GIGA-synthesis map as a key systemic visual tool for complex problem understanding 4  Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 5. Democratization of Farming,, Conor Holler, Doug Moxon, Jason Last, Leah Shelley, Understanding Systems & Systemic Design, Strategic Foresight & Innovation Student Project, OCAD U Synthesis Map how is it a systemic tool? 1 Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 6.          Choosing  a  topic  –  What  are  the  essenFals?   •   A  topic  that  interests  you   •   It  should  be  challenging  and  have  enough  scope   •   Is  adequate  research  is  available   •   Who  is  the  appropriate  audience?      Thinking  it  Through:  A  PracFcal  Guide  to  Academic  Essay  WriFng,  Avery  et  al..    Bruce  Mau,  Design  and  the  Welfare  of  All  Life,  Design  Ecologies:  Essays  on  the  Nature  of  Design,  Tilder  and  Blostein     6   SCAFFOLDS  &  INTEGRATES  EXISTING  DESIGN  METHODS  TO  CREATE  A   DIALOGUE  AROUND  A  TOPIC  
  • 7. 7    The  MINDMAP   as  a  research   plan?    Thinking  it  Through:  A  PracFcal  Guide  for  Academic  Essay  wriFng,  Avery     Drawing  an  informal  and  pictorial   outline,  someFmes  known  as  a  mind   map,  can  be  a  way  of  freeing  yourself   from  the  constraints  of  sentences  and   paragraphs  so  that  you  can  explore   ideas  more  creaFvely.  To  draw  a  mind   map,  begin  by  placing  a  tentaFve  thesis   in  the  centre  of  a  blank  page.  Explore   the  thesis  by  drawing  branches  from  it   to  represent  ideas  and  concepts  that,   from  reading  and  research,  you  now   associate  with  the  topic  thesis.  As  you   are  drawing  /  composing  your  map,   create  as  many  branches  as  you  can,   and  as  many  twigs  as  possible  from  the   branches.    The  mind  map  can  be  used   as  an  exploratory  method  only  if  you   push  yourself  to  explore;  restricFng   your  thinking  to  the  main  branches  will   never  allow  you  to  recognize  the   smaller,  more  subtle  possibiliFes  of   your  topic.       A  mind  map  for  the  “waste  land”  sample  essay   might  look  something  like  the  diagram  to  the   le.  Thinking  it  Through,  Avery   SCAFFOLDING    ON  EXISTING  DESIGN  METHODS   Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 8. 8       Converging  your   ideas?     Based  on  your  research   about  developments  in   your  topical  area,  and  the   overlaps  between  related   topics,  create  diagrams   which  idenFfy   commonaliFes.       •   For  example  if”diabetes”   is  the  project  topic  and  /   or  concern,  your  research   might  suggest  that  “food”   and  “wellness,  and  maybe   “food  producFon”  are   topics  that  overlap  with  it.    101  Design  Methods,  A  Structured  Approach  for  Driving  InnovaFon  in  Your  OrganizaFon,  Kumar     SCAFFOLDING    ON  EXISTING  DESIGN  METHODS   Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 9. 9   •  the ”referential sketch” as a visual pneumonic to understand a system of complexity •  the model & prototype to test team ideas, and create a dialogue around conceptual development •  A design process artifact needs to do both SCAFFOLDING    ON  EXISTING  DESIGN  METHODS   Paolo Soleri’s Sketche, and ongoing study model for Arcosanti Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 10. 10   Rowe,  Design  Thinking,  Case  Studies   SCAFFOLDING    ON  EXISTING  DESIGN  METHODS   Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 11. 11   •  Checkland’s idealized model, as a “learning” model (LUMAS) •  framed with the idea of the “soft system” as a more visual and qualitative method of seeing systems through an “ idealized model” •  a systemic map that is a shared vehicle for learning Checkland,, soft systems approach  Language   of  systems   “Real  world”  acGviGes   SCAFFOLDING    ON  EXISTING  DESIGN  METHODS   Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 12. 12   Visual Support for: Problem Solving, Decision Making, Strategic Planning, Creative Design, Team Building, Change Management Knowledge Management & Communication   Ideogram  diagram  of  explicit  model   as  a  shared  toolSCAFFOLDING    ON   EXISTING  DESIGN   METHODS  
  • 13. •  system stock and flow, and the representation of causal or systemic elemental relations. (Meadows) •  builds on system literacy •  includes influence maps, and other systemic diagrams similar to systemigrams SCAFFOLDING    ON  EXISTING  DESIGN   METHODS   Diagram  of  Prac/cing  Physicians  in  Ontario The average age of family physicians in Ontario is 52 years old. 9.8% of family physicians in Ontario practice in rural communities, where as 13% of Ontarians live in rural communities. One third of physicians in Canada practice family medicine, but to meet the need, it should be closer to one half of all physicians. Diagram of Practicing Physicians in Ontario, Josina Vink, Jessica Mills, Phouphet Sihavong, Social Systems project, Strategic Foresight & Innovation, OCAD U HEALTHY HEALTHCARE, Oksana Kachur, Jonathan Resnick, KarlShroeder, SFI Student Project, identifying points of intervention Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 14. 14   Hugh Dubberley, Paul Pangaro, illustration of Play •  uses the designed map, to represent a conversation and dialogue around the activity as demonstrated in Dubberley Pangaro work. •  develops a “rich picture” as outlined by Checkland to engage with the design problem •  co-creates a shared visual model as in the GIGAmaps by Sevaldson. SCAFFOLDING    ON  EXISTING  DESIGN  APPROACHES   Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 15. 15   Age-Related Obesity Trends & Factors, Kumori, Read, Shewchuk, Understanding Systems & Systemic Design, Strategic Foresight & Innovation Student Project, OCAD U SCAFFOLDING    ON  EXISTING  DESIGN  APPROACHES   Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 16. 16   •  System diagrams, cause and effect, influence diagrams, etc. •  “Systemigrams” by Boardman and Sauser Protecting Workers in Global Economy ,  Maggie  Dempster,  Pansy  Lee,  and   Simon  Trevarthen  ,  Understanding Systems & Systemic Design, Strategic Foresight & Innovation Student Project, OCAD U SCAFFOLDING    ON  EXISTING  DESIGN  APPROACHES   Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 17. Protecting Workers in Global Economy ,  Maggie  Dempster,  Pansy  Lee,  and  Simon  Trevarthen  ,   Understanding Systems & Systemic Design, Strategic Foresight & Innovation Student Project, OCAD U SCAFFOLDING    ON  EXISTING  DESIGN  APPROACHES   Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 18. 18   Basic systemic stock & flow diagrams, Meadows Iterative Context diagrams, Structure, Processes, Function and Purpose Gharajedaghi Influence maps, Warfield Causal loop diagrams, System Design, Meadows Soft Systems / Rich Pictures, Checkland, Sevaldson Systemigrams, Boardman Gigamaps, Sevaldson Mind maps, affinity diagrams, concept, & cognitive maps Affinity  Diagrams   CogniIve  Maps   Collage   Draw  the  Experience   Flow  Analysis   Scenarios   SCAFFOLDING    ON  EXISTING  DESIGN  APPROACHES   Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5   Images from IDEO Methods cards
  • 19. Synthesis Map CreaIon   what are the principles? Toronto Urban Ecology Group, Cathy Clark, Heather Russek, Mike Greenwood, Tara O’Neil, Understanding Systems & Systemic Design, Strategic Foresight & Innovation Student Project, OCAD U 2 Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 20. 20   Collaborative transdisciplinary inquiry into real world problems to co-design solutions   Practice based approach to studio work & research, collecting user-based information integrated into the understanding of the complex system Use of design and system thinking to provide a holistic lens, to understand systemic and social system relations, big picture - ecosystem thinking Synthesis Map creation SYNTHESIS  MAP  CREATION  -­‐  PRINCIPLES   Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 21. 21   Visual Support for: Problem Solving, Decision Making, Strategic Planning, Creative Design, Team Building, Change Management Knowledge Management & Communication   The application of “soft” systems qualitative thinking, to intuitively understand complexity of the system The use of a synthetic “synthesis map” as a shared representation - mental model of the complex problem for collaborative work. “rich picture” SYNTHESIS  MAP  CREATION  -­‐  PRINCIPLES   Ideogram  diagram  of  explicit  model   as  a  shared  tool
  • 22. 22   Establishing of a “shared view” of the systemic problem Creation of the map as a process of discovery, ordering, identifying and simplifying problem issues, working through ambiguity, not definitive solutions Creation of narrative of the map as a problem dialogue around the issues SYNTHESIS  MAP  CREATION  -­‐  PRINCIPLES   Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 23. Synthesis Map method   how are they created? 3 Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 24. 24   Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5   101  Methods,  InnovaFon  Modes,  Kumar  
  • 25.        Seven  Modes  of  the  Design  InnovaGon  Process        Sense  Intent  -­‐  Gather  info,  map  overviews,  reframe  problems      Know  Context  -­‐  Workplan  for  research,  search  knowledge  base,  map  development  and  make   comparisons,  ask  experts      Know  People  -­‐  Observe  and  engage  people,  collect  and  organize  observaFons  of  acFviFes,   interacFons,  and  findings      Frame  Insights  -­‐  Find  insights,  pacerns,  map  values  and  experiences,  create  frameworks      Explore  Concepts  -­‐  Frame  concept  space,  principles,  assumpFons,  organizing  concepts,  make   diagrams,  sketches,  prototypes      Frame  SoluGons  -­‐  Generate  opFons,  cluster  conceptual  ideas,  idenFfy  soluFon  narraFves  and   areas      Realize  Offerings  &  Implement  –  create  prototypes,  strategies  and  tacFcs,  evaluate  feasibility          Thinking  it  Through:  A  PracFcal  Guide  to  Academic  Essay  WriFng,  Avery  et  al..       25   Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 26. RESEARCH   SYNTHESIS   ANALYSIS   COMMUNICATION   DEVELOPMENT   PROGRAMMING   RESEARCH  QUESTIONS   DATA  COLLECTION  /  STATS   STAKEHOLDERS  /  USERS   UNPACKING  SYSTEM   ORGANIZATION   STAKEHOLDER  ANALYSIS   CAUSAL  RELATIONS  &   ELEMENT  MAPPING   SYSTEMIC  PURPOSE  STRUCTURE   FUNCTION  PROCESS  MAPPING   KEY  CRITERIA  &  ISSUES   VISUAL  LANGUAGE   SYSTEM  CONSTRUCT   VISUAL  MAPPING  &  SENSEMAKING  SHARED  VIEW   SYMBOLS  ANALOGY  METAPHOR   NARRATIVE   INFORMATION  LAYERS  &   CATEGORIES   PATTERNS  OF  EMERGENCE   SCENARIOS   RELATED  SYSTEMIC      BEHAVIOUR  MODELS   3  HORIZONS   IMPLEMENTATION  PLANS   PROTOTYPES   TESTING  &  VERIFICATION   SYNTHESIS  MAP  -­‐  PROCESS  METHODS  &  TECHNIQUES   26   Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 27. 27   SYNTHESIS  MAP  CREATION   How do you create a GIGA-synthesis map? •  Research, analyze and summarize – evidence & analysis, brief of stakeholder analysis •  •  Problem statement – research question, scope, description, and boundaries of the social system / service. •  Identify user research and terms in different fields, synthesized across different fields, evidence – based •  Unpacking of elements of system, and clarification of the systemic purpose function, structure and processes.   CreaIng  a    GIGAsynthesis Map Student  team  sharing  research  in  a  working  session  for  the   Synthesis  Map  project   Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 28. SYNTHESIS  MAP  CREATION   •  Systemic Principles, and associated visual design language and symbols identified   •  Visual mapping of components and relationships of the social system •  Framework model – selection of a system construct /scaffold to test the framework for solutions, inform a possible way to model / visualize the problem •  Prefigured judgements of the solution set, mapping key issues / aspects of the problem; for “the shared view”; development of a narrative •  Look for analogies, metaphors & iconographic symbols that could serve as a vehicle for integration and assembly Student  team  of  Icons  describing  different  aspects  of   wellness  for  the  Culture  of  Wellness  Map  project,  and   top  an  archetypal  diagram  of  ReputaIon  growth  and   investment  at  TIFF Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 29. Toronto Urban Ecology Group, Cathy Clark, Heather Russek, Mike Greenwood, Tara O’Neil, Understanding Systems & Systemic Design, Strategic Foresight & Innovation Student Project, OCAD U Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 30. Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 31. Learning in the 21st Century,  ChrisIne  McGlade,  Donna  Dupont,Kelly  Payne  ,  Understanding Systems & Systemic Design, Strategic Foresight & Innovation Student Project, OCAD U SYNTHESIS  MAP  CREATION   Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 32. Learning in the 21st Century,  ChrisIne  McGlade,  Donna  Dupont,Kelly  Payne  ,  Understanding Systems & Systemic Design, Strategic Foresight & Innovation Student Project, OCAD U SYNTHESIS  MAP  CREATION   Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 33. 33   SYNTHESIS  MAP  CREATION   •  Sensemaking visualizing the systemic story, and explores the possibilities for design intervention and change – making •  Layers and categories / groupings of information, analysis, visuals, stats etc. to describe complexity •  Patterns of emergence as possibility, future scenarios, and horizons of possible change and outcomes. •  Synthesis map as artefact. •  What other challenges or influences affect the narrative vision? Top:  Birger  Sevaldson  teaching  his  GIGAmap  technique   at  an  OCADU  workshop,  and  above:  students  drawing  a   systemic  influence  map  of  TTC  ridership  factors Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 34. Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 35. Underpinning Student Success,  Shawn  Hewia,  Laura  Mills,  Steve  truong,  Sheldon  Perera,  Understanding Systems & Systemic Design, Strategic Foresight & Innovation Student Project, OCAD U CASE  STUDIES   Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 36. CASE  STUDIES   Culture of Wellness,  Melissa  Tullio,  Stephanie  Massot,  Sunita  Ferrao,  Tyler  Calder,  Understanding Systems & Systemic Design, Strategic Foresight & Innovation Student Project, OCAD U, 2016
  • 37. CASE  STUDIES   Culture of Wellness,  Melissa  Tullio,  Stephanie  Massot,  Sunita  Ferrao,  Tyler  Calder,  Understanding Systems & Systemic Design, Strategic Foresight & Innovation Student Project, OCAD U, 2016 Do  Ontario  university  wellness  programs  effec/vely   manage  and  support  the  mental  health  of  their   students?   Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 38. CASE  STUDIES   Culture of Wellness,  Melissa  Tullio,  Stephanie  Massot,  Sunita  Ferrao,  Tyler  Calder,  Understanding Systems & Systemic Design, Strategic Foresight & Innovation Student Project, OCAD U, 2016 How  might  Ontario  university  administrators  achieve  their   job  requirements  while  also  creaIng  a  culture  of  wellness   across  campuses?   Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 39. 39   SYNTHESIS  MAP  CREATION   Maps that illustrate and make sense of the complex network of elements Narrative, graphs, behaviour over time graphs Systemic and organizational diagrams Photos, illustrations Timelines and gant charts etc. Iconography and symbols Charts, Graphs, statistics and key quotes   Elements  of  Synthesis Maps Student  team  sharing  research  in  a  working  session  for  the   Synthesis  Map  project   Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 40. GIGA Synthesis Map Cases iK-12disRuptU Technology & Innovation in Education, Buajitti, Hastrich, Maxwell, Segal, Roopani, Understanding Systems & Systemic Design, Strategic Foresight & Innovation Student Project, OCAD U 4 Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 41.
  • 42.
  • 43. Regent Park,  Ecological  Balance  in  A  Mixed  Income  Community,  Laura  Dempsey,  Ioyope    Jbodu,  Carolina  Quiros,  Amy  Saaerwaithe,   Understanding Systems & Systemic Design, Strategic Foresight & Innovation Student Project, OCAD U CASE  STUDIES   Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 44. thank you Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5  
  • 45.   Bibliography Resources Ackoff, Russell. (2001). A brief guide to interactive planning and Idealized Design. Ackoff Library, May 31, 2001. Boardman, John, Sauser, B., Systems Thinking: Coping With 21st Century Problems, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, USA, 2008 Dubberly, Hugh. (2010). Design in the age of biology. Dubberly Design Office. Dubberly Design Office http://dubberly.com On Modeling and mapping Gharajedaghi, Jamshid, Systems Thinking: Managing Chaos and Complexity: A Platform for Designing Business Architecture, Butterworth Heinemann, California, 2006 Kumar, Vijay, 101 Design Methods, A Structured Approach for Driving Innovation in your Organization, John Wiley & Sons, 2013 Lawson, Brian, How Designers Think, The Process Demystified, Architectural Press, London, 1983 Sevaldson, B. (2011). Gigamapping: Visualization for Complexity and Systems Thinking in Design. Helsinki: Nordic Design Research Conference. Senge, Peter et al. The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization, Penguin Putnam, 2001 45   Professor  Jeremy  Bowes,  OCAD  University,  Oct.2016,  RSD5