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Java Modifiers Matrix

                               The most complete Java Modifiers Matrix on the web


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JavaChamp.com Java Modifiers Matrix - Copyright 2009-2010 all rights reserved
Java Modifiers Matrix:

The matrix is split into 3 categories:

    •   Access Modifiers
           •   public
           •   implicit package
           •   protected
           •   private

    •   Structural Modifiers
            •   final
            •   abstract
            •   static
            •   native

    •   Behavioral Modifiers
           •   strictfp
           •   transient / volatile
           •   synchronized

    Matrix symbols legend:

       Possible modifier choice
       Default modifier (java choice if not explicitly defined)
       Single choice (other modifiers are not allowed)




JavaChamp.com Java Modifiers Matrix - Copyright 2009-2010 all rights reserved
Access Modifiers                         Structural Modifiers                     Behavioral Modifiers

                                                            public    implicit   protected   private   final    abstract   static   native   strictfp     transient /   synchronized
                                                                     package                                                                                volatile
                                   Top level Class                                                                                         
                                   Class inside class                                                                                   
                      Class        Class inside Interface                                                                                  

                                   Class inside method /                                                                                     
                                   code block


                     Interface     Top level Interface                                                                                      

                                   Interface inside Class                                                                                

                                   Interface inside                                                                         
                                   method / code block

                     Code Block    Inside Class                                                                              

                                   Inside method                                                                                                                             


                                   Top level Enumeration               
                     enum
                                   Enum inside Class                                                                     

                                   Enum inside Interface                                                                    


                                   Class                                                                                                                            
                     Method
                                   Interface                                                                                                                               


                     Constructor   Class                                                    


                                   Class                                                                                                                
                     Data field    Interface                                                                               
                     (variable /
                                   Method argument /                                                    
                     constant)
                                   local or code block
                                   local




JavaChamp.com Java Modifiers Matrix - Copyright 2009-2010 all rights reserved
Java modifiers and access rules:

     •     If class A can't access class B, then class A can't access any member (method or variable) in class B.
     •     For a subclass outside the package, the protected member can be accessed only through inheritance.
     •     It is illegal to have even a single abstract method in a class that is not explicitly declared abstract!
     •     You can have an abstract class with no abstract methods.
     •     The first concrete subclass of an abstract class must implement all abstract methods of the super class.
     •     Initialization code block are not allowed in interfaces
     •     Inner classes in interfaces must be public static
     •     A member/(inner) interface can only be defined inside a top-level class or interface not inside methods
     •     Static data fields can only be declared in static or top level types



Method illegal modifiers combinations:

     •     abstract and final             @Compiler Error: The abstract method can only set a visibility modifier, one of public or protected
     •     abstract and private           @Compiler Error: The abstract method can only set a visibility modifier, one of public or protected
     •     abstract and static            @Compiler Error: illegal combination of modifiers: abstract and static
     •     transient and final / static   @Compiler Error: A transient variable may not be declared as final or static



Java member visibility rules across packages:

                                     Member Visibility Rules
                 Access from                                    Access to
     Package        Class/ Interface?        public     package       protected      private
 1                        same                                                      
 2                        inner                                                     
         same
 3                      subclass                                        
 4                        other                                         
 5                      subclass                                    inheritance
         other
 6                        other                




JavaChamp.com Java Modifiers Matrix - Copyright 2009-2010 all rights reserved

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Java Modifiers Matrix

  • 1. Java Modifiers Matrix The most complete Java Modifiers Matrix on the web brought to you by: http://www.JavaChamp.com Authors: N. , Y. Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2009-2010 JavaChamp.com Java Modifiers Matrix - Copyright 2009-2010 all rights reserved
  • 2. Copyright 2009 JavaChamp.com Online version published by JavaChamp.com Germany. DISCLAIMER All services and content of JavaChamp.com are provided under JavaChamp.com terms of use on an "as is" basis, without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, including, without limitation, warranties that the provided services and content are free of defects, merchantable, fit for a particular purpose or non- infringing. The entire risk as to the quality and performance of the provided services and content is with you. In no event shall JavaChamp.com be liable for any damages whatsoever arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of the services. Should any provided services and content prove defective in any respect, you (not the initial developer, author or any other contributor) assume the cost of any necessary servicing, repair or correction. This disclaimer of warranty constitutes an essential part of these "terms of use". No use of any services and content of JavaChamp.com is authorized hereunder except under this disclaimer. The detailed "terms of use" of JavaChamp.com can be found under: http://www.javachamp.com/public/termsOfUse.xhtml This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 license. The full license legal code can be found under: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/legalcode And a human-readable summary of the this license can be found under: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/ According to the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 license You agree to the following: You are free to share, copy, distribute and transmit the work under the following conditions: • You must attribute the work to JavaChamp.com with a link to http://www.javachamp.com. • You may not use this work for commercial purposes. • You may not alter, transform, or build upon this work. JavaChamp.com Java Modifiers Matrix - Copyright 2009-2010 all rights reserved
  • 3. JavaChamp.com is an Open Certification Platform. What does this mean? JavaChamp is the best place to learn, share, and certify your professional skills. We help you develop yourself in the field of computer science and programming Here are the most significant features offered by JavaChamp: Online Exams Top quality mock exams for SCJP, SCEA, EJB, JMS, JPA. Start Express or topic-wise customized exam. • We offer you unlimited free mock exams • Exams cover subjects like SCJP, SCEA, EJB, JMS, JPA,.. • You can take as many exams as you want and at any time and for no charges • Each exam contains 20 multiple choice questions • You can save the exams taken in your exams history • Your exams history saves the exams you took, the scores you got, time took you to finish the exam, date of examination and also saves your answers to the questions for later revision • You can re-take the same exam to monitor your progress • Your exams history helps the system to offer you variant new questions every time you take a new exam, therefore we encourage you to register and maintain an exams history Network Find guidance through the maze, meet Study-Mates, Coaches or Trainees... Studying together is fun, productive and helps you in building your professional network and collecting leads Bookshelf JavaChamp Bookshelf full of PDF eBooks... Download PDF books with a selected sample of the JavaChamp question bank in SCJP, SCEA, EJB, JMS and more or read it online JavaChamp Profile You may publish your profile and connect to your colleagues and friends. JavaChamp.com Java Modifiers Matrix - Copyright 2009-2010 all rights reserved
  • 4. Content Channel Be an Author and get recognition, leads, and more... Contributing to the JavaChamp question bank will earn your recognition of your professional skills, expands your network, introduce you to potential leads Join Us Join the fast growing JavaChamp Community now. JavaChamp Community is young and very dynamic, we would be thrilled to welcome you on board :o) JavaChamp.com Java Modifiers Matrix - Copyright 2009-2010 all rights reserved
  • 5. Java Modifiers Matrix: The matrix is split into 3 categories: • Access Modifiers • public • implicit package • protected • private • Structural Modifiers • final • abstract • static • native • Behavioral Modifiers • strictfp • transient / volatile • synchronized Matrix symbols legend:  Possible modifier choice  Default modifier (java choice if not explicitly defined)  Single choice (other modifiers are not allowed) JavaChamp.com Java Modifiers Matrix - Copyright 2009-2010 all rights reserved
  • 6. Access Modifiers Structural Modifiers Behavioral Modifiers public implicit protected private final abstract static native strictfp transient / synchronized package volatile Top level Class      Class inside class         Class Class inside Interface      Class inside method /    code block Interface Top level Interface     Interface inside Class        Interface inside   method / code block Code Block Inside Class  Inside method  Top level Enumeration   enum Enum inside Class      Enum inside Interface   Class           Method Interface    Constructor Class     Class        Data field Interface    (variable / Method argument /  constant) local or code block local JavaChamp.com Java Modifiers Matrix - Copyright 2009-2010 all rights reserved
  • 7. Java modifiers and access rules: • If class A can't access class B, then class A can't access any member (method or variable) in class B. • For a subclass outside the package, the protected member can be accessed only through inheritance. • It is illegal to have even a single abstract method in a class that is not explicitly declared abstract! • You can have an abstract class with no abstract methods. • The first concrete subclass of an abstract class must implement all abstract methods of the super class. • Initialization code block are not allowed in interfaces • Inner classes in interfaces must be public static • A member/(inner) interface can only be defined inside a top-level class or interface not inside methods • Static data fields can only be declared in static or top level types Method illegal modifiers combinations: • abstract and final @Compiler Error: The abstract method can only set a visibility modifier, one of public or protected • abstract and private @Compiler Error: The abstract method can only set a visibility modifier, one of public or protected • abstract and static @Compiler Error: illegal combination of modifiers: abstract and static • transient and final / static @Compiler Error: A transient variable may not be declared as final or static Java member visibility rules across packages: Member Visibility Rules Access from Access to Package Class/ Interface? public package protected private 1 same     2 inner     same 3 subclass    4 other    5 subclass  inheritance other 6 other  JavaChamp.com Java Modifiers Matrix - Copyright 2009-2010 all rights reserved