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Jammu and Kashmir Forest Department
Ramban Forest Division
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HANDS ON JOB TRAINING ON
Fieldwork experience
Topics covered: Forest Demarcation, Forest Nursery Practices,
Forest Marking & Enumeration, Forest fire
management, GPS Exercise and
Identification of Forest tree species.
As Partial Fulfillment of Fieldwork Experience for
Bachelor of Science (Forestry)
Submitted by
Manzoor Ah Wani
Under The Supervision of
Mr. AAMIR RAZA
Range Officer Forest Range Banihal
Work Done At
Jammu and Kashmir forest department
Ramban Forest Division
Submitted To
MEWAR UNIVERSITY
GANGRAR CHITTORGRAH (RAJ.)
Year 2016
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It is my pleasure to acknowledge the help & assistance which I received during the
fieldwork experience in forest range banihal, Ramban forest division. This training
would not have been possible without guidance and help of officials who contributed
their valuable assistance in completion of this report
I would like to express my gratitude to Sh. Roshan Jaggi IFS, Chief Conservator of
Forests (CCF) Jammu & T.B. Singh IFS, Conservator of Forest (CF) Forest
Division Ramban & Mr. Zuhaib Chowdhary (SFS) DFO Ramban for his constant
guidance, support and motivation for enabling me to successfully complete this
challenging task.
I am particularly indebted to Mr. Aamir Raza (RO Banihal) who not only
assisted me for preparation of Report even sitting late hours, but also took the
responsibility on his shoulder to reach me to destination. I am also indebted to Mr.
Ubaid Ahmad Lankar forester who provided me relevant materials in order to that
I can feel this work easy and complete it in time.
Thanks are especially due to Mr, Gh. Mohd Naik, Mr. Parvaiz Ahmad, Gh
Hassan Mir, Mr. Altaf Hussain Mr. Tanveer Ahmad and Mr. Mustafa Ahmad
(foresters) who always helped me and remained with me during work and was of
great assistance. I place on records my appreciation for Mr. Mushtaq Ahmad, Mr.
Ab. Rashid, Ab. Ghani and Showkat Ahmad forest guards who rendered all
possible logistical support to me and my staff. I am generally indebted to all the staff
at Forest Department Ramban District who assisted me in every possible way. I am
also indebted to Mr. Mohd Ayub Khan and his all staff members for providing
precious and valuable support to me.
I am also very thankful to my chancellor Dr. Ashok kumar gadiya, Dean D.K
Sharma & Dr. VK Solanki, Head of the Department of Forestry and
Biotechnology, Mewar University Gangrar Chittorgrah Rajasthan, including
Ms Somrita Das and Brijesh Kumar for send me there in order to get precious
knowledge.
Finally, I must express my profound gratitude to my parents and my friends for
providing unfailing support. Last but not the least I would like to thank Almighty
Allah for the blessings without which I might not complete my work.
I hope this compilation would be useful to not only to forest staff but also to
academicians, researchers and all others who is concerned with the working of the
Forest Department.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
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Index
Lesson no. 1: Jammu and Kashmir forest department
o Forest
o Forestry
o Forest types
o Forest area
o Forest based industries
Lesson No. 2: Forest Demarcation
o Definition
o Process of demarcation
o Penalties and procedure
o Rules of forest demarcation
o Observation
o comments
Lesson No. 3: Forest Nursery Practices
o Definition
o Types of forest nursery
o Management of forest nursery
o Types of Nursery
o Soil preparation
o Seed treatment
o Observation
o comments
Lesson No. 4: Forest Fire Management
o Definition
o Introduction
o Forest Fire- part of Ecosystem
o Types of Forest Fire
o Causes of Forest Fire
o Impacts of Forest Fire
o Observation
o comments
Lesson No. 5: GPS Exercise
o Definition
o Introduction
o Objectives
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o Types of fieldwork & surveying using GPS
o Benefits
o Procedure of working of GPS
o Application of GPS
o Observation
o comments
Lesson No. 6: forest Marking & enumeration
o Introduction
o Formulae for log volume calculation
o Quarter Girth Formula
o Measurement of Staked volume
o Dimensions of chatta
o Laboratory measurement
o Measurement of length, diameter and sectional area of logs
o Observation
o comments
Lesson No. 7: forest vegetation in J&K
o Introduction
o Classification of Broadleaved species
o Tree species in Banihal Range and its uses
o Medicinal plants in Banihal Range and their uses
o Observation
o comments
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Lesson no 1
Jammu and Kashmir forest department
Forest
The word “Forest” is derived from Latin word ‘foris’ meaning outside the village boundary or away
from inhabited land.
Definitions
Technically :
1. Forest is an area set aside for the production of timber and other forest produce, or
maintained under woody vegetation for certain indirect benefits which it provides.(Anon
1966)
Ecologically:
2. It is defined as a plant community, predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation,
usually with a closed canopy
Legally:
3. Forest is an area of land proclaimed to be a forest under a forest law.
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Forestry
Forestry is defined as the theory and practice of all that constitutes the creation, conservation and
scientific management of forests and the utilization of their resources (Anon, 1966)
Forest Area
Introduction:
The state of Jammu and Kashmir is covered by lofty mountains, which receive heavy rainfall and
snow. Dense forests are found everywhere particularly in outer and inner Himalayan ranges. High
mountains of Ladakh and Kargil receive a very little rainfall; therefore, these are devoid of forest
cover. However vast grass lands and abundant medicinal and aromatic plants grow there.
The total Forest area of the Jammu and Kashmir state as per working plans is 20,230 sq. kms. with
region wise distribution given as under:-
S.NO.
Region
Geographical Area (Sq.
Kms.)
Forest Area (Sq.
Kms.)
%age of forest area to
geographical area
1 Kashmir 15948 8128 50.97%
2 Jammu 26293 12066 45.89%
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Ladakh
59146 36 0.06%
TOTAL 101387 20230 19.95%
Excluding area under illegal occupation of China and Pakistan.
The forest area has increased from 20182 Sq. kms. (1987) to 20230 Sq. Kms. (1997) due to
bringing more areas under plantation in Leh and Kargil Divisions and also due to reclamation in
Ningle range
The species-wise forest area reveals 90.68% under coniferous like that:
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S.no Species Percentage in J&K
1 Deodar 5.32%
2 Chir 9.02%
3 Kail 9.73%
4 Fir 16.81%
5 Others 49.80%
The 9.32% forest cover is claimed by non-coniferous non-commercial reserves
Forest Types
The main forest types found in Jammu and Kashmir State are:
1) Sub-Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests: These forests are generally found in the lower reaches of
Shiwaliks in Jammu region. The common tree species are Acacia catachu, Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia
modesta, Albizzia spp, Salmlia malabarica, Eucalyptus Spp, Dendrocalamus strictus.
2) Sub-Tropical Pine Forests: These forests are situated in upper Shiwalik and outer Himalayas.
The common species found here are Pinus roxburghii, Albizzia spp, Dalbergia sissoo, Olea
cuspidata and other broad leaved aasociates.
3) Himalayan Moist Temperate Forests: This type is found in Chenab Valley. The common tree
species are Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana, Picea smithiana, Pinus gerardiana, Abies pindrow
(low level), Juglans regia, Acer spp, Populus ciliata, Prunus padus, Aesculus indicia, Fraxinus
floribunda, Quercus spp. etc.
4) Himalayan Himalayan Dry Temperate Forests: This type include the main forests of Kashmir
valley with the common tree species as Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana, Picea smithiana, Abies
pindrow, Juglans regia, Acer spp., Prunus spp., Aesculus indicia, and the typical under wood of
Parrotia jacquamentiana etc.
5) Alpine Forest: These forests are situated above the main temperate zone. Common spp. found in
this zone are High level Fir and Kail, Juinpers, Quercus spp, Populus ciliata, Betual spp, Salix spp.
Rhododendron, and a variety of wild flowers and grasses.
6) Forest in cold arid zone: Leh and Kargil Districts fall in this zone where natural forests are
meager. Juniperous spp. exists sporadically. Plantations of Poplar and Salix developed by the
Forest Department over a period of time need irrigation. Robinia has been introduced in the recent
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past. The natural shurbs include Hypophea and Myrcaria. Among herbs Artimisia is abundantly
found, besides other species of medicinal importance.
Forest Based Industries
Forest resources are indispensable for human beings and have played the most significant role in
the economy of the state.
Following are some of the Forest based industries:
1) Eco-tourism
2) Turpentine and Resin Industry
3) Kashmir Willow Industry
4) Joinery, Ply and other wood based industries
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Lesion 2
Forest Demarcation
Demarcation
It means forest land or waste land under the control of the forest department, of which the
boundaries have already been demarcated by means of pillars of stone or masonry or by, any other
conspicuous mark, or, which hereafter is constituted a demarcated forest (section 3)
Fig. Marking the BPS at Mohu forest banihal
Processes of demarcation
 Demarcation of forest/ powers of demarcation---
1. The Government for purposes may, from time to time, make rules in accordance with which any
forest land or waste land which is the property of government or over which the government has
proprietary right, or to the whole or any part of the forest produce of which the government is
entitled, may be declared as demarcated forest and may, from time to time as the occasion may
require, amend or cancel such rules.
2. All rules made under sub-section -1 shall be published in the Jammu and Kashmir Government
Gazette
3. On the completion of the demarcation proceedings in accordance with the rules made under sub-
section-1 the results of such proceedings for each such forest land or waste land shall be notified in
the Jammu and Kashmir govt. gazette in accordance with such rules by the conservator of the circle
and from the date of such publication such forest land or waste land shall be deemed to be
demarcated forest
 Management and control of demarcated forest---
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The management of the demarcated forests (except where such forests have been placed
authoritatively under the control and management of any other Department or local authority) is vested
in the Forest Department
Fig. trying the trace BPs
The control and management of demarcated forests not in charge of the Forest Department shall be
vested in such officer as the Government may, by notification, prescribe in this behalf and such officer
may be like notification is vested with all or any of the powers and liabilities of a Forest Officer under
this Act.
 Power to regulate concessions in demarcated forests---
The Government may from time to time make rules to regulate the exercise of concession in
demarcated forests and may prescribe the limits up to which closures to concessions may be permitted
and the procedure to be adopted when closures are to be effected.
 Acts prohibited in such forests---
I. Any person who sets fire to a demarcated forest, or kindles any fires, or leaves any fire
burning in such manner as to endanger such a forest
II. Any person who kindles, keeps or carries any fire except at such season as the
conservator of the circle may from time to time notify in this behalf
III. Any person who causes any damage by negligence in felling any tree or cutting or
dragging any timber
IV. Any person who fells, girdles, lops, taps, or burns any tree, or strips off the bark or
leaves from, or otherwise damages, the same
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V. Any person who quarries stone, burns lime or charcoal or collects, subject to any
manufacturing process, or removes, any forest produce; knowingly receives or is in
possession of illicit from produce
VI. Any person who clears or breaks up any land or erects a fence, enclosure or any structure for
cultivation 3[or cultivates or attempts to cultivate any land in any other manner in any
demarcated forest or for any other purpose];
VII. Any person who installs or establishes a saw mill or forest based industry within such limits
outside the demarcated forest to be prescribed by the Government from time to time, shall be
punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years but shall not be less than
three months and with fine which may extend to six thousand rupees but shall not be less than
one thousand rupees.
VIII. Any person who causes any loss or damage to any demarcated or undemarcated forest or
encroaches upon such forest shall be liable to compensate the Government. The remedy
available under this section shall be without prejudice and in addition to any remedy that the
Government may have under any Law in this regard.
 Power to inflict collective punishment
Whenever, during the period of suspension of any rights , concessions or privileges,
under the last preceding section, fire or damage" to trees is proved to have been caused
willfully and persistently in any demarcated forest, the Chief Conservator shall have a
written warning served through the zaildar and lambardars on all or any of the villages
enjoying rights, concessions or privileges in such forest.
Fig. Demarcation Map of Mohu forest block
PENALTIES AND PROCEDURE
Seizure of property liable to confiscation
1. When there is a reason to believe that a forest offence has been committed in respect of any
forest produce, such produce together with all tools, arms, boats, carts, equipment, ropes,
chains, machines, vehicles, cattle or any other article used in committing any such offence
may be seized by a Forest Officer or Police Officer.
2. Any officer seizing any property under this section shall place .on such property a mark
indicating that the same has been so seized and shall, as soon as may be, make a report of
such seizure before an officer not below the rank of the Divisional Forest Officer
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(hereinafter referred to as 'authorised officer'): Provided that when the forest produce with
respect to which such offence is believed to have been committed is the property of the
Government and the offender is unknown, it shall be sufficient if the officer makes, as soon
as may be, a report of the circumstances to his official superior.
3. Subject to sub-section (5), where the authorized officer upon receipt of report about seizure,
is satisfied that a forest offence has been committed in respect thereof, he may, by order in
writing and for reasons to be recorded, confiscate forest produce so seized together with all
tools, arms, boats, carts, equipment, ropes, chains, machines, vehicles or any other articles
used in committing such offence. Copy of the order of confiscation shall be forwarded
without any undue delay to the person from whom the property is seized and to the
Conservator of Forest Circle in which the timber or forest produce, as the case may be, has
been seized.
4. No order confiscating any property shall be made under Sub-section (3) unless the
Authorized Officer,
a. Sends an intimation in writing about the proceedings for confiscation of the property to the
Magistrate having jurisdiction to try the offence on account of which the seizure has been
made but no order to be passed;
b. Issue a notice in writing to the person from whom the property is seized and to any other
person who may appear to the authorized officer to have some interest in such property;
c. Gives to the officer effecting the seizure and the person or persons to whom notice issued
under clause
d. A hearing on date to be fixed for such purpose.
5. No order of confiscation under sub-section (3) of any tools, arms, boats, carts, equipment,
ropes, chains, machines, vehicles or any other article (other than timber or forest produce
seized) shall be made if any person referred to in clause (b) of sub-section (4) proves to the
satisfaction of authorized officer that any such tools, arms, boats, carts, equipment, ropes,
chains, machines, vehicles, cattle or any other articles were used without his knowledge or
connivance or, as the case may be, without the knowledge or connivance of his servant or
agent and that all reasonable and necessary precautions had been taken against the use of
objects aforesaid or commission of forest offence.
Fig. inserting the boundary pillar at Mohu forest
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RULES FOR THE DEMARCATION OF FORESTS
1) Demarcation will be carried out by the Revenue and Settlement (in areas under settlement)
Departments working in conjunction with the Forest Department.
2) Forests can be demarcated anywhere on land not assisted for cultivation, or not given to any
other private person or public body.
3) Demarcation consists of. -
a. The laying down of the line. -By means of a series of pillars with a straight 'line, or natural
features, between them, i.e. the boundary line between any two pillars should either be
straight or should follow some natural feature.
b. The numbering of the pillars.-In this case each forest will, so far as is convenient, be treated
as a whole, irrespective of the local names. Where a natural feature is the boundary, the
pillars need only be numbered at the places where the boundary joins and leaves the natural
features, such as a nala, ridge, roads etc. in between, smaller pillars may be erected to point
out the line, but such need not be numbered.
c. The written description of the boundary.
d. The survey of the forest. -The survey should show the position of the nalas, etc. where such
cross the boundary, and the names of (he villages, forests, etc. surrounding the forest.
II For demarcation and revision of previously demarcated Forests in areas
Under settlement.
4. Opportunity should be taken by the Divisional forest Officer to arrange for the demarcation
of all forests in a Tehsil when under settlement.
5. The procedure will be as follows. -On the commencement of Settlement operations the
Divisional Forest Officer will submit a statement to the 2 [Chief Conservator of Forests] of
all Forest areas that should be demarcated in the following form:
6. Car The Settlement officer through the Assistant Settlement officer and Divisional Forest
officer will then arrange as to the time and order in which the operations are to take place.
The settlement officer deputing an. officer not lower than that of Naib Tehsildar 3 [xxx]
a. When once an appointment is fixed, the officer who first arrives on the spot, -or is already
on the spot, need not wait for the other representative but should commence at once. The
line laid down by only one officer in the absence of the other should be inspected with
special care by the Divisional Forest Officer and Assistant Settlement Officer at their
inspection.
b. The Preliminary party consisting or these two officers (or one of them if the other fails to
attend) will lay down the Boundary by means of pillars with stakes in the centres, according
to the shapes and dimensions given in rule 3 above. A description of the boundary will be
drawn up and the pillar numbered. In the absence of instructions to the contrary, the
preliminary party may record statements and complaints.
c. Far the boundary, natural features will be chosen So far as possible. When skirting
cultivation the line should be taken some 15 to 25 Karams from its edge; straight boundaries
are preferable and .the twisting of the line to' include a few trees here and there is to be
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avoided. In Deodar Forest the line should be taken as near the cultivation as is conveniently
possible.
7. On completion of the work detailed in rule 6 the Assistant Settlement Officer and Divisional
Forest Officer will arrange to visit the forest together and hear end record complaints of
villagers and others as to the demarcation. They will settle such complaints amicably and
record in writing their decisions an each complaint.
8. The survey -includes. –
I. Plotting the positions of the forest boundary pillars on to the Settlement maps; and
II. The preparation of a map far the Misil an the scale of 6 inches or 4 inches to a mile.
(i) Should be done when the preliminary party is at work and should as a rule keep
up with the work of that party; .
III. Should be done before the Misils are submitted by the Assistant Settlement Officer
and Divisional Forest Officer.
9. The Divisional Forest Officer on completion of his and the Assistant Settlement Officer’s
enquiry will arrange to have the pillars made of the size mentioned in rule 3(b) above, if
such have not been erected by the preliminary party.
10. A period of appeal of three months is allowed to any person after the date of the conclusion
of the enquiry mentioned in rule 7 above. Such appeal shall be submitted to the Settlement
officer whose decision shall be final, with this proviso that if the Settlement Officer
disagrees with the Divisional Forest Officer and Assistant Settlement Officer, a further
appeal shall be b the settlement Commissioner whose decision shall be final.
11. In the case of a revision of a. previously demarcated forest the procedure will be the same as
mentioned above; provided that no alteration is to be made without good reason.
12. On completion of the work detailed above the Chief Conservator of Forests will cause the
results to be published' in the Government Gazette in the' form of, the Schedule attached.
III for Demarcation of Forests in Tehsils not under settlement.
13. From time to time the Divisional Forest Officer will submit to the Chief Conservator of
Forests a list of the forests he wishes to be demarcated in the form mentioned in rule 5.
Similarly the Deputy Commissioner may submit to the Commissioner of the Province
concerned a list of the forests as he may think should be demarcated.
14. The Chief Conservator of Forests, on approval, will submit this list to the Commissioner of
the Province concerned who will make any enquiries necessary as to the advisability of the
proposed demarcation. If he agrees he will inform the have Chief Conservator of the fact
and at the same time direct the Deputy Commissioner concerned to give every assistance
possible in the demarcation contemplated.
15. The Chief Conservator of Forests will, on receiving the Commissioner approval, at once
inform the Divisional Forest officef"11nd the procedure to be followed be that mentioned in
rules 5 to 9 above, except that the Deputy Commissioner will arrange to depute a Naib-
Tehsildar for the preliminary work and that the Deputy Commissioner will perform the
duties given to the Assistant Settlement officer.
16. A period of appeal of three months is allowed to any person against the decisions come to
by the Divisional Forest Officer and the Deputy Commissioner or Tehsildar under rule 7.
Such appeal shall be submitted to the Commissioner of the Province concerned whose
decision shall be final.
IV Forest Settlement Record.
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17. For forests demarcated under Part II of these rules a Forest Settlement Record and a tabular
report shall be submitted by the Settlement Officer to the Conservator in the forms
hereunder prescribed. This shall he prepared by the Assistant Settlement Officer and
Divisional Forest Officer jointly during the course of demarcation and shall be submitted to
the Settlement officer After the lapse of the period of appeal, other if an appeal has been
lodged within _he period specified for appeal, after the decision of the appeal; necessary
entries should be made in the patwari's paper’s.
18. Concessions may be granted to villages whose nearest boundary line is within five miles to
the nearest part of the forest concerned provided that the two are not separated by a
unaffordable stream at its winter level.
19. All claims to the ownership or occupancy of land within the boundary of the forests should
be carefully investigated and reported on. Such claims, if not made to the Divisional Forest
Officer and Assistant Settlement Officer during these proceedings, will not be entertained
subsequently.



Observations
We were given the assignment of demarcation of forest boundaries by the forest authorities in Mohu
forest block of Banihal forest range. In the beginning we were taught about the basic fundamentals of
forest demarcation exercise. They equipped us with the relevant material and documents pertaining to
the demarcation so that they can bring into practice in the field.
The demarcation was carried out in comptt. 29 to 35/Bnl in forest block Mohu. The prerequisite
information for conducting demarcation is obtained through demarcation, record that is description file
(Tashree) and demarcation map (latha). Description file tells us the geographical indication, physical
indication and biological indication which helps us to trace the Boundary pillars on the ground.
Moreover the elderly persons of nearby locality also works us assisting hand to locate the boundary line
on the ground. The demarcation is conducted as under:
1. First we look for the boundary pillars which are physically present on the ground and keeping them as
reference point, we can trace another Boundary pillars too.
2. In case there is no boundary pillar present physically on the ground then by description file keeping
the indications as provided in it, we can trace the location of that boundary pillars on the ground.
Similarly by keeping the traced boundary pillar as benchmark, we can trace another boundary pillars
also by using the help of map and description file which provides us the direction and the distance of
one boundary pillar to another.
3. Once the boundary pillar is traced, the GPS coordinates of traced boundary pillars are recorded with
the help of GPS device.
Comments:
a. Once the boundary pillars are traced, they should be physically mounted on the ground, so that
attempts of the encroachment can be checked/controlled.
b. After the demarcation is over in a particular area, there should be public meeting, so as to make the
local people aware of the forest boundaries.
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Lesson 3
Forest Nursery Practices
Definition
It is an area where plants are raised for eventual planting out, ha ordinarily both seedlings and
transplants (Anon,1966)
Fig.Visit at soil conservation nursery tanjiwar BNL
Types of Nurseries –
In areas where biotic factor is more i.e. road side, railways, pond banks, and areas
adjoining villages can be afforested successfully only through nursery raised
seedlings.
Fig. Chamalwas nursery main board
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Nurseries are categorized in different ways. According to time duration nurseries are
classified in two types:
1) Temporary nursery – This type of nursery is developed only to fulfill the requirement
of the season or a targeted project. The nurseries for production of seedlings of transplanted
vegetables and flower crops are of temporary nature. Likewise temporary arrangement for
growing forest seedlings for planting in particular area can also be done in temporary
nursery.
2) Permanent nursery – This type of the nursery is placed permanently so as to produce
plants continuously. These nurseries have all the permanent features. The permanent nursery
has permanent mother plants. The work goes on continuously all the year round in this
nursery.
According to type of plants produced nurseries are classified in to following types:
I. Fruit plant Nurseries: - In this nursery seedlings and grafts of fruit crops are
developed.
II. Vegetable nurseries: - In this nursery seedlings of cauliflower, cabbage, brinjal and
tomato are prepared.
III. Flowers plants nurseries: - The seedlings of flowering plants like gerbera,
carnation, petunia, salvia, rose, chrysanthemum, coleus, aster, dianthus are
developed in this nurseries.
IV. Forest nurseries: - The seedlings of plants useful for forestation like pine, oak, teak,
eucalyptus, casuarina are prepared and sold.
V. Miscellaneous nurseries: - In such type of nurseries plants with great economic
value, rare and medicinal, herbal plants are propagated. In this nursery plants like
geranium, rose, calendula, and marigold are propagated. Planning of nursery one has
to decide which type of nursery is to be started. At the same time the durations and
type of plants propagated should be finalized.
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Fig. Chamalwas nursery
Management of nursery –
Nursery plants require due care and attention after having either emerged from the seeds or
have been raised from other sources like rootstock or through tissue culture technique.
Generally they are grown in the open field under the protection of Mother Nature where,
they should be able to face the local environment. It is the duty & main objective of a
commercial nursery grower to supply the nursery plants with suitable conditions necessary
for their development & growth. This is the major work of management in the nursery
which includes all such operations right from the emergence of young plantlet till them are
fully grown-up or are ready for uprooting & transplanting in the main fields.
1) Potting the seedling: -
Before planting of sapling in the pots, the pots should be filled up with proper potting
mixture. Now a day’s different sizes of earthen pots or plastic containers are used for
propagation. For filling of pots loamy soil, sand and compost can be used in 1:1:1
proportion. Sprouted cuttings, bulbs, corms or polythene bag grown plants can be
transferred in earthen pots for further growth. All the necessary precautions are taken before
filling the pots and planting of sapling in it.
2) Manuring & Irrigation: -
Generally sufficient quantity of nutrients is not available in the soil used for seedbed. Hence,
well rotten F.Y.M / compost and leaf mould is added to soil. Rooted cuttings, layers or
grafted plants till they are transferred to the permanent location, require fertilizers. Addition
of fertilizers will give healthy & vigorous plants with good root & shoot system. It is
recommended that each nursery bed of 10 X 10m area should be given 300 gm of
ammonium sulphate, 500 gm of Single super phosphate and 100 gm of Muriate of potash.
Irrigation either in the nursery beds or watering the pots is an important operation. For
potted plants hand watering is done & for beds low pressure irrigation by hose pipe is
usually given. Heavy irrigation should be avoided.
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3) Plant protection measures: -
Adoption of plant protection measures, well in advance and in a planned manner is
necessary for the efficient raising of nursery plants. For better protection from pest and
diseases regular observation is essential. Disease control in seedbed:- The major disease of
nursery stage plant is “damping off”. For its control good sanitation conditions are
necessary. Preventive measures like treatment with 50% ethyl alcohol, 0.2% calcium hypo
chloride and 0.01% mercury chloride is done. These treatments are given for 5 to 30
minutes.
4) Weed control: -
Weeds compete with plants for food, space and other essentials. So timely control of weeds
is necessary. For weed control weeding, use of cover crops, mulching, use of chemicals
(weedicides) are practiced. Pre-emergence weedicides like Basaline or post-emergence
weedicide like 2; 4-D and Roundup are useful.
5) Measures against heat and cold: -
The younger seedling is susceptible to strong sun and low temperature. For protection from
strong sun, shading with the help of timber framework of 1 meter height may be used. Net
house and green house structures can also be used.
6) Packing of nursery plants –
Packing is the method or way in which the young plants are tied or kept together till they are
transplanted. So they have to be packed in such a way that they do not lose their turgidity
and are able to establish themselves on the new site. At the same time, good packing ensures
their success on transplanting. For packing baskets, wooden boxes, plastic bags are used. In
some parts of the country banana leaves are also used for packing the plants with their earth
ball. This is useful for local transportation.
7) Sale management –
In general the main demand for nursery plants is during rainy season. A proper strategy
should be followed for sale of nursery plants. For that advertisement in local daily
newspapers, posters, hand bills, catalogue and appointment of commission agents can be
followed.
8) Management of mother plants -
Care of mother plants is necessary so as to get good quality propagules and scion. A.
Labeling and records B. Certification C. Irrigation D. Fertilization E. Pruning F. Protection
from pests and diseases Collection and development of new mother plants Fruit Nurseries
Types of Nursery bed
Nursery bed is defined as ‘prepared area in a nursery where seed is sown or into which transplants
or cuttings are put. Nursery beds are classified into seedling beds and transplant beds. As a rule
rectangular beds are preferred over other shapes. The width of the bed should 1.2 to 1.5 m.
The width of the bed should be kept so that it can be weeded by a labour from both side
without entering the bed. The length should be 12.5 m. However, standard bed sizes (1.2 m ×
12.5 m or 4 ft. × 40 ft). The length may be kept smaller if sufficient space is not available.
Similarly, considering the nature of lands, there may two kinds of beds. They are:
21
1. Sunken beds: In areas with long dry hot weather, beds are kept slightly below the general
ground level. Such beds can be easily irrigated, during dry season. This type of beds are
used for raising stock through vegetative propagation like cutting of popular, sissoo,
mulberry, willows, and bamboos off sets. Besides these Acacia nilotica, A. benthenwii,
Prosopisjuli flora etc.
2. Raised beds: In moister areas, nursery beds are raised 10-15cm above the level of the
grounds, which can be supported either by bamboos or line of bricks, stones, etc. This
prevents their edges from being eroded away during the rainy season or by irrigation or
outside water from seeping into the bed. The species which are commonly raised on beds
are Deodar, Kail, Spruce, Fir, Robinia, Walnut, Bird cherry, Ash etc.
3. Level beds: Level beds are commonly used for raising seedlings of Tuni, Eucalyptus, Ritha,
Terminalia, Siris, Grevillia, etc. These species cannot tolerate standing water, their water
requirement is also moderate.
Soil Preparation
After demarcation, they are dug in depth of 0.3-0.45m so that stone, roots, etc. lying underneath are
all dug out, picked and thrown outside the nursery. If the soil is gravelly, it should be sieved
through a fine wire netting to remove gravels. Then, soil should be mixed with farmyard manure.
At the same time, charcoal dust and ashes are also mixed to correct the acidity of soil and keep
away worms. If there is a danger of white ant attack, Aldrex 5% dust should be mixed @ 75kg/ha.
In the hills, new terraces have to be built with the help of string and pegs, and the drainage network
should be planned. The top-soil should be first removed carefully from the surface of the terrace
and put in a pile, and after the terrace has been made it should be replaced on the terrace surface.
In general, the surface of the beds should be either flat or preferably be given a slight camber. If the
soil is heavy, a top dressing of washed river sand is usually given, which prevent to cake the
watered beds and no splash during rains. Burning of dry grass and shrubs piled on beds reduces
weed growth and is very beneficial for species having minute seeds e.g. Adina cordinfolia.
 Seed Treatment
Seeds are to be tested before use or sowing in the beds or fields as the success or failure of artificial
regeneration work depends on the quality of seeds. When the treatment is given before sowing in
the field, it is called pre-sowing treatment. If some species of seeds are not treated, germination may
be delayed or germinate irregularly. And in order to hasten germination of such seeds, they have to
be given treatment. Why seed treatments are necessary as :
1. To determine genuiness: Genuiness of seeds means purely desired seeds for producing
plants in the beds, not mixed. Identification of such seeds is necessary. Sometimes, it is very
difficult to identify the seeds. In such cases, it is necessary to collect a botanical specimen of
the seed bearing plant and get it identified by an expert botanist.
22
2. To determine purity: Seeds may have other foreign matters, even if they are genuine. For
the purpose, seeds are cleaned by winnowing or hand-picking. If samples of cleaned seeds
are compared with the collected seeds. Purity can be determined easily.
3. To determine seed viability: Viability of seeds can be determined by direct inspection or
by physical or chemical test. Physical test, which is done by winnowing or submersion in
water. Similarly, chemical test may be done by using chemicals such as Indigo carmin in
1:1000-2000 has been reported to be the most useful.


Observations:
Chamalwas Nursery:-
The Chamalwas conifer nursery is located at some 15km distance from Banihal town on Banihal-
Neeltop road. The nursery is located within the dense pure kail forest. Following of the key observations
which are noted in the Chamalwas nursery tour are:
1. The aspect of Nursery is lying in south-east direction which receives light from 11am to 2pm in
winters and 9am to 3pm in summers.
2. The Nursery comprises of deodar and kail seedlings which are planted by seed sowing in polybags.
3. There are different age gradation of seedlings in nursery that is 3 years seedlings, 2 year seedlings
and 1 year seedlings. Usually 3 year seedlings are heighted between 2-3 feet in deodar and 1.5-2.5 feet
in kail. Both these sizes of 3 years seedlings are ready for transplanting into the field.
4. The Nursery is fed by natural spring, which usually remains functional throughout the year, but due
to the prolonged dry spell this year, it got dried causing the mortality and loss in the nursery.
5. The sowing is done in the month of October to November which gets ripen in the month of March to
April. The logic behind this is that the seed gets proper snow treatment (stratification) in the natural
snowfall season which causes the germination percentage quite sufficient. This also subjects to the type
and health of seeds.
6. The transplanting and the plant lifting from the nursery is done in the month of Nov.—Dec., which
also subjects to the rainfall in the area where it has to be planted.
7. The beds of the nursery are found on the contours with an uneven shape , because the nursery site is
steep having the slope of some 400—450 .
8. The nursery is raised under 13th finance commission and CAMPA scheme.
9. The number of seedlings /polybags in the nursery is about 85000 which has the capacity to provide
35000 polybags every year.
10. The altitude of nursery is 2020mtrs. above msl, this is purely a suitable altitude for the growth of
kail and deodar seedlings.
11. The area is snow bound which remains covered with the snowfall for consecutive 2.5—3 months.
Tanjiwar Broad leaved Nursery:- 

The Tanjiwar Broad leaved Nursery is located at some 10km distance from Banihal nearby Jawhar
tunnel hill. The nursery is located within the dense pure chestnut forest are key observations which are
noted in the Tanjiwar Nursery tour:
1. The aspect of Nursery is lying in north-east direction which receives light from 11am to 1pm in
winters and 10am to 2pm in summer.
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2. The Nursery comprises of Ulmus wallichiana, Robina pseudoacacia, Aesculus indica, Pyrus spp. and
prunis spp. seedlings which are planted at the distance of 6inches in nursery beds.
3. The first year seedlings are ready for the plantation. Usually 1year seedlings are heighted between 4
to 5 feet.
4. The Nursery is feeded by Tanjiwar Nalla flowing near it which usually remains functional throughout
the year.
5. The sowing is done in the months of Feb. to March which gets germinated within 10 to 15 days after
sowing.
6. The transplanting and the plant lifting from the nursery is done in the month of Nov.—feb. which also
subjects to the rainfall in the area where it has to be planted.
7. The beds of the nursery are found on the terraces with an uneven shape, because the nursery site is
slopy having the slope of some 350—400 .
8. The nursery is raised under CMPAP scheme.
Arandar Broad leaved Nursery
The Arandar Broad leaved Nursery is located at some 06km distance from Banihal town above the
Chachihal road. The nursery is located near the young kail forest. Following are the key observations
which are noted in the Arandar Nursery tour are:
1. The aspect of Nursery is lying in North-east direction which receives light from 11am to 1pm in
winters and 10am to 2pm in summers.
2. The Nursery comprises of Ulmus wallichiana, Robina pseudoacacia, Aesculus indica, Pyrus spp.
Ailanthus spp. And prunis spp. seedlings which were planted by seedlings at the distance of 6” in
nursery beds.
3. The first year seedlings are ready for the plantation. Usually 1year seedlings are heighted between 4
to 5 feet.
4. The Nursery is feeded by Arandar Nalla flowing near it which usually remains functional throughout
the year.
5. The sowing is done in the months of Feb.to March which gets germinated within the 10 to 15 days
after sowing.
6. The transplanting and the plant lifting from the nursery is done in the month of Nov. to Feb., which
also subjects to the rainfall in the area where it has to be planted.
7. The beds of the nursery are found on the terraces with an uneven shape, because the nursery site is
slopy having the slope of some 350
-400
.
8. The nursery is raised under FDA scheme.
9. The number of seedlings in the nursery is about 85000which has the capacity to provide 45000
seedlings every year.
Comments:-
1. The nursery should be equipped with pacca water channel, so as to provide bed to bed irrigation
facilities.
2. There is a lacuna that nursery doesn’t have any mali hut which should be present there for watch and
ward round the clock
3. The nursery should be given electricity facilities so as to provide artificial irrigation by electric water
lifting motor, during the dry spell as it happen this year.
24
Lesson No. 4
Forest fire management
Definition
Forest fire may be defined as an unclosed and freely spreading combustion that consumes the
natural fuels. Combustion is another word for fire. When a fire burns out of control it is known as
Wild Fire. Almost everyone basically knows what a fire looks and feels like, but in reality fire
consists of four parts i.e. gas, flame, heat and smoke.
 Introduction
The word “fire” evolved from the Greek word “pyra” meaning growing embers. Fire is actually the
heat and the light that results when three elements i.e. fuel, oxygen and the source are combined.
The other elements, which determine the behavior of the fire, are weather, the landscape and the
presence of the fuel. As far as the birth of fire is concerned, fire emerged on the earth with its origin
only. From the time our planet came into existence, lightening has sparked landscape. Artificial or
the human induced fire began when the earlier human being first rubbed two stones. Discovery of
fire has been a revolutionary invention of human civilization. The nomadic life saw a sudden
change in its life style after this invention. It is interesting to know that the first experience of fire,
which ancient human being felt was of forest fire. Thus forest fire has been an integral part of
human civilization. The discovery of fire has perhaps been one of the greatest innovations of all
time. It had so much significance in the earlier history of mankind that they started worshipping it
as God.
Fig. Fire control at chachihal forest
25
 Forest fire – part of ecosystem
Fires in forests are not unnatural. It has been a natural part of the ecosystem since origin of forest on
this planet. Most of the fires are very useful and essential for good natural forest development and
regeneration. Throughout historic time forest fires have been ignited and burned naturally through
the forest. These low intensity fires in past kept the forest floor free from the natural annual buildup
of the litter i.e. tree needles, dead grass, senescent leaves & twigs, thick brush, and dead trees. As a
result, fire has shaped vegetation patterns and wildlife distributions in the forests.
Soil heating due to fire changes its chemical, physical and microbial properties. The direct chemical
changes during soil heating and combustion of soil organic matter lead to a massive volatilization
of simple nitrogenous compounds, mainly nitrate and ammonium and to some extent sulphur,
phosphorus, and other ions depending on the fire intensity and temperature. But at the same time,
fire transforms soil nitrogen bound in organic substances into ammonium, a form readily available
to either plants or subsequent microbial nitrification. The increase in ammonium and nitrate
concentrations in many ecosystems has also been reported as a result of fire incidences. This
increase in the availability of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous and other mineral nutrients) is
certainly beneficial for the vegetation and enhances its growth.
Fig. Forest during burning at dholegam
 Types of forest fire
Forest fires are not always same; they may differ, depending upon its nature, size, spreading speed,
behavior etc. Basically forest fires can be sub grouped into four types depending upon their nature
and size –
Surface fires
Surface fire is the most common forest fires that burn undergrowth and dead material along the
floor of the forest. It is the type of fire that burns surface litter, other loose debris of the forest floor
and small vegetation. In general, it is very useful for the forest growth and regeneration. But if
grown in size, this fire not only burns ground flora but also results to engulf the undergrowth and
the middle storey of the forest. Surface fires spread by flaming combustion through fuels at or near
the surface- grass, dead and down limbs, forest needle and leaf litter, or debris from harvesting or
land clearing.
Underground fires
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The fires of low intensity, consuming the organic matter beneath and the surface litter of forest
floor are sub-grouped as underground fire. In most of the dense forests a thick mantle of organic
matter is found on top of the mineral soil. This fire spreads in by consuming such material. These
fires usually spread entirely underground and burn for some meters below the surface. This fire
spreads very slowly and in most of the cases it becomes very hard to detect and control such type of
fires. It may continue to burn for months and destroy vegetative cover of the soil. The other
terminology for this type of fire is Muck fires.
Ground fires
These fires are fires in the sub surface organic fuels, such as duff layers under forest stands, Arctic
tundra or taiga, and organic soils of swamps or bogs. There is no clear distinction between
underground and ground fires. The smoldering underground fire sometime changes into ground fire.
This fire burns root and other material on or beneath the surface i.e. burns the herbaceous growth on
forest floor together with the layer of organic matter in various stages of decay. They are more
damaging than surface fires, as they can destroy vegetation completely.
Crown fires
Crown fire is the most unpredictable fires that burn the top of trees and spread rapidly by wind. In
most of the cases these fires are invariably ignited by surface fires. This is one of the most
spectacular kinds of forest fires which usually advance from top to down of trees or shrubs, more or
less interdependent of surface fires. In dense conifer stands with a brisk wind, the crown fire may
race ahead of the supporting surface fire. Since it is over the heads of ground force it is
uncontrollable until it again drops to the ground, and since it is usually fast moving, it poses grave
danger to the fire fighters becoming trapped and burned.
 Causes of Forest Fire
1. Natural causes
A. Lightning during thunderstorms may lead to the occurrence of forest fires. Many forest
fires start from natural causes such as lightning which set trees on fire. Natural or
prescribed fire sometimes may become a potential hazard to the forest by causing
damage to vegetation and wildlife, and releasing huge amount of particulate and gaseous
pollutants into the atmosphere.
B. In dry season, friction leading to sparks by rolling stones in the mountainous areas may
lead to forest fires. This occurs only when there is considerable combustible material
present on the floor. Even small sparks are enough to generate a fire, which may be
fanned by strong winds. The dry grass worked as a fuel, fast blowing wind supplied
oxygen in plenty resulting in speedy spread of fire and according to the villagers falling
of hard quartzite stones produced sparks which ignited the fuel.
C. In bamboo areas, forest fires may occur by the rubbing together of clumps of dry
bamboos.
D. Volcanic eruptions also lead to forest fires naturally.
2. Anthropogenic causes
More than 90% forest fires are caused by human beings, deliberately (for personal gains or
rivalry) or merely due to negligence or just by accident. Forest fires sometimes originate due
to accidental or unintentional reasons. Some of the instances are as follows
27
a. Deliberate or intentional causes- Intentional forest fire is caused by people for some
personal gain or rivalry with forest department. Examples are:
I. To get good grass / fodder crop- Forest fires are also caused intentionally to meet the need
of fodder for grazing cattle. In the country although some 12.5 million hectares of land is
officially classified as permanent pasture or grazing land, most of this area is virtually
devoid of grass. Thus a major portion of the grazing requirement is met from forest area by
setting fires to produce new flushes of grass in the dry season.
II. To get better flush for tendu leaves- In central India, fires are ignited in forest to increase
the production of tendu leaves. Tendu leaves collectors set fires in the summer months to
promote a better flush of leaves. The most economical and quick alternative for this is to set
tendu areas on fire; which often extends to other forest areas owing to negligence and
carelessness.
III. For concealing the illicit felling - Smugglers and poachers many times start forest fires to
hide the stumps of illicit felling. The poachers use forest fires for terrorizing wild animals
and hunting too.
IV. For cleaning forest paths by the villagers- Many times villagers set small fires to clear off
path from dry litter i.e. tree twigs, branches, leaves etc. This fire, when becomes
uncontrollable, turns disastrous.
V. To settle scores - In some cases forests may also be set on fire by some miscreants in order
to settle scores with the forest department or its staff.
b. Accidental or Unintentional causes
Many times due to negligence, even small fires may result into devastating fires. Some of
the main unintentional reasons for such fires are
I. Collection of Non Timber Forest Produce (NTFP) – Collection of NTFP by tribal or
other local habitants residing near the forest has been one of the major causes of forest fire.
To facilitate collection of NTFP the collectors ignite fire, which accidentally may spread in
the forest, resulting into major fire.
II. Burning farm residue- After a harvest, farmers set fire to their agricultural fields. Many
times, when these fires are not put out completely, may spread to the adjoining forest areas.
III. Protecting crops from the wild animals- Villagers residing in or near the forest many
times light up fire in the forest to keep the wild animals away from their crop and cattle.
Sometimes when this fire is not put out completely, it may result in a disastrous forest fire.
IV. Careless throwing of cigarettes, bidi stubs, match sticks by grazers/ travelers-
Travelers, picnickers, nomadic grazers, villagers or even forest labourers some time throw
un-extinguished cigarettes, bidis, and match sticks in the forest areas. When accompanied
by little/ strong winds, this may result in fires capable of destroying valuable timber worth
millions of rupees.
V. Negligence in camp fires and working operations near camping ground and fairs - Un-
extinguished camp fires of trekkers, labour camps, nomads moving through the forest with
their animals or the fires of road side charcoal panniers, when not put out properly lead to
devastating forest fires.
VI. Sparks from transformers or vehicles passing through the forest- The sparks from
transformers installed in the forest or near it may sometimes results into fires in forest.
Similarly the sparkles from the vehicles passing through the area may also ignite fires in the
forest areas.
28
VII. Uncontrolled prescribed burning- Just before the onset of the fire prone season, forest
department do controlled burning in forest areas. Controlled burning is done to burn all the
combustible material in the forest before the dry season to prevent major forest fires.
Sometimes due to carelessness this fire may spread and result into large inferno.
VIII. Resin tapping- Negligence in extracting resin from Chir Pine cones and careless burning of
torchwood of Chir by pedestrian during night also result into forest fires. Careless handling
of resin during resin tapping in the summer season may also start a fire, if the wind begins to
blow at high speeds.
IX. Charcoal making and wine extracting in the forest- Small and medium scale charcoal
making industries (both legal and illegal) and illegal wine extracting are common in Indian
forests. Sparks from these activities may lead to fires in the forest.
X. Sparks from the house kitchens near the forest- Habitations are common within or near
the forests in India. The households residing here use fire wood as fuel for cooking and
other purposes. Sparks from such burning may sometime result in fire in the nearby forest.
XI. Heating coal tar for road construction – During road construction in forest areas, the
charcoal heat to smelt coal tar may light up the dry litter resulting in huge forest fire.
XII. Hunting by tribal- Forest tribal for searching wild animals and their nests/ homes often set
wild grass on fire. For preventing growth of leeches also, fires are ignited by local
inhabitants.
 Impacts of forest fire
i) Loss of valuable timber resources Forest fires cause indispensable loss to timber and
deteriorate its quality. Valuable timber species like teak, sal, chir, deodar, sheesam,
rosewood etc. are adversely affected by fire. However, the adhesive impact of forest fire
varies from species to species, depending upon its susceptibility.
ii) Loss of wildlife habitat and depletion of wildlife- Forests are the habitat of many wild
animals. Sometimes the local people put the fire and drum beats to keep the wild
animals away, but when fire becomes uncontrolled, the problem of survival of animals
and their habitat arises. Wildfire along with killing wild animals also destroys their
habitat and thus makes their survival at stake.
iii) Global warming- One of the major culprits of climate change is forest fire. The
immediate effect of vegetation burning is the production and release of gases including
carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, non-methane hydrocarbons, nitric oxide,
methyl chloride and various other gases, which are released and returned to the
atmosphere in a matter of hours. The burning of forest also destroys an important sink
for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Hence, burning has a significant role in the world’s
carbon dioxide budget.
iv) Microclimate change: The changed microclimate caused by removal of litter and duff,
opening of the canopy by killing over storey shrubs and trees and darkening of the soil
surface by residual soot and charcoal can increase insulation causing temperature
increase. As a result the changed area becomes unhealthy for living of both wild habitats
and local people.
v) Soil erosion and impact on ecosystems- The fire initiated soil erosion has very adverse
impact on various eco- systems near the burned area. Loss of soil from hill slopes
produces several significant ecosystem impacts. Soil movement in the streams, lakes etc.
29
may degrade water quality and change the geomorphic and hydrologic characteristics of
these systems.
vi) Forest fire and floods- The water yield of a water body depends on the quantity of the
rain, evapotranspiration, type of the soil and vegetation etc. During the first year after a
fire, the magnitude of the total water yield suddenly increases. The magnitude may vary
greatly within a location or between locations, depending upon the fire intensity,
rainfall, geomorphology, the type of soil & vegetation and the proportion of the
vegetation burned.
vii) Threat to Life and Property- Forest fires affect human life and property in different
ways. Human life is at risk when fire crews fight fires either at the fire front or from
conflict with animals, especially elephants. A forest fire that spreads outside the forest
can consume buildings or infrastructure. There are also indirect dangers to life and
property due to forest fire.
 Precautions against fire
The followings are the important precautions against fire:
 To keep the source of fire or source of ignition separated from combustible and
inflammable material.
 To keep the source of fire under watch and control.
 Not allow combustible or inflammable material to pile up unnecessarily and to stock
the same as per procedure recommended for safe storage of such combustible or
inflammable material.
 To adopt safe practices in areas near forests viz. factories, coalmines, oil stores,
chemical plants and even in household kitchens.
 To incorporate fire reducing and firefighting techniques and equipment while
planning a building or coal mining operation.
 In case of forest fires, the volunteer teams are essential not only for firefighting but
also to keep watch on the start of forest and sound an alert.
 To arrange firefighting drills frequently.
 PREVENTION AND CONTROL MEASURES FOR FOREST FIRES IN INDIA
The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India issued guidelines for
prevention and control of forest fires to all states in June 2000. Some of those important
guidelines or measures of prevention and control of forest-fires in India are –
1. Identification and mapping of all fire-prone area.
2. Compilation and analysis of data-base on the damage due to forest fire.
3. Installation of Forest Danger Rating Systems and Fire-Forecasting Systems.
4. Items of forest protection to be treated as a Plan Item in order to raise their profile and
thereby increase their Budget Allocation.
5. All preventive measures are to be taken before the beginning of the fire season like summer
season.
6. Recruitment of a Nodal Officer to coordinate with various agencies including the
Government of India on issues of forest-fire.
7. A ‘Crisis Management Group’ should be constituted at the state headquarters, district
headquarters, and at block levels to monitor the situations during fire period, coordinate
30
various preventive and control measures, and arrange adequate enforcement of men and
materials in case of any eventuality.
8. Communication network to be set up for quick flow of information and movement of
materials and man-power to the fire site.
9. JFM Committees and Forest Protection Committees are to be actively involved in the
prevention and control of forest fires. Other people living in and around forest areas and
getting benefits from the forest should also be involved actively.
10. Regular training of Government Staff and communities as Fire –Fighters should be
organized by the government.
11. Public awareness should be created against ill effects of forest fires- a Fire -Week should be
celebrated to create mass awareness.
12. Legal Provisions for fire prevention and control should be implemented forcefully.
Fig.Ground fire at chachihal
 Precautions:
The followings are the important precautions against fire:
1. To keep the source of fire or source of ignition separated from Combustible and
inflammable material.
2. To keep the source of fire under watch and control.
3. Not allow combustible or inflammable material to pile up unnecessarily and to stock the
same as per procedure recommended for safe storage of
4. Such combustible or inflammable material.
5. To adopt safe practices in areas near forests viz. factories, coalmines, oil, stores, chemical
plants and even in household kitchens.
6. To incorporate fire reducing and firefighting techniques and equipment while planning a
building or coal mining operation.
7. In case of forest fires, the volunteer teams are essential not only for firefighting but also to
keep watch on the start of forest and sound an alert.
8. To arrange frequent firefighting drills
31
Fig. Fire investigation team at Chachihal dense forest
Observations:
During our field work experience it was dry spell which caused frequent forest fire in the banihal forest.
The key reasons behind the forest fire remained:
a. Dry litter on the forest floor .
b. Negligence by local people.
c. False myth among the people that firing the forest floor this year will yield the high productivity of
grass in successive year.
Once the forest fire has incurred, these are the following ways and measures which are taken up to
control forest fires are:
1. Creating of fire lines:- Fire lines are the barriers to the running forest fire in which the litter and
other dry material on the ground which can act as fuel for forest fire removed so that forest fire stop at
that line due to the shortage of fuel.
2. Counter fire:- it is mechanism in which the fire is stopped by giving cross fire from the opposite
direction. This is the controlled process which is performed by highly skilled persons.
3. Firefighting with earth dust/soil:- Here the fire is spilled with soil/earth dust which minimizes and
thus extinguishes the fire.
4. Controlled fire:- this is done in advance in a controlled manner in which the forest litter is burnt by
controlled fire, so that the vulnerability of the area from the forest fire is reduced to minimum.
5. Water:- where there is availability/accessibility then it is bring on the fire spot to extinguish the
forest fire..
Comments:
1. First aid facilities should be their present at the delivering end in case of any untoward fire
incidents/injuries.
2. Only skilled man power should be engaged in firefighting process.
3. Fire resistant shoes and clothes should be provided to the staff engaged in firefighting.
32
Lesson No. 5
GPS Exercise
Definition
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a system that very accurately tells us our latitude,
longitude, altitude, velocity, and time. The United States government has created this system for
military applications, but has made it available to anyone in the world. GPS positioning has a wide
variety of applications, many unanticipated when the system was first designed. GPS receivers are
showing up in commercial and private aircraft, boats, backpacks, cars, and even geology
experiments.
Introduction
There are 24 GPS satellites in orbit around the Earth. Each satellite broadcasts a microwave signal
that can communicate to a GPS receiver two messages: the precise orbital position of the satellite,
and the GPS almanac. Each satellite applies its own individual code to the data it transmits. The
receiver can link with a specific satellite by creating the satellite’s code and looking to see if any
incoming signals are using the same code. After linking, the receiver measures the phase difference
between the code it creates and the one it receives from the satellite. This gives the amount of time
it took the signal to reach the receiver. By multiplying by the speed of light, the receiver calculates
the distance, or pseudorange, to the satellite.
A receiver needs at least four such links to calculate its position. If a receiver knows the
pseudorange to and the precise locations of three satellites, it can geometrically find its location.
However, because the GPS receiver clock and even the satellite’s atomic clock are not perfect, this
location will have some error in it. Linking to a fourth satellite corrects for this clock error. The
more satellites a receiver can track, the better the accuracy of the positioning.
33
Fig. GPS work in field for closure
Objectives
The following objects are:
1. Identify and define the key aspects of data quality, including resolution, precision, and
accuracy;
2. List and explain the procedures land surveyors use to produce positional data, including
traversing, triangulation, and trilateration;
3. Calculate plane coordinates by open traverse;
4. Calculate elevations by leveling;
5. Explain how radio signals broadcast by Global Positioning System satellites are used to
calculate positions on the surface of the Earth;
6. State the kinds and magnitude of error associated with uncorrected GPS positioning; and
7. Identify and explain methods used to improve the accuracy of GPS positioning
 Types of fieldwork & surveying using GPS
Achieving GPS accuracy should not be pursued to the cost of the expedition’s field
measurements. The field measurements should always be paramount and GPS accuracy
should only be pursued if the situation dictates it.
Environmental change analysis: Measuring changes in the physical conditions of the
ground often requires very detailed analysis. For these surveys, averaging, WAAS or even
differential measurements are required. Averaging is a good method because it does not
require the use of cumbersome equipment, especially when mapping in difficult terrain but
it takes much longer. If time in the field costs a lot of money then hiring differential
equipment may offset this.
34
Geological mapping: To record the location of lithological units for future reference it
is only necessary to record a location to standard waypoint accuracy. From this data the
outcrop could be easily found. For recording individual rock units in a GIS the standard
GPS accuracy is generally slightly too coarse and the time required for averaging makes this
unsuitable
Habitat mapping: Mapping the habitat of animals or the location of observed animals is
only usually necessary to the accuracy of standard GPS waypoints. The location of an
animal in the field rarely needs to be more accurate than tens of meters because by their very
nature they are mobile. For boundary mapping where a vehicle is used then an external
antenna and a standard GPS is the best solution
Image rectification: Digital images often need to be given co-ordinates. This can be
achieved from a map, by referencing common points or can be achieved in the field using
GPS. The accuracy of the rectification will be affected by the accuracy of the data collected
and commonly high precision data is required. However, the maximum rectification
possible in imagery is related to the pixel size.
Detailed Boundary Mapping: Mapping political boundaries is often not substantially
more accurate than a standard GPS fix. Small areas will on occasion require a more precise
fix but this depends on the type of work conducted. For closure making it is very useful to
measure the area and gives the accurate measurement of land in hectares and it is also used
to find out the wild animals in the dense forest and also their location or habitat areas.
Benefits
 GPS data collection systems complemented with GIS packages provides a means for
comprehensive analysis of environmental concerns.
 Environmental patterns and trends can be efficiently recognized with GPS/GIS data
collection systems, and thematic maps can be easily created.
 GPS data can be quickly analyzed without the preliminary requirement for field data
transcription into a digitized form.
 Accurate tracking of environmental disasters such as fires and oil spills can be conducted
more efficiently.
 Precise positional data from GPS can assist scientists in crustal and seismic monitoring.
 Monitoring and preservation of endangered species can be facilitated through GPS tracking
and mapping.
 Accurate positioning of physical features that can be used in maps and models.
 Faster delivery of geographic information needed by decision makers.
 More effective monitoring to ensure schedule adherence, creating a transit system more
responsive to transportation user’s needs.
 Better location information with electronic maps to provide in-vehicle navigation systems
for both commercial and private users.
 Increased efficiencies and reduced costs in surveying roads.
35
Figure: The 3 GPS segments
Procedure of working of GPS
1. Internal GPS Antenna: This antenna allows the receiver to track satellites signals. Thus, when
using the GPS; the unit should be parallel to the ground and facing upwards. Apart from the cover
of the holster nothing should be put on this part of the unit as this may stop satellite signal.
2. LCD Display Screen: Screen where all the information is displayed. The LCD Display is one
fragile part of the eTRex it may be injured and it must be well protected.
3. The "Power" button: Is used to turn the unit on and off as well as switch on the display
backlight.
4. The "Page" button: It allows switch between pages and stop something that you have started
but that you do not want to continue.
5. The "Up" and "Down" buttons: These buttons are used to select options on pages and menus and
to adjust the display contrast.
6. The "Enter" button: This button is used to confirm data entry or menu selection and to display
options from the main pages.
7. The waterproof case: This plastic case protects the electronic part of the device from water. If
the receiver falls into water make sure that the battery compartment is dry before using it again.
8. The battery Compartment: Represents the location of the 2 AA alkaline batteries used to make
the GPS receiver work.
9. External Power and Data Connector: Allows the connection to an external source of power
and to a computer for data download (will not be used in the context of the WHS). It should stay
closed all the time in order to protect the connections.
APPLICATIONS OF GPS
 Providing geodetic control.
 Survey control for Photogrammetric control surveys and mapping.
 Finding out location of offshore drilling.
 Pipeline and Power line survey.
 Navigation of civilian ships and planes.
 Crustal movement studies.
 Geophysical positioning, mineral exploration and mining.
 Determination of a precise geoid using GPS data.
36
 Estimating gravity anomalies using GPS.
 Offshore positioning: shipping, offshore platforms, fishing boats etc.

Observations:
1. Switch on the GPS device, it is calibrated so that it can all together receives the signal of four
satellites.
2. Then we noted the latitude and longitude of that spot, then we’ll move along the fence line, where we
have to take polygon.
3. It is noted that at the point where we move from one direction to another, we need to take the GPS
coordinates at every turn/curve.
4. By doing this we finally reach to the point from where we started, which will form a polygon on the
GPS device from where we can obtain the KMZ file/polygon on the computer.
5. This KMZ file is then loaded on the website of forest department to the sites where plantation has to
be done this year and remains on record always.
Comments:
a. Usually we use to take the Geo-coordinates in the abandoned forest which are remote and does not
have convenience of electricity and charging facilities. Therefore solar charging GPS devices should be
used to get the work done without obstructions in an efficient manner.
37
Lesson N0. 6
Forest Marking & Enumeration
Introduction
Wood is a biological tissue made of cells, or tracheid’s, and of walls composed of lignin.
The tracheid’s are like pipes, that transport the sap along the stem and they are filled by
water. The density of tree wood is an interesting variable because it tells how much carbon
the plant allocates into construction costs. Wood density varies within the plant, during the
life of the plant, and between individuals of the same species. Also the branches and the
outer part of the trunk tend to have a lighter wood than the pith. There are many definitions
of wood density. Foresters measure the weight of a given volume of wood that has been
‘air-dried’. Depending on the country, conventions differ about air drying: the fraction of
water remaining in the wood sample may be 12%, or 15%. This causes considerable trouble
in the literature. In the present study, wood density is technically defined as the ratio of the
oven-dry mass of a wood sample divided by the mass of water displaced by its green
volume (wood specific gravity, or WSG). This can be calculated from measurements of
oven-dry weight combined with measurement of green volume.
Fig. During measurement of logs
 Formulae for log volume calculation
 Volume has been the traditional measure of wood quantity and continues to be the most
important measure in spite of increasing use of weight or biomass as a measure of forest
productivity.
 Basal portion of the tree corresponds to the frustum of Neiloid, the middle portion to the
frustum of Paraboloid and the top portion to a cone.
 The following table gives formula for calculation of volume of the solid of revolution
together with the formula for cylinder for comparison
38
S.NO Forms of solid Volume of full solid Volume of frustum
of solid Remarks
1 Cylinder S1 S1 ……
2 paraboloid S1/2 S1+S2 X1
2
Sm X1
Smalian’s formula
Hubers formula
3 Cone S1/3 S1+S2+√𝑆1𝑆2 𝑋1
3
4 Neiloid S1/4 S1+4Sm+S2 X1
6
Prismoidal or
Newton’s formula
Where, S is the sectional area at the base
S1 is the sectional area at the thick end
Sm is the sectional area at the middle
S2 is the sectional area at the thin end and
L is the length of the log or height of the solid
 Prismoidal formula or Newton’s formula is the best and most accurate method for volume
calculation.
 Smalian’s formula over-estimates the volume.
 Huber’s formula under-estimates the volume.
 Huber's formula is more easy and accurate than Smalian’s formula.
 We can use Smalian’s formula for calculating the volume of stacks wood.
 Quarter Girth Formula
Volume of log = (g/4)2
x L, where, g is the girth of the log at the middle (in inches) and
L is the length of log (in ft).
Volume of log in cubic feet is calculated using the following formula, V = (g/4)2
x
L/144.
This is the system of measurement used in Great Britain and also in Nepal for sale
purpose when round timber is sold by volume.
This formula gives only 78.5 % of the cubic volume of cylinders, thus allowing a loss
of 21.46%.
Quarter Girth formula is used to estimate the standing volume of a coupe in Nepal
39
Fig. during marking and felling the dry vegetation
Measurement of Staked volume
o It is the bulk volume occupied by pieces of wood one meter long piled on one meter
width, and one meter high.
o This volume contains air space and wood in variable proportions a/c to the form of the
logs.
o Piling co-efficient has to be used to get the actual volume.
o Piling co-efficient = π/4=0.7854, if all pieces of wood were cylindrical and of the same
diameter.
Dimensions of Chatta
o Standard size of Chatta = 5 ft. x 5 ft. x 20 ft. = 500 cft. including air space.
o One Chatta in metric unit = 14.16 m3
40
o The following formula should be used in order to calculate the amount of fuelwood that
is obtained from the total volume up to 10 cm top-diameter of class III and the remaining
portions up to 10 cm top-diameter of class I and II trees which could not be used as
timber.
o Amount of fuelwood in terms of number of Chatta =
(0.8778xvol.I+1.4316xvol.II+3xvol.III)/1000 Where, Vol.I = gross volume of up to 20 cm
top-diameter of class I trees, Vol.II = gross volume of up to 20 cm diameter of class II
trees and Vol.III = gross volume of up to 10 cm top-diameter of class III trees. (all trees
except Khayar having dbh of 27.94 cm (11 in) or more should be classified)
o Class I = Green, dead or dying, standing or uprooted tree having good and solid trunk
in which sign of any disease or wound is not visible from outside
o Class II = Green, dead or dying, standing or uprooted tree in which complete volume
could not be realized due to hollowness or other sigh of defect but at least two straight
logs of each 1.83 m (6ft) long or one straight log of 30.5m (10 ft.) long which should have
at least 20 cm diameter could be recovered.
o Class III = Remaining trees which do not belong to class I and class II
RATE LIST OF TIMBER
Govt. order No. 177-FST of 2015dated 31-07-2015
S.No. Zones From Deodar Kail Fir/Chir
1 A-Zone Log
Sawn
222
258
156
192
89
125
2 B-Zone Log
Sawn
428
465
304
341
171
208
3 C-Zone
Municipal Council
and committee Area
Log
Sawn
657
695
461
499
262
301
o Note:- These rates are exclusive of all taxes.
o The aforesaid revised rate structure shall not be applicable to flood victims of sept.
2014 deluge who shall continue to be provided time at the rates prescribed under
the Govt. order No. 305-FST of 2014 dated 15-10-2014
41
Laboratory measurements
For measurements of green volume, the sample should be maintained at constant humidity.
In the laboratory place the full core into water for ½ hour to ensure adequate swelling.
Green volume can be measured using two different methods:
1. In the dimensional method, one calculates the volume of a tree core assuming a regular
cylindrical shape. This requires measuring both the total length and its diameter at
different points, with a caliper, avoiding pressure of the caliper blades on the wood. If L is
total length of the sample and D the mean diameter, then the volume of the sample is
given by the formula
𝜋
4
𝐷2
L
2. The water-displacement method allows for easy and reliable volume measurement for
irregularly shaped samples. A container capable of holding the sample is filled with water
and placed on a digital balance of precision at least 0.01 g. The balance is then re-zeroed
(the reading should be zero). The sample is then carefully sunk in the water, such that it is
completely underwater. You should not fill the container completely with water; enough
room should be made for the sample. The sample should not contact the sides or bottom of
the container, and it should be forced underwater with a thin needle. The measured weight
of displaced water is equal to the sample’s volume (since water has a density of 1 – this is
known as Phytagora’s theorem). The electronic balance should be re-zeroed after every
measurement.
Measurement of length, diameter and sectional area of logs
1. The ultimate object of all mensurational activity in forest is to calculate or estimate
quantity of wood contained in trees and consequently in crops not only for sale but also
for research, predicting future yields, estimating increment to assess return on capital
etc.
2. Measurement of felled trees are to determine the quantity of merchantable volume, to
obtain statistical data that could be applied to standing trees for the purpose of
estimating the yield, to estimate the growing stock and to estimate the increment of
woods and forests.
3. Volume estimation may be made most accurately when the logs are separated and
accessible to the measurer. A tree, therefore, could be separated into stem wood, which
may be further divided into timber and small-wood, crown and branch wood. Stem
wood may be measured after division into sections for obtaining real volume.
4. The measurement requires length and mid diameter or mid girth except where the tip is
measured as frustum of a cone where the diameter or girth at the ends are measured.
Logs are neither cylinder nor often of any regular geometrical shape. Therefore in order
to calculate the volume, the shape of a quadratic paraboloid is adopted.
5. It is usual to cut the tree into logs due to irregularity in tree tapers. The lengths of the
logs depend upon the rate of taper and market requirements. As the diameter at the thin
end of the log determines the sawn volume that can be taken out of it, the greater the
rate of taper, the lesser is the length of the log. Another consideration that affects the
length of log is the mode of transport.
6. When the logs are made for calculating volume of felled trees for research work, all
logs including the first are of uniformly 3m in length except the top end log which may
42
be up to 4.5m. But if the end section is more than 1.5m in length, it is left as separate
rate log.
7. Simple tape or a graduated rod can be used to measure the length of a given logs.
Similarly, diameter tape, caliper and other optical instruments are used to measure the
measure diameter and sectional area of logs.
8. Logs are the round pieces of a tree with square cut ends. Normally, a log is 8 ft or over
in length and suitable for lumber.
9. The cross-sectional area or basal is found from the diameter as follows:

Observations:
Preliminary marking is done by territorial wing of the forest department.
1. Only those trees are marked for felling which are coming under the alignments of FCA or which are
dry standing or dry falling lying in the compartments.
2. The preliminary marking is then send to higher authorities for administrative approval and technical
sanction. Once both the administrative approval and technical sanctions are accorded then final
enumeration is done.
3. After this the coupes/areas/ trees are then handed over to SFC for further course of action that is
felling, conversion, extraction etc.
4. Before all these exercise the SFCs counter measures the volume/number of the trees taken over by
them.
Comments:
a. Mechanized volume estimation devices should be used so that proper vigil can be maintained.
b. Old practices should be replaced by the latest ones for example saws with electric saws to get the
more efficiency and less wastage.
43
Lesson No. 7
Forest vegetation in J&K
Introduction
Forest is referred to as an area occupied by different kinds of trees, shrubs, herbs and grasses and
maintained for the production of wood products. Technically forest is an area set aside for the
production of timber and other forest produce or maintained under woody vegetation for certain
indirect benefits which it provides. Nature has endowed India with rich forests, which cover about
20% of the geography area of the country. Over 40,000 species of plants are found in these forests
of which over 7,000 are endemic. India has about 3,000 species of trees.
In their extent, distribution and potential the forest of Jammu and Kashmir constitute of the biggest
industry and being so they are the mainstay of the economy of the state. Kashmir Himalaya range of
India is pre-eminently a land of forests, which among other things are the mainstay of the economy.
The valley is rich in forest wealth and 51% of its total geographic area is under forests. The forests
of Kashmir valley are distinguishable into Deodar, Kail, Fir, Chir, and mixed broad leaved zones in
the region.
The forests of Kashmir valley have been classified by Champion and Seth (1968) under groups 12,
13, 14 and 15 in the revised classification of Forest Types of India. The forest, thrive better between
2500-2900 m. Beyond 3000 m, the arboreal forests fade into high level fir forest up to 3200 m, the
upper timber forest are less dense and poor in quality, which ultimately gives way to bush-land
vegetation beyond 3200 m. The valley is located in the northern part of India in the Karakoram and
western mountain ranges. It lies in between the Himalayan range in the north and of the Pir panjal
range5 in the south comprehended between latitude 330
55’’ to 340
50” and longitude 740
34” to 750
35”. The average elevation of the valley is 5,300 feet above sea level.
Classification of broad leaved species
Statement showing revised classification of Broad leaved species.
Special class
S.No Botanical Name Local Name
1 Juglans regia Akhur, Akhrut
2 Fraxinus excelsior Sum, Sinno, Hum
3 Buxus Sempervirens Chikri
4 Acer spp. Trikana, Kanzal.
5 Prunus padus Tarani zum, Bharat, Jammu
6 Cedrela spp Tun, Tooni.
7 Ulmus Wallichiana Bran, Bari, Mannu.
44
A Class
S.No Botanical Name Local Name
1 Dalbergia sisoo Tahli, Shisham, Guzzu.
2 Aesculus indica Bankhor Bankhor, Coo.
3 Ougeinia Dalbergioides Sandan.
4 Mangifera Indica Am.
5 Olea cuspidate Kau.
6 Terminalia chebula Har, Harrir, Harror
7 Prunus armeniaca Hari.
8 Betula utilis Bhojpatra Burj
9 Celtis australis Kharok, Kharik.
10 Eugenia Jambolana Jaman.
11 Bambax Malabaricum Simbal.
12 Salix Alba Var, Caerulea Bed Angrizi.
13 Corylus Colurna Thangi, Findak Pinakooni.
14 Terminalia Belarica Bahera.
15 Phyllanthus emblica Amla Ambli
45
B Class
S.No Botanical Name Local Name
1 Morus Spp Tut Krun.
2 Rhus succedanea Arkhun, Arkhar.
3 Populus alba Sufeda Fraste
4 Populus Ciliata Sifeda Sakki
5 Pisacia integerrima Makarsingi, Kakar, Kakro
6 Quercus Spp. Hir Bang Moru, Burj, Rhim, Karsu
7 Acacia modesta Phulai
8 Acacia catechu Khair
9 Acacia Arabica Kikar.
10 Alnus nitida Sarol, Champ, Kunis, Rajan
11 Parrotia Jacquemontiana Hatab
12 Cassia fistula Amaltas, Kirangal
13 Grewia oppositifolia Pahari
14 Stephegyne parvifolia Kam
15 Ilex dipyrena Dratha.
16 Bassia latifolita Mohwo
17 Aegle marmelos Bel, Billan.
18 Ficus religiosa Pipal.
19 Pyrus pashia Kaintha.
20 Ficus indica Bar, Bor.
21 Pyrus lanata Batta
22 Punica granatum Druni.
23 Lannaea grandis Khaimbal Khemal.
24 Albizzia Spp. Sarin.
46
C Class
All other broad leaved tree
Tree species in Banihal Range and their uses:
During the visit of forest range banihal we were study the various tree species
and medicinal plants and their importance and their uses. After making the list of
all species the Range officer gives the brief lecture about the species and explains
us the differences among these species and also says how you differentiate it
from other species. The following tree species in Banihal range which comes
under the supervision of Range officer Banihal are:
1. Scientific Name: - Abies pindrow (Pinaceae)
Local name: Badul, drewar, tung.
English name: Western Himalayan Siliver Fir.
Tall evergreen trees with a narrow cylindrical crown of horizontal branches or drooping
branches; bark dark grey or greyish-brown become more or less furrowed with
maturity. Leaves linear, flattened, spirally arranged, 2-4 cm long. Cones erect or
cylindrical.
Flower Time:-April, cones ripen in Sep-Oct.
Ethnobotanical importance: Wood used for packing cases, building construction and
for furniture. Branches are used as fuel.
Medicinal use: Fresh leaves ground and mixed with equal quantity of honey and is
given to patients in doses of one teaspoonful twice a day for curing cough and cold.
Bark is used as a tea substitute by nomads. Leaves are also used in asthma.
2. Scientific Name: - Betula utilis (Betulaceae)
Local name: Burz-kul, bhojpatra.
Englisn name: White birch, Himalayan siliver birch.
Small deciduous tree; bark white, peeling off in papery layers. Leaves ovate, acute, serrate,
base broadly cuneate or rounded.
Flowering time: May-June; Fr. Sept.-Oct.
47
Medicinal use: Bark was used to perform the ceremony of lustration after a mother was
bathed on the sixth day after a child birth in which wisps of birch bark were lightened and
waved over the heads of the mother and the child, and then extinguished in a jar of water.
The decoction of bark is used for washing the ulcerating sores.
3. Scientific Name: Aesculus indica (Hipocastanaceae)
Local name: Handun.
English name: Indian horse-chestnut.
Deciduous tree; with scaly buds; the old bark peeling off upwards in long thick bands.
Leaves opposite, digitate, exstipulate, deciduous. Flowers white-yellowish streaked. Fruit
depressed dark brown.
Flowering Time: April-May; Fr. Aug.-Sept.
Ethnobotanical importance: Wood is used for house boats, buildings, construction of huts,
water troughs and supports article.
Medicinal Uses: The seed oil is used in rheumatism and also applied to wound. The bark is
made into paste for the application on painful dislocated joints. The root is used as a cure for
leucorrhoea; fruits are used as colic for application of fistules in dysentery and pneumonia.
4. Scientific Name: Cedrus deodara (Pinaceae)
Local Name: deodar
English Name: Deodar, Himalayan Cedar.
Large evergreen tree with horizontal branches; bark brown often reddish or greyish. Leaves
needle like, glaucous-green, many in clusters, 2.5-3.7 cm. Flowers monoecious; catkins
solitary. Cones solitary, erect, ovoid, dark brown.
Flowering Time:-April; Fr-Sep-Nov.
Ethnobotanical importance: Wood used for building construction, furniture, packing
cases, bridges and fuel.
Medicinal Uses: - Reddish brown oil extracted from its wood is applied locally for treating
piles, ulcers, skin disorders and rheumatic pain. It is also rubbed on body to repel insects,
tics and mites. Decoction of bark in doses of 50ml is given orally once a day for 3-4 days
against dysentery and fever. The wood is used as antidote of snake bite. Bark is also used in
urinary disorders
5. Scientific Name: Celtis australis (Ulmaceae)
Local name: Brimji.
Deciduous tree; bark pale ashy or grey, smooth with numerous small circular lenticels.
Leaves ovate or elliptic, caudate, acuminate, serrate. Flowers small, greenish.
48
Flowering time: April-May; Fr. Sept.-Oct.
Medicinal uses: Seeds are eaten against rhatism, brain tonic. Seeds are used in Paralysis
and leprosy. Seeds made into paste with cow's urine, are applied to cure scabies.
6. Scientific Name: Ailanthus altissima (Simaroubaceae)
Local name: Alamthar, almtees.
English name: Tree of haven.
Deciduous tree; bark bitter, grey. Primitive leaves without stipules and sample hairs.
Flowers yellowish, white. Fruit
capsule, one seeded.
Flowering time. April-May; Fr. Sep-Oct
Ethnobotanical importance: Wood used for fuel.
Medicinal uses: Decoction of bark is useful in diarrhoea and dysentery. Fruits used in eye
troubles and as an. Leaves used for skin disease like scabies.
7. Scientific Name: Alnus nitida (Betulaceae)
Local name: Champ-Kul, kanza/ Sarul.
English name: Alder.
Large tree; branch-lets pubescent; bark dark brown, deeply furrowed. Leaves elliptic or
elliptic-ovate, acuminate, entire or obscurely crenate, glabrous. Fruit spikes.
Flowering Time: Sep-Oct; Fr. Ripen in winter but remains long on the tree.
Ethnobotanical importance: Wood used for house construction, boxes and carpentry.
Medicinal uses: Bark is used to treat diphtheria; also for rheumatism.
49
8. Scientific Name: Crataegus songarica (Rosaceae)
Local name: Rhing
English name: Hawthorn.
Small tree; bark dark grey or peeling off in long flakes. Leaves broader then long, pinnately
irregular. Flowers white. Fruit red, ovoid.
Flowering Time: April-May; Fr. Aug-Sept.
Ethnobotanical importance: Wood used for axe-handles, walking sticks and as box-wood.
Medicinal uses: Fruit extracted is used in heart disease, such as blood pressure.
9. Scientific Name: Cupressus torulosa (Cupressaceae)
Local name: Sarva
English name: Cypress.
Large evergreen tree; bark pale brown or reddish; leaves opposite, amflexicaul scale like,
imbrickted, thick. Cones 1.2-2cm in diameter, bluish.
Flowering Time: Jan.-Feb; Fr. Oct- Nov.
10. Scientific Name: Fraxinus hookeri (Oleaceae)
Local name: Hgom, ash, hum, kum, sum, sinum.
English name: Ash.
Small deciduous tree; bark grey. Leaves pinnate, leaflets elliptic, acuminate, serrate, and
sub-sessile. Flowers in short racemes. Calyx and corolla absent.
Flowering Time: April- May; Fr. Aug-Sep.
Ethnobotanical importance: Wood is in house boats, building construction, axe handles
and furniture.
Medicinal uses: The bark has tonic febrifugal actions, and the leaves are almost cathartic,
producing unequivocal action up on the kidneys.
11. Scientific Name: Juglans regia (Juglandaceae)
Local name: Doon, Akhrot.
English name: Walnut.
Large deciduous tree; bark grey, vertically fissured. Leaves large elliptic to oblong-
lanceolate. Flowers small green. Drupe ovoid, 5 cm long, green
Flowering Time: April.-May; Fr. Sept.-Oct.
Ethnobotanical importance: Wood is used in agricultural implements, furniture, musical
instruments.
Medicinal uses: The bark is used for cleaning teeth and is thought of heaving medicinal
value. Exocarp is vermifugal and paste in warm water is used for frostbite. The leaves are to
stop bleeding and are toxic.
12. Scientific Name: Morus alba (Moraceae)
Local name: Tul.
English name: White mulberry.
50
Large deciduous tree; bark dark brown. Leaves broadly ovate, long pointed. Flowers
greenish. Fruit purple.
Flowering Time: . April; Fr. May-June
Ethnobotanical importance: Wood is used for sport goods, building construction,
agricultural implements, and furniture. Leaves are used as fodder for cattle; mainly used for
rearing silk worms.
Medicinal uses: The ripe fruits are eaten and are considered to increase blood contents. The
bark is considered purgative and anthelmintic.
13. Scientific Name: Picea smithiana (Pinaceae)
Local name: Kachul, Rayal.
English name: Western Himalayan Spruce.
Large evergreen tree with drooping branches; bark reddish brown or pale grey, rough,
exfoliating in thin woody plates. Leaves needle like single, spirally arranged around the
branches. Cones cylindrical, dark brown.
Flowering Time: April; Fr. Sept-Oct.
Ethnobotanical importance: Wood is used for building construction and for boxes.
Medicinal uses: Oleoresin is applied on cracks of heals and also on wounds. . Leaves used
as bath salts; leaf oil is used as deodorants and room sprays. Leaves also used as manure and
litter for cattle.
14. Scientific Name: Pinus roxburghii (Pinaceae)
Local name: Kair, yari.
English name: Chir pine.
Large evergreen tree; bark grey or pinkish brown deeply furrowed. Leaves in bundles of 3,
bright green. Cones solitary or 2-5 together. Scales woody with pointed or recurved tips.
Flowering Time: April. Fr. Sep-Oct next year.
Ethnobotanical importance: Wood is resinous and heavy. It is used in buildings, huts, for
making of boxes and also used as firewood.
Medicinal use: Resin called ‘Jeegan’ is applied on cracked heels. The carbon obtained from
burning of resinous wood is mixed with few drops of mustard oil to make black paste called
‘Kajal’.This is applied by the young girls to make their eyes attractive. Resin is also used for
skin diseases and in inflammation.
15. Scientific Name: Pinus wallichiana (Pinaceae)
Local name: Kair, yari.
English name: Himalayan blue pine.
Large evergreen tree; bark of poles quite smooth and greenishgrey-pinkish brown. Leaves in
bundles of 5. Cones solitary 2-5 together; scales woody slightly with obtuse tips.
Flowering Time: Feb-Apr; Fr. Sep-Oct of next year.
Ethnobotanical importance: Wood is used in building construction, bridges and also used
as fire wood. Cones are also used as fire wood.
Medicinal uses: Oleoresin is applied on cracked heals. The yellow dye made from
decoction of its bark is used to dye wool. The leaves when ground with soil (peeli mitti)
form a paste, which is applied to treat internal injuries of cattle.
16. Scientific Name: Platanus orientalis (Platanaceae)
Local name: Boin, chinar, buna.
English name: Orientale plane.
51
Large deciduous tree; with spreading branches; bark slightly white in old stem. Leaves
palmately lobed and nerved. Flowers greenish brown in globose pendulus heads.
Flowering Time: March-April; Fr. Sept.-Oct.
Ethnobotanical importance: Wood is used for small boxes, trays and furniture. Leaves are
mixed with mud to make the floor of rooms.
Medicinal use: Fresh leaves-brushed and applied to the eyes in ophthalmic. Bark boiled in
vinegar, is given in diarrhea and dysentery.
17. Scientific Name: Populus ciliata (Salicaceae)
Local name: Panjeeb/ Parim phras.
English name: Himalayan poplar.
Large deciduous tree; bark brown, vertically deep-fissured, smooth on young trees. Leaves
alternate broadly acute, cordate. Capsule ovoid, 0.8-1 cm, long. Seeds very minute.
Flowering and Fruiting: March-May
Ethnobotanical importance: Wood is used for building construction, sports goods, and
boxes. Leaves used as fodder for cattle.
Medicinal use: Decoction of bark acts as stimulant and purified of the blood.
18. Scientific Name: Populus nigra (Salicaceae)
Local name: Kashur phras.
English name: Italian poplar
Large deciduous tree with narrow pyramidal crown and viscid buds; bark grey, rough,
deeply furrowed in old trees. Leaves ovate-rhomboid. Flowers greenish.
Flowering Time and fruiting : April.-May
Ethnobotanical importance: Wood is used for building construction, sport goods and
boxes.
Medicinal use: An ointment prepared from leaves-bud balsam is used for curing cold. Resin
obtained from buds is used as salve and to promote hair growth.
19. Scientific Name: Quercus dilatata (Fagaceae)
Local name: Oak, tahal.
English name: Grenn oak, Moru oak.
Large shade-enduring tree, almost evergreen; bark dark grey or black peeling off in
longitudinal scales. Leaves oblonglanceolate, acuminate, entire, coriaceous. Acorn solitary.
Flowering Time: April.-May; Fr. 1-18 months after flowering
20. Scientific Name: Salix alba (Salicaceae)
Local name: Bot-Vir.
English name: White willow.
Small deciduous tree; bark grey or yellow furrowed; young shoots and buds white and
sticky. Leaves numerous, alternate, stipules small, lanceolate, erect. Flower greenish.
Flowering And fruiting: Apr-May
Ethnobotanical importance: Wood used for building construction and cricket bates Used
in case of diarrhoea and dysentery. Bark is used for intermittent vomiting; branches are used
to clean teeth.
21. Scientific Name: Salix babylonica (Salicaceae)
Local name: Kashir vir.
English name: Weeping willow.
Small to moderate sized tree. Leaves linear-lanceolate. Flowers in short, terminal catkins;
capsule narrow conic, glabrous.
Jammu and Kashmir Forest Department Ramban Forest Division
Jammu and Kashmir Forest Department Ramban Forest Division
Jammu and Kashmir Forest Department Ramban Forest Division
Jammu and Kashmir Forest Department Ramban Forest Division
Jammu and Kashmir Forest Department Ramban Forest Division
Jammu and Kashmir Forest Department Ramban Forest Division

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Jammu and Kashmir Forest Department Ramban Forest Division

  • 1. 1 Jammu and Kashmir Forest Department Ramban Forest Division
  • 2. 2 HANDS ON JOB TRAINING ON Fieldwork experience Topics covered: Forest Demarcation, Forest Nursery Practices, Forest Marking & Enumeration, Forest fire management, GPS Exercise and Identification of Forest tree species. As Partial Fulfillment of Fieldwork Experience for Bachelor of Science (Forestry) Submitted by Manzoor Ah Wani Under The Supervision of Mr. AAMIR RAZA Range Officer Forest Range Banihal Work Done At Jammu and Kashmir forest department Ramban Forest Division Submitted To MEWAR UNIVERSITY GANGRAR CHITTORGRAH (RAJ.) Year 2016
  • 3. 3 It is my pleasure to acknowledge the help & assistance which I received during the fieldwork experience in forest range banihal, Ramban forest division. This training would not have been possible without guidance and help of officials who contributed their valuable assistance in completion of this report I would like to express my gratitude to Sh. Roshan Jaggi IFS, Chief Conservator of Forests (CCF) Jammu & T.B. Singh IFS, Conservator of Forest (CF) Forest Division Ramban & Mr. Zuhaib Chowdhary (SFS) DFO Ramban for his constant guidance, support and motivation for enabling me to successfully complete this challenging task. I am particularly indebted to Mr. Aamir Raza (RO Banihal) who not only assisted me for preparation of Report even sitting late hours, but also took the responsibility on his shoulder to reach me to destination. I am also indebted to Mr. Ubaid Ahmad Lankar forester who provided me relevant materials in order to that I can feel this work easy and complete it in time. Thanks are especially due to Mr, Gh. Mohd Naik, Mr. Parvaiz Ahmad, Gh Hassan Mir, Mr. Altaf Hussain Mr. Tanveer Ahmad and Mr. Mustafa Ahmad (foresters) who always helped me and remained with me during work and was of great assistance. I place on records my appreciation for Mr. Mushtaq Ahmad, Mr. Ab. Rashid, Ab. Ghani and Showkat Ahmad forest guards who rendered all possible logistical support to me and my staff. I am generally indebted to all the staff at Forest Department Ramban District who assisted me in every possible way. I am also indebted to Mr. Mohd Ayub Khan and his all staff members for providing precious and valuable support to me. I am also very thankful to my chancellor Dr. Ashok kumar gadiya, Dean D.K Sharma & Dr. VK Solanki, Head of the Department of Forestry and Biotechnology, Mewar University Gangrar Chittorgrah Rajasthan, including Ms Somrita Das and Brijesh Kumar for send me there in order to get precious knowledge. Finally, I must express my profound gratitude to my parents and my friends for providing unfailing support. Last but not the least I would like to thank Almighty Allah for the blessings without which I might not complete my work. I hope this compilation would be useful to not only to forest staff but also to academicians, researchers and all others who is concerned with the working of the Forest Department. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
  • 4. 4 Index Lesson no. 1: Jammu and Kashmir forest department o Forest o Forestry o Forest types o Forest area o Forest based industries Lesson No. 2: Forest Demarcation o Definition o Process of demarcation o Penalties and procedure o Rules of forest demarcation o Observation o comments Lesson No. 3: Forest Nursery Practices o Definition o Types of forest nursery o Management of forest nursery o Types of Nursery o Soil preparation o Seed treatment o Observation o comments Lesson No. 4: Forest Fire Management o Definition o Introduction o Forest Fire- part of Ecosystem o Types of Forest Fire o Causes of Forest Fire o Impacts of Forest Fire o Observation o comments Lesson No. 5: GPS Exercise o Definition o Introduction o Objectives
  • 5. 5 o Types of fieldwork & surveying using GPS o Benefits o Procedure of working of GPS o Application of GPS o Observation o comments Lesson No. 6: forest Marking & enumeration o Introduction o Formulae for log volume calculation o Quarter Girth Formula o Measurement of Staked volume o Dimensions of chatta o Laboratory measurement o Measurement of length, diameter and sectional area of logs o Observation o comments Lesson No. 7: forest vegetation in J&K o Introduction o Classification of Broadleaved species o Tree species in Banihal Range and its uses o Medicinal plants in Banihal Range and their uses o Observation o comments
  • 6. 6 Lesson no 1 Jammu and Kashmir forest department Forest The word “Forest” is derived from Latin word ‘foris’ meaning outside the village boundary or away from inhabited land. Definitions Technically : 1. Forest is an area set aside for the production of timber and other forest produce, or maintained under woody vegetation for certain indirect benefits which it provides.(Anon 1966) Ecologically: 2. It is defined as a plant community, predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation, usually with a closed canopy Legally: 3. Forest is an area of land proclaimed to be a forest under a forest law.
  • 7. 7 Forestry Forestry is defined as the theory and practice of all that constitutes the creation, conservation and scientific management of forests and the utilization of their resources (Anon, 1966) Forest Area Introduction: The state of Jammu and Kashmir is covered by lofty mountains, which receive heavy rainfall and snow. Dense forests are found everywhere particularly in outer and inner Himalayan ranges. High mountains of Ladakh and Kargil receive a very little rainfall; therefore, these are devoid of forest cover. However vast grass lands and abundant medicinal and aromatic plants grow there. The total Forest area of the Jammu and Kashmir state as per working plans is 20,230 sq. kms. with region wise distribution given as under:- S.NO. Region Geographical Area (Sq. Kms.) Forest Area (Sq. Kms.) %age of forest area to geographical area 1 Kashmir 15948 8128 50.97% 2 Jammu 26293 12066 45.89% 3 Ladakh 59146 36 0.06% TOTAL 101387 20230 19.95% Excluding area under illegal occupation of China and Pakistan. The forest area has increased from 20182 Sq. kms. (1987) to 20230 Sq. Kms. (1997) due to bringing more areas under plantation in Leh and Kargil Divisions and also due to reclamation in Ningle range The species-wise forest area reveals 90.68% under coniferous like that:
  • 8. 8 S.no Species Percentage in J&K 1 Deodar 5.32% 2 Chir 9.02% 3 Kail 9.73% 4 Fir 16.81% 5 Others 49.80% The 9.32% forest cover is claimed by non-coniferous non-commercial reserves Forest Types The main forest types found in Jammu and Kashmir State are: 1) Sub-Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests: These forests are generally found in the lower reaches of Shiwaliks in Jammu region. The common tree species are Acacia catachu, Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia modesta, Albizzia spp, Salmlia malabarica, Eucalyptus Spp, Dendrocalamus strictus. 2) Sub-Tropical Pine Forests: These forests are situated in upper Shiwalik and outer Himalayas. The common species found here are Pinus roxburghii, Albizzia spp, Dalbergia sissoo, Olea cuspidata and other broad leaved aasociates. 3) Himalayan Moist Temperate Forests: This type is found in Chenab Valley. The common tree species are Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana, Picea smithiana, Pinus gerardiana, Abies pindrow (low level), Juglans regia, Acer spp, Populus ciliata, Prunus padus, Aesculus indicia, Fraxinus floribunda, Quercus spp. etc. 4) Himalayan Himalayan Dry Temperate Forests: This type include the main forests of Kashmir valley with the common tree species as Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana, Picea smithiana, Abies pindrow, Juglans regia, Acer spp., Prunus spp., Aesculus indicia, and the typical under wood of Parrotia jacquamentiana etc. 5) Alpine Forest: These forests are situated above the main temperate zone. Common spp. found in this zone are High level Fir and Kail, Juinpers, Quercus spp, Populus ciliata, Betual spp, Salix spp. Rhododendron, and a variety of wild flowers and grasses. 6) Forest in cold arid zone: Leh and Kargil Districts fall in this zone where natural forests are meager. Juniperous spp. exists sporadically. Plantations of Poplar and Salix developed by the Forest Department over a period of time need irrigation. Robinia has been introduced in the recent
  • 9. 9 past. The natural shurbs include Hypophea and Myrcaria. Among herbs Artimisia is abundantly found, besides other species of medicinal importance. Forest Based Industries Forest resources are indispensable for human beings and have played the most significant role in the economy of the state. Following are some of the Forest based industries: 1) Eco-tourism 2) Turpentine and Resin Industry 3) Kashmir Willow Industry 4) Joinery, Ply and other wood based industries
  • 10. 10 Lesion 2 Forest Demarcation Demarcation It means forest land or waste land under the control of the forest department, of which the boundaries have already been demarcated by means of pillars of stone or masonry or by, any other conspicuous mark, or, which hereafter is constituted a demarcated forest (section 3) Fig. Marking the BPS at Mohu forest banihal Processes of demarcation  Demarcation of forest/ powers of demarcation--- 1. The Government for purposes may, from time to time, make rules in accordance with which any forest land or waste land which is the property of government or over which the government has proprietary right, or to the whole or any part of the forest produce of which the government is entitled, may be declared as demarcated forest and may, from time to time as the occasion may require, amend or cancel such rules. 2. All rules made under sub-section -1 shall be published in the Jammu and Kashmir Government Gazette 3. On the completion of the demarcation proceedings in accordance with the rules made under sub- section-1 the results of such proceedings for each such forest land or waste land shall be notified in the Jammu and Kashmir govt. gazette in accordance with such rules by the conservator of the circle and from the date of such publication such forest land or waste land shall be deemed to be demarcated forest  Management and control of demarcated forest---
  • 11. 11 The management of the demarcated forests (except where such forests have been placed authoritatively under the control and management of any other Department or local authority) is vested in the Forest Department Fig. trying the trace BPs The control and management of demarcated forests not in charge of the Forest Department shall be vested in such officer as the Government may, by notification, prescribe in this behalf and such officer may be like notification is vested with all or any of the powers and liabilities of a Forest Officer under this Act.  Power to regulate concessions in demarcated forests--- The Government may from time to time make rules to regulate the exercise of concession in demarcated forests and may prescribe the limits up to which closures to concessions may be permitted and the procedure to be adopted when closures are to be effected.  Acts prohibited in such forests--- I. Any person who sets fire to a demarcated forest, or kindles any fires, or leaves any fire burning in such manner as to endanger such a forest II. Any person who kindles, keeps or carries any fire except at such season as the conservator of the circle may from time to time notify in this behalf III. Any person who causes any damage by negligence in felling any tree or cutting or dragging any timber IV. Any person who fells, girdles, lops, taps, or burns any tree, or strips off the bark or leaves from, or otherwise damages, the same
  • 12. 12 V. Any person who quarries stone, burns lime or charcoal or collects, subject to any manufacturing process, or removes, any forest produce; knowingly receives or is in possession of illicit from produce VI. Any person who clears or breaks up any land or erects a fence, enclosure or any structure for cultivation 3[or cultivates or attempts to cultivate any land in any other manner in any demarcated forest or for any other purpose]; VII. Any person who installs or establishes a saw mill or forest based industry within such limits outside the demarcated forest to be prescribed by the Government from time to time, shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years but shall not be less than three months and with fine which may extend to six thousand rupees but shall not be less than one thousand rupees. VIII. Any person who causes any loss or damage to any demarcated or undemarcated forest or encroaches upon such forest shall be liable to compensate the Government. The remedy available under this section shall be without prejudice and in addition to any remedy that the Government may have under any Law in this regard.  Power to inflict collective punishment Whenever, during the period of suspension of any rights , concessions or privileges, under the last preceding section, fire or damage" to trees is proved to have been caused willfully and persistently in any demarcated forest, the Chief Conservator shall have a written warning served through the zaildar and lambardars on all or any of the villages enjoying rights, concessions or privileges in such forest. Fig. Demarcation Map of Mohu forest block PENALTIES AND PROCEDURE Seizure of property liable to confiscation 1. When there is a reason to believe that a forest offence has been committed in respect of any forest produce, such produce together with all tools, arms, boats, carts, equipment, ropes, chains, machines, vehicles, cattle or any other article used in committing any such offence may be seized by a Forest Officer or Police Officer. 2. Any officer seizing any property under this section shall place .on such property a mark indicating that the same has been so seized and shall, as soon as may be, make a report of such seizure before an officer not below the rank of the Divisional Forest Officer
  • 13. 13 (hereinafter referred to as 'authorised officer'): Provided that when the forest produce with respect to which such offence is believed to have been committed is the property of the Government and the offender is unknown, it shall be sufficient if the officer makes, as soon as may be, a report of the circumstances to his official superior. 3. Subject to sub-section (5), where the authorized officer upon receipt of report about seizure, is satisfied that a forest offence has been committed in respect thereof, he may, by order in writing and for reasons to be recorded, confiscate forest produce so seized together with all tools, arms, boats, carts, equipment, ropes, chains, machines, vehicles or any other articles used in committing such offence. Copy of the order of confiscation shall be forwarded without any undue delay to the person from whom the property is seized and to the Conservator of Forest Circle in which the timber or forest produce, as the case may be, has been seized. 4. No order confiscating any property shall be made under Sub-section (3) unless the Authorized Officer, a. Sends an intimation in writing about the proceedings for confiscation of the property to the Magistrate having jurisdiction to try the offence on account of which the seizure has been made but no order to be passed; b. Issue a notice in writing to the person from whom the property is seized and to any other person who may appear to the authorized officer to have some interest in such property; c. Gives to the officer effecting the seizure and the person or persons to whom notice issued under clause d. A hearing on date to be fixed for such purpose. 5. No order of confiscation under sub-section (3) of any tools, arms, boats, carts, equipment, ropes, chains, machines, vehicles or any other article (other than timber or forest produce seized) shall be made if any person referred to in clause (b) of sub-section (4) proves to the satisfaction of authorized officer that any such tools, arms, boats, carts, equipment, ropes, chains, machines, vehicles, cattle or any other articles were used without his knowledge or connivance or, as the case may be, without the knowledge or connivance of his servant or agent and that all reasonable and necessary precautions had been taken against the use of objects aforesaid or commission of forest offence. Fig. inserting the boundary pillar at Mohu forest
  • 14. 14 RULES FOR THE DEMARCATION OF FORESTS 1) Demarcation will be carried out by the Revenue and Settlement (in areas under settlement) Departments working in conjunction with the Forest Department. 2) Forests can be demarcated anywhere on land not assisted for cultivation, or not given to any other private person or public body. 3) Demarcation consists of. - a. The laying down of the line. -By means of a series of pillars with a straight 'line, or natural features, between them, i.e. the boundary line between any two pillars should either be straight or should follow some natural feature. b. The numbering of the pillars.-In this case each forest will, so far as is convenient, be treated as a whole, irrespective of the local names. Where a natural feature is the boundary, the pillars need only be numbered at the places where the boundary joins and leaves the natural features, such as a nala, ridge, roads etc. in between, smaller pillars may be erected to point out the line, but such need not be numbered. c. The written description of the boundary. d. The survey of the forest. -The survey should show the position of the nalas, etc. where such cross the boundary, and the names of (he villages, forests, etc. surrounding the forest. II For demarcation and revision of previously demarcated Forests in areas Under settlement. 4. Opportunity should be taken by the Divisional forest Officer to arrange for the demarcation of all forests in a Tehsil when under settlement. 5. The procedure will be as follows. -On the commencement of Settlement operations the Divisional Forest Officer will submit a statement to the 2 [Chief Conservator of Forests] of all Forest areas that should be demarcated in the following form: 6. Car The Settlement officer through the Assistant Settlement officer and Divisional Forest officer will then arrange as to the time and order in which the operations are to take place. The settlement officer deputing an. officer not lower than that of Naib Tehsildar 3 [xxx] a. When once an appointment is fixed, the officer who first arrives on the spot, -or is already on the spot, need not wait for the other representative but should commence at once. The line laid down by only one officer in the absence of the other should be inspected with special care by the Divisional Forest Officer and Assistant Settlement Officer at their inspection. b. The Preliminary party consisting or these two officers (or one of them if the other fails to attend) will lay down the Boundary by means of pillars with stakes in the centres, according to the shapes and dimensions given in rule 3 above. A description of the boundary will be drawn up and the pillar numbered. In the absence of instructions to the contrary, the preliminary party may record statements and complaints. c. Far the boundary, natural features will be chosen So far as possible. When skirting cultivation the line should be taken some 15 to 25 Karams from its edge; straight boundaries are preferable and .the twisting of the line to' include a few trees here and there is to be
  • 15. 15 avoided. In Deodar Forest the line should be taken as near the cultivation as is conveniently possible. 7. On completion of the work detailed in rule 6 the Assistant Settlement Officer and Divisional Forest Officer will arrange to visit the forest together and hear end record complaints of villagers and others as to the demarcation. They will settle such complaints amicably and record in writing their decisions an each complaint. 8. The survey -includes. – I. Plotting the positions of the forest boundary pillars on to the Settlement maps; and II. The preparation of a map far the Misil an the scale of 6 inches or 4 inches to a mile. (i) Should be done when the preliminary party is at work and should as a rule keep up with the work of that party; . III. Should be done before the Misils are submitted by the Assistant Settlement Officer and Divisional Forest Officer. 9. The Divisional Forest Officer on completion of his and the Assistant Settlement Officer’s enquiry will arrange to have the pillars made of the size mentioned in rule 3(b) above, if such have not been erected by the preliminary party. 10. A period of appeal of three months is allowed to any person after the date of the conclusion of the enquiry mentioned in rule 7 above. Such appeal shall be submitted to the Settlement officer whose decision shall be final, with this proviso that if the Settlement Officer disagrees with the Divisional Forest Officer and Assistant Settlement Officer, a further appeal shall be b the settlement Commissioner whose decision shall be final. 11. In the case of a revision of a. previously demarcated forest the procedure will be the same as mentioned above; provided that no alteration is to be made without good reason. 12. On completion of the work detailed above the Chief Conservator of Forests will cause the results to be published' in the Government Gazette in the' form of, the Schedule attached. III for Demarcation of Forests in Tehsils not under settlement. 13. From time to time the Divisional Forest Officer will submit to the Chief Conservator of Forests a list of the forests he wishes to be demarcated in the form mentioned in rule 5. Similarly the Deputy Commissioner may submit to the Commissioner of the Province concerned a list of the forests as he may think should be demarcated. 14. The Chief Conservator of Forests, on approval, will submit this list to the Commissioner of the Province concerned who will make any enquiries necessary as to the advisability of the proposed demarcation. If he agrees he will inform the have Chief Conservator of the fact and at the same time direct the Deputy Commissioner concerned to give every assistance possible in the demarcation contemplated. 15. The Chief Conservator of Forests will, on receiving the Commissioner approval, at once inform the Divisional Forest officef"11nd the procedure to be followed be that mentioned in rules 5 to 9 above, except that the Deputy Commissioner will arrange to depute a Naib- Tehsildar for the preliminary work and that the Deputy Commissioner will perform the duties given to the Assistant Settlement officer. 16. A period of appeal of three months is allowed to any person against the decisions come to by the Divisional Forest Officer and the Deputy Commissioner or Tehsildar under rule 7. Such appeal shall be submitted to the Commissioner of the Province concerned whose decision shall be final. IV Forest Settlement Record.
  • 16. 16 17. For forests demarcated under Part II of these rules a Forest Settlement Record and a tabular report shall be submitted by the Settlement Officer to the Conservator in the forms hereunder prescribed. This shall he prepared by the Assistant Settlement Officer and Divisional Forest Officer jointly during the course of demarcation and shall be submitted to the Settlement officer After the lapse of the period of appeal, other if an appeal has been lodged within _he period specified for appeal, after the decision of the appeal; necessary entries should be made in the patwari's paper’s. 18. Concessions may be granted to villages whose nearest boundary line is within five miles to the nearest part of the forest concerned provided that the two are not separated by a unaffordable stream at its winter level. 19. All claims to the ownership or occupancy of land within the boundary of the forests should be carefully investigated and reported on. Such claims, if not made to the Divisional Forest Officer and Assistant Settlement Officer during these proceedings, will not be entertained subsequently.    Observations We were given the assignment of demarcation of forest boundaries by the forest authorities in Mohu forest block of Banihal forest range. In the beginning we were taught about the basic fundamentals of forest demarcation exercise. They equipped us with the relevant material and documents pertaining to the demarcation so that they can bring into practice in the field. The demarcation was carried out in comptt. 29 to 35/Bnl in forest block Mohu. The prerequisite information for conducting demarcation is obtained through demarcation, record that is description file (Tashree) and demarcation map (latha). Description file tells us the geographical indication, physical indication and biological indication which helps us to trace the Boundary pillars on the ground. Moreover the elderly persons of nearby locality also works us assisting hand to locate the boundary line on the ground. The demarcation is conducted as under: 1. First we look for the boundary pillars which are physically present on the ground and keeping them as reference point, we can trace another Boundary pillars too. 2. In case there is no boundary pillar present physically on the ground then by description file keeping the indications as provided in it, we can trace the location of that boundary pillars on the ground. Similarly by keeping the traced boundary pillar as benchmark, we can trace another boundary pillars also by using the help of map and description file which provides us the direction and the distance of one boundary pillar to another. 3. Once the boundary pillar is traced, the GPS coordinates of traced boundary pillars are recorded with the help of GPS device. Comments: a. Once the boundary pillars are traced, they should be physically mounted on the ground, so that attempts of the encroachment can be checked/controlled. b. After the demarcation is over in a particular area, there should be public meeting, so as to make the local people aware of the forest boundaries.
  • 17. 17 Lesson 3 Forest Nursery Practices Definition It is an area where plants are raised for eventual planting out, ha ordinarily both seedlings and transplants (Anon,1966) Fig.Visit at soil conservation nursery tanjiwar BNL Types of Nurseries – In areas where biotic factor is more i.e. road side, railways, pond banks, and areas adjoining villages can be afforested successfully only through nursery raised seedlings. Fig. Chamalwas nursery main board
  • 18. 18 Nurseries are categorized in different ways. According to time duration nurseries are classified in two types: 1) Temporary nursery – This type of nursery is developed only to fulfill the requirement of the season or a targeted project. The nurseries for production of seedlings of transplanted vegetables and flower crops are of temporary nature. Likewise temporary arrangement for growing forest seedlings for planting in particular area can also be done in temporary nursery. 2) Permanent nursery – This type of the nursery is placed permanently so as to produce plants continuously. These nurseries have all the permanent features. The permanent nursery has permanent mother plants. The work goes on continuously all the year round in this nursery. According to type of plants produced nurseries are classified in to following types: I. Fruit plant Nurseries: - In this nursery seedlings and grafts of fruit crops are developed. II. Vegetable nurseries: - In this nursery seedlings of cauliflower, cabbage, brinjal and tomato are prepared. III. Flowers plants nurseries: - The seedlings of flowering plants like gerbera, carnation, petunia, salvia, rose, chrysanthemum, coleus, aster, dianthus are developed in this nurseries. IV. Forest nurseries: - The seedlings of plants useful for forestation like pine, oak, teak, eucalyptus, casuarina are prepared and sold. V. Miscellaneous nurseries: - In such type of nurseries plants with great economic value, rare and medicinal, herbal plants are propagated. In this nursery plants like geranium, rose, calendula, and marigold are propagated. Planning of nursery one has to decide which type of nursery is to be started. At the same time the durations and type of plants propagated should be finalized.
  • 19. 19 Fig. Chamalwas nursery Management of nursery – Nursery plants require due care and attention after having either emerged from the seeds or have been raised from other sources like rootstock or through tissue culture technique. Generally they are grown in the open field under the protection of Mother Nature where, they should be able to face the local environment. It is the duty & main objective of a commercial nursery grower to supply the nursery plants with suitable conditions necessary for their development & growth. This is the major work of management in the nursery which includes all such operations right from the emergence of young plantlet till them are fully grown-up or are ready for uprooting & transplanting in the main fields. 1) Potting the seedling: - Before planting of sapling in the pots, the pots should be filled up with proper potting mixture. Now a day’s different sizes of earthen pots or plastic containers are used for propagation. For filling of pots loamy soil, sand and compost can be used in 1:1:1 proportion. Sprouted cuttings, bulbs, corms or polythene bag grown plants can be transferred in earthen pots for further growth. All the necessary precautions are taken before filling the pots and planting of sapling in it. 2) Manuring & Irrigation: - Generally sufficient quantity of nutrients is not available in the soil used for seedbed. Hence, well rotten F.Y.M / compost and leaf mould is added to soil. Rooted cuttings, layers or grafted plants till they are transferred to the permanent location, require fertilizers. Addition of fertilizers will give healthy & vigorous plants with good root & shoot system. It is recommended that each nursery bed of 10 X 10m area should be given 300 gm of ammonium sulphate, 500 gm of Single super phosphate and 100 gm of Muriate of potash. Irrigation either in the nursery beds or watering the pots is an important operation. For potted plants hand watering is done & for beds low pressure irrigation by hose pipe is usually given. Heavy irrigation should be avoided.
  • 20. 20 3) Plant protection measures: - Adoption of plant protection measures, well in advance and in a planned manner is necessary for the efficient raising of nursery plants. For better protection from pest and diseases regular observation is essential. Disease control in seedbed:- The major disease of nursery stage plant is “damping off”. For its control good sanitation conditions are necessary. Preventive measures like treatment with 50% ethyl alcohol, 0.2% calcium hypo chloride and 0.01% mercury chloride is done. These treatments are given for 5 to 30 minutes. 4) Weed control: - Weeds compete with plants for food, space and other essentials. So timely control of weeds is necessary. For weed control weeding, use of cover crops, mulching, use of chemicals (weedicides) are practiced. Pre-emergence weedicides like Basaline or post-emergence weedicide like 2; 4-D and Roundup are useful. 5) Measures against heat and cold: - The younger seedling is susceptible to strong sun and low temperature. For protection from strong sun, shading with the help of timber framework of 1 meter height may be used. Net house and green house structures can also be used. 6) Packing of nursery plants – Packing is the method or way in which the young plants are tied or kept together till they are transplanted. So they have to be packed in such a way that they do not lose their turgidity and are able to establish themselves on the new site. At the same time, good packing ensures their success on transplanting. For packing baskets, wooden boxes, plastic bags are used. In some parts of the country banana leaves are also used for packing the plants with their earth ball. This is useful for local transportation. 7) Sale management – In general the main demand for nursery plants is during rainy season. A proper strategy should be followed for sale of nursery plants. For that advertisement in local daily newspapers, posters, hand bills, catalogue and appointment of commission agents can be followed. 8) Management of mother plants - Care of mother plants is necessary so as to get good quality propagules and scion. A. Labeling and records B. Certification C. Irrigation D. Fertilization E. Pruning F. Protection from pests and diseases Collection and development of new mother plants Fruit Nurseries Types of Nursery bed Nursery bed is defined as ‘prepared area in a nursery where seed is sown or into which transplants or cuttings are put. Nursery beds are classified into seedling beds and transplant beds. As a rule rectangular beds are preferred over other shapes. The width of the bed should 1.2 to 1.5 m. The width of the bed should be kept so that it can be weeded by a labour from both side without entering the bed. The length should be 12.5 m. However, standard bed sizes (1.2 m × 12.5 m or 4 ft. × 40 ft). The length may be kept smaller if sufficient space is not available. Similarly, considering the nature of lands, there may two kinds of beds. They are:
  • 21. 21 1. Sunken beds: In areas with long dry hot weather, beds are kept slightly below the general ground level. Such beds can be easily irrigated, during dry season. This type of beds are used for raising stock through vegetative propagation like cutting of popular, sissoo, mulberry, willows, and bamboos off sets. Besides these Acacia nilotica, A. benthenwii, Prosopisjuli flora etc. 2. Raised beds: In moister areas, nursery beds are raised 10-15cm above the level of the grounds, which can be supported either by bamboos or line of bricks, stones, etc. This prevents their edges from being eroded away during the rainy season or by irrigation or outside water from seeping into the bed. The species which are commonly raised on beds are Deodar, Kail, Spruce, Fir, Robinia, Walnut, Bird cherry, Ash etc. 3. Level beds: Level beds are commonly used for raising seedlings of Tuni, Eucalyptus, Ritha, Terminalia, Siris, Grevillia, etc. These species cannot tolerate standing water, their water requirement is also moderate. Soil Preparation After demarcation, they are dug in depth of 0.3-0.45m so that stone, roots, etc. lying underneath are all dug out, picked and thrown outside the nursery. If the soil is gravelly, it should be sieved through a fine wire netting to remove gravels. Then, soil should be mixed with farmyard manure. At the same time, charcoal dust and ashes are also mixed to correct the acidity of soil and keep away worms. If there is a danger of white ant attack, Aldrex 5% dust should be mixed @ 75kg/ha. In the hills, new terraces have to be built with the help of string and pegs, and the drainage network should be planned. The top-soil should be first removed carefully from the surface of the terrace and put in a pile, and after the terrace has been made it should be replaced on the terrace surface. In general, the surface of the beds should be either flat or preferably be given a slight camber. If the soil is heavy, a top dressing of washed river sand is usually given, which prevent to cake the watered beds and no splash during rains. Burning of dry grass and shrubs piled on beds reduces weed growth and is very beneficial for species having minute seeds e.g. Adina cordinfolia.  Seed Treatment Seeds are to be tested before use or sowing in the beds or fields as the success or failure of artificial regeneration work depends on the quality of seeds. When the treatment is given before sowing in the field, it is called pre-sowing treatment. If some species of seeds are not treated, germination may be delayed or germinate irregularly. And in order to hasten germination of such seeds, they have to be given treatment. Why seed treatments are necessary as : 1. To determine genuiness: Genuiness of seeds means purely desired seeds for producing plants in the beds, not mixed. Identification of such seeds is necessary. Sometimes, it is very difficult to identify the seeds. In such cases, it is necessary to collect a botanical specimen of the seed bearing plant and get it identified by an expert botanist.
  • 22. 22 2. To determine purity: Seeds may have other foreign matters, even if they are genuine. For the purpose, seeds are cleaned by winnowing or hand-picking. If samples of cleaned seeds are compared with the collected seeds. Purity can be determined easily. 3. To determine seed viability: Viability of seeds can be determined by direct inspection or by physical or chemical test. Physical test, which is done by winnowing or submersion in water. Similarly, chemical test may be done by using chemicals such as Indigo carmin in 1:1000-2000 has been reported to be the most useful.   Observations: Chamalwas Nursery:- The Chamalwas conifer nursery is located at some 15km distance from Banihal town on Banihal- Neeltop road. The nursery is located within the dense pure kail forest. Following of the key observations which are noted in the Chamalwas nursery tour are: 1. The aspect of Nursery is lying in south-east direction which receives light from 11am to 2pm in winters and 9am to 3pm in summers. 2. The Nursery comprises of deodar and kail seedlings which are planted by seed sowing in polybags. 3. There are different age gradation of seedlings in nursery that is 3 years seedlings, 2 year seedlings and 1 year seedlings. Usually 3 year seedlings are heighted between 2-3 feet in deodar and 1.5-2.5 feet in kail. Both these sizes of 3 years seedlings are ready for transplanting into the field. 4. The Nursery is fed by natural spring, which usually remains functional throughout the year, but due to the prolonged dry spell this year, it got dried causing the mortality and loss in the nursery. 5. The sowing is done in the month of October to November which gets ripen in the month of March to April. The logic behind this is that the seed gets proper snow treatment (stratification) in the natural snowfall season which causes the germination percentage quite sufficient. This also subjects to the type and health of seeds. 6. The transplanting and the plant lifting from the nursery is done in the month of Nov.—Dec., which also subjects to the rainfall in the area where it has to be planted. 7. The beds of the nursery are found on the contours with an uneven shape , because the nursery site is steep having the slope of some 400—450 . 8. The nursery is raised under 13th finance commission and CAMPA scheme. 9. The number of seedlings /polybags in the nursery is about 85000 which has the capacity to provide 35000 polybags every year. 10. The altitude of nursery is 2020mtrs. above msl, this is purely a suitable altitude for the growth of kail and deodar seedlings. 11. The area is snow bound which remains covered with the snowfall for consecutive 2.5—3 months. Tanjiwar Broad leaved Nursery:-   The Tanjiwar Broad leaved Nursery is located at some 10km distance from Banihal nearby Jawhar tunnel hill. The nursery is located within the dense pure chestnut forest are key observations which are noted in the Tanjiwar Nursery tour: 1. The aspect of Nursery is lying in north-east direction which receives light from 11am to 1pm in winters and 10am to 2pm in summer.
  • 23. 23 2. The Nursery comprises of Ulmus wallichiana, Robina pseudoacacia, Aesculus indica, Pyrus spp. and prunis spp. seedlings which are planted at the distance of 6inches in nursery beds. 3. The first year seedlings are ready for the plantation. Usually 1year seedlings are heighted between 4 to 5 feet. 4. The Nursery is feeded by Tanjiwar Nalla flowing near it which usually remains functional throughout the year. 5. The sowing is done in the months of Feb. to March which gets germinated within 10 to 15 days after sowing. 6. The transplanting and the plant lifting from the nursery is done in the month of Nov.—feb. which also subjects to the rainfall in the area where it has to be planted. 7. The beds of the nursery are found on the terraces with an uneven shape, because the nursery site is slopy having the slope of some 350—400 . 8. The nursery is raised under CMPAP scheme. Arandar Broad leaved Nursery The Arandar Broad leaved Nursery is located at some 06km distance from Banihal town above the Chachihal road. The nursery is located near the young kail forest. Following are the key observations which are noted in the Arandar Nursery tour are: 1. The aspect of Nursery is lying in North-east direction which receives light from 11am to 1pm in winters and 10am to 2pm in summers. 2. The Nursery comprises of Ulmus wallichiana, Robina pseudoacacia, Aesculus indica, Pyrus spp. Ailanthus spp. And prunis spp. seedlings which were planted by seedlings at the distance of 6” in nursery beds. 3. The first year seedlings are ready for the plantation. Usually 1year seedlings are heighted between 4 to 5 feet. 4. The Nursery is feeded by Arandar Nalla flowing near it which usually remains functional throughout the year. 5. The sowing is done in the months of Feb.to March which gets germinated within the 10 to 15 days after sowing. 6. The transplanting and the plant lifting from the nursery is done in the month of Nov. to Feb., which also subjects to the rainfall in the area where it has to be planted. 7. The beds of the nursery are found on the terraces with an uneven shape, because the nursery site is slopy having the slope of some 350 -400 . 8. The nursery is raised under FDA scheme. 9. The number of seedlings in the nursery is about 85000which has the capacity to provide 45000 seedlings every year. Comments:- 1. The nursery should be equipped with pacca water channel, so as to provide bed to bed irrigation facilities. 2. There is a lacuna that nursery doesn’t have any mali hut which should be present there for watch and ward round the clock 3. The nursery should be given electricity facilities so as to provide artificial irrigation by electric water lifting motor, during the dry spell as it happen this year.
  • 24. 24 Lesson No. 4 Forest fire management Definition Forest fire may be defined as an unclosed and freely spreading combustion that consumes the natural fuels. Combustion is another word for fire. When a fire burns out of control it is known as Wild Fire. Almost everyone basically knows what a fire looks and feels like, but in reality fire consists of four parts i.e. gas, flame, heat and smoke.  Introduction The word “fire” evolved from the Greek word “pyra” meaning growing embers. Fire is actually the heat and the light that results when three elements i.e. fuel, oxygen and the source are combined. The other elements, which determine the behavior of the fire, are weather, the landscape and the presence of the fuel. As far as the birth of fire is concerned, fire emerged on the earth with its origin only. From the time our planet came into existence, lightening has sparked landscape. Artificial or the human induced fire began when the earlier human being first rubbed two stones. Discovery of fire has been a revolutionary invention of human civilization. The nomadic life saw a sudden change in its life style after this invention. It is interesting to know that the first experience of fire, which ancient human being felt was of forest fire. Thus forest fire has been an integral part of human civilization. The discovery of fire has perhaps been one of the greatest innovations of all time. It had so much significance in the earlier history of mankind that they started worshipping it as God. Fig. Fire control at chachihal forest
  • 25. 25  Forest fire – part of ecosystem Fires in forests are not unnatural. It has been a natural part of the ecosystem since origin of forest on this planet. Most of the fires are very useful and essential for good natural forest development and regeneration. Throughout historic time forest fires have been ignited and burned naturally through the forest. These low intensity fires in past kept the forest floor free from the natural annual buildup of the litter i.e. tree needles, dead grass, senescent leaves & twigs, thick brush, and dead trees. As a result, fire has shaped vegetation patterns and wildlife distributions in the forests. Soil heating due to fire changes its chemical, physical and microbial properties. The direct chemical changes during soil heating and combustion of soil organic matter lead to a massive volatilization of simple nitrogenous compounds, mainly nitrate and ammonium and to some extent sulphur, phosphorus, and other ions depending on the fire intensity and temperature. But at the same time, fire transforms soil nitrogen bound in organic substances into ammonium, a form readily available to either plants or subsequent microbial nitrification. The increase in ammonium and nitrate concentrations in many ecosystems has also been reported as a result of fire incidences. This increase in the availability of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous and other mineral nutrients) is certainly beneficial for the vegetation and enhances its growth. Fig. Forest during burning at dholegam  Types of forest fire Forest fires are not always same; they may differ, depending upon its nature, size, spreading speed, behavior etc. Basically forest fires can be sub grouped into four types depending upon their nature and size – Surface fires Surface fire is the most common forest fires that burn undergrowth and dead material along the floor of the forest. It is the type of fire that burns surface litter, other loose debris of the forest floor and small vegetation. In general, it is very useful for the forest growth and regeneration. But if grown in size, this fire not only burns ground flora but also results to engulf the undergrowth and the middle storey of the forest. Surface fires spread by flaming combustion through fuels at or near the surface- grass, dead and down limbs, forest needle and leaf litter, or debris from harvesting or land clearing. Underground fires
  • 26. 26 The fires of low intensity, consuming the organic matter beneath and the surface litter of forest floor are sub-grouped as underground fire. In most of the dense forests a thick mantle of organic matter is found on top of the mineral soil. This fire spreads in by consuming such material. These fires usually spread entirely underground and burn for some meters below the surface. This fire spreads very slowly and in most of the cases it becomes very hard to detect and control such type of fires. It may continue to burn for months and destroy vegetative cover of the soil. The other terminology for this type of fire is Muck fires. Ground fires These fires are fires in the sub surface organic fuels, such as duff layers under forest stands, Arctic tundra or taiga, and organic soils of swamps or bogs. There is no clear distinction between underground and ground fires. The smoldering underground fire sometime changes into ground fire. This fire burns root and other material on or beneath the surface i.e. burns the herbaceous growth on forest floor together with the layer of organic matter in various stages of decay. They are more damaging than surface fires, as they can destroy vegetation completely. Crown fires Crown fire is the most unpredictable fires that burn the top of trees and spread rapidly by wind. In most of the cases these fires are invariably ignited by surface fires. This is one of the most spectacular kinds of forest fires which usually advance from top to down of trees or shrubs, more or less interdependent of surface fires. In dense conifer stands with a brisk wind, the crown fire may race ahead of the supporting surface fire. Since it is over the heads of ground force it is uncontrollable until it again drops to the ground, and since it is usually fast moving, it poses grave danger to the fire fighters becoming trapped and burned.  Causes of Forest Fire 1. Natural causes A. Lightning during thunderstorms may lead to the occurrence of forest fires. Many forest fires start from natural causes such as lightning which set trees on fire. Natural or prescribed fire sometimes may become a potential hazard to the forest by causing damage to vegetation and wildlife, and releasing huge amount of particulate and gaseous pollutants into the atmosphere. B. In dry season, friction leading to sparks by rolling stones in the mountainous areas may lead to forest fires. This occurs only when there is considerable combustible material present on the floor. Even small sparks are enough to generate a fire, which may be fanned by strong winds. The dry grass worked as a fuel, fast blowing wind supplied oxygen in plenty resulting in speedy spread of fire and according to the villagers falling of hard quartzite stones produced sparks which ignited the fuel. C. In bamboo areas, forest fires may occur by the rubbing together of clumps of dry bamboos. D. Volcanic eruptions also lead to forest fires naturally. 2. Anthropogenic causes More than 90% forest fires are caused by human beings, deliberately (for personal gains or rivalry) or merely due to negligence or just by accident. Forest fires sometimes originate due to accidental or unintentional reasons. Some of the instances are as follows
  • 27. 27 a. Deliberate or intentional causes- Intentional forest fire is caused by people for some personal gain or rivalry with forest department. Examples are: I. To get good grass / fodder crop- Forest fires are also caused intentionally to meet the need of fodder for grazing cattle. In the country although some 12.5 million hectares of land is officially classified as permanent pasture or grazing land, most of this area is virtually devoid of grass. Thus a major portion of the grazing requirement is met from forest area by setting fires to produce new flushes of grass in the dry season. II. To get better flush for tendu leaves- In central India, fires are ignited in forest to increase the production of tendu leaves. Tendu leaves collectors set fires in the summer months to promote a better flush of leaves. The most economical and quick alternative for this is to set tendu areas on fire; which often extends to other forest areas owing to negligence and carelessness. III. For concealing the illicit felling - Smugglers and poachers many times start forest fires to hide the stumps of illicit felling. The poachers use forest fires for terrorizing wild animals and hunting too. IV. For cleaning forest paths by the villagers- Many times villagers set small fires to clear off path from dry litter i.e. tree twigs, branches, leaves etc. This fire, when becomes uncontrollable, turns disastrous. V. To settle scores - In some cases forests may also be set on fire by some miscreants in order to settle scores with the forest department or its staff. b. Accidental or Unintentional causes Many times due to negligence, even small fires may result into devastating fires. Some of the main unintentional reasons for such fires are I. Collection of Non Timber Forest Produce (NTFP) – Collection of NTFP by tribal or other local habitants residing near the forest has been one of the major causes of forest fire. To facilitate collection of NTFP the collectors ignite fire, which accidentally may spread in the forest, resulting into major fire. II. Burning farm residue- After a harvest, farmers set fire to their agricultural fields. Many times, when these fires are not put out completely, may spread to the adjoining forest areas. III. Protecting crops from the wild animals- Villagers residing in or near the forest many times light up fire in the forest to keep the wild animals away from their crop and cattle. Sometimes when this fire is not put out completely, it may result in a disastrous forest fire. IV. Careless throwing of cigarettes, bidi stubs, match sticks by grazers/ travelers- Travelers, picnickers, nomadic grazers, villagers or even forest labourers some time throw un-extinguished cigarettes, bidis, and match sticks in the forest areas. When accompanied by little/ strong winds, this may result in fires capable of destroying valuable timber worth millions of rupees. V. Negligence in camp fires and working operations near camping ground and fairs - Un- extinguished camp fires of trekkers, labour camps, nomads moving through the forest with their animals or the fires of road side charcoal panniers, when not put out properly lead to devastating forest fires. VI. Sparks from transformers or vehicles passing through the forest- The sparks from transformers installed in the forest or near it may sometimes results into fires in forest. Similarly the sparkles from the vehicles passing through the area may also ignite fires in the forest areas.
  • 28. 28 VII. Uncontrolled prescribed burning- Just before the onset of the fire prone season, forest department do controlled burning in forest areas. Controlled burning is done to burn all the combustible material in the forest before the dry season to prevent major forest fires. Sometimes due to carelessness this fire may spread and result into large inferno. VIII. Resin tapping- Negligence in extracting resin from Chir Pine cones and careless burning of torchwood of Chir by pedestrian during night also result into forest fires. Careless handling of resin during resin tapping in the summer season may also start a fire, if the wind begins to blow at high speeds. IX. Charcoal making and wine extracting in the forest- Small and medium scale charcoal making industries (both legal and illegal) and illegal wine extracting are common in Indian forests. Sparks from these activities may lead to fires in the forest. X. Sparks from the house kitchens near the forest- Habitations are common within or near the forests in India. The households residing here use fire wood as fuel for cooking and other purposes. Sparks from such burning may sometime result in fire in the nearby forest. XI. Heating coal tar for road construction – During road construction in forest areas, the charcoal heat to smelt coal tar may light up the dry litter resulting in huge forest fire. XII. Hunting by tribal- Forest tribal for searching wild animals and their nests/ homes often set wild grass on fire. For preventing growth of leeches also, fires are ignited by local inhabitants.  Impacts of forest fire i) Loss of valuable timber resources Forest fires cause indispensable loss to timber and deteriorate its quality. Valuable timber species like teak, sal, chir, deodar, sheesam, rosewood etc. are adversely affected by fire. However, the adhesive impact of forest fire varies from species to species, depending upon its susceptibility. ii) Loss of wildlife habitat and depletion of wildlife- Forests are the habitat of many wild animals. Sometimes the local people put the fire and drum beats to keep the wild animals away, but when fire becomes uncontrolled, the problem of survival of animals and their habitat arises. Wildfire along with killing wild animals also destroys their habitat and thus makes their survival at stake. iii) Global warming- One of the major culprits of climate change is forest fire. The immediate effect of vegetation burning is the production and release of gases including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, non-methane hydrocarbons, nitric oxide, methyl chloride and various other gases, which are released and returned to the atmosphere in a matter of hours. The burning of forest also destroys an important sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Hence, burning has a significant role in the world’s carbon dioxide budget. iv) Microclimate change: The changed microclimate caused by removal of litter and duff, opening of the canopy by killing over storey shrubs and trees and darkening of the soil surface by residual soot and charcoal can increase insulation causing temperature increase. As a result the changed area becomes unhealthy for living of both wild habitats and local people. v) Soil erosion and impact on ecosystems- The fire initiated soil erosion has very adverse impact on various eco- systems near the burned area. Loss of soil from hill slopes produces several significant ecosystem impacts. Soil movement in the streams, lakes etc.
  • 29. 29 may degrade water quality and change the geomorphic and hydrologic characteristics of these systems. vi) Forest fire and floods- The water yield of a water body depends on the quantity of the rain, evapotranspiration, type of the soil and vegetation etc. During the first year after a fire, the magnitude of the total water yield suddenly increases. The magnitude may vary greatly within a location or between locations, depending upon the fire intensity, rainfall, geomorphology, the type of soil & vegetation and the proportion of the vegetation burned. vii) Threat to Life and Property- Forest fires affect human life and property in different ways. Human life is at risk when fire crews fight fires either at the fire front or from conflict with animals, especially elephants. A forest fire that spreads outside the forest can consume buildings or infrastructure. There are also indirect dangers to life and property due to forest fire.  Precautions against fire The followings are the important precautions against fire:  To keep the source of fire or source of ignition separated from combustible and inflammable material.  To keep the source of fire under watch and control.  Not allow combustible or inflammable material to pile up unnecessarily and to stock the same as per procedure recommended for safe storage of such combustible or inflammable material.  To adopt safe practices in areas near forests viz. factories, coalmines, oil stores, chemical plants and even in household kitchens.  To incorporate fire reducing and firefighting techniques and equipment while planning a building or coal mining operation.  In case of forest fires, the volunteer teams are essential not only for firefighting but also to keep watch on the start of forest and sound an alert.  To arrange firefighting drills frequently.  PREVENTION AND CONTROL MEASURES FOR FOREST FIRES IN INDIA The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India issued guidelines for prevention and control of forest fires to all states in June 2000. Some of those important guidelines or measures of prevention and control of forest-fires in India are – 1. Identification and mapping of all fire-prone area. 2. Compilation and analysis of data-base on the damage due to forest fire. 3. Installation of Forest Danger Rating Systems and Fire-Forecasting Systems. 4. Items of forest protection to be treated as a Plan Item in order to raise their profile and thereby increase their Budget Allocation. 5. All preventive measures are to be taken before the beginning of the fire season like summer season. 6. Recruitment of a Nodal Officer to coordinate with various agencies including the Government of India on issues of forest-fire. 7. A ‘Crisis Management Group’ should be constituted at the state headquarters, district headquarters, and at block levels to monitor the situations during fire period, coordinate
  • 30. 30 various preventive and control measures, and arrange adequate enforcement of men and materials in case of any eventuality. 8. Communication network to be set up for quick flow of information and movement of materials and man-power to the fire site. 9. JFM Committees and Forest Protection Committees are to be actively involved in the prevention and control of forest fires. Other people living in and around forest areas and getting benefits from the forest should also be involved actively. 10. Regular training of Government Staff and communities as Fire –Fighters should be organized by the government. 11. Public awareness should be created against ill effects of forest fires- a Fire -Week should be celebrated to create mass awareness. 12. Legal Provisions for fire prevention and control should be implemented forcefully. Fig.Ground fire at chachihal  Precautions: The followings are the important precautions against fire: 1. To keep the source of fire or source of ignition separated from Combustible and inflammable material. 2. To keep the source of fire under watch and control. 3. Not allow combustible or inflammable material to pile up unnecessarily and to stock the same as per procedure recommended for safe storage of 4. Such combustible or inflammable material. 5. To adopt safe practices in areas near forests viz. factories, coalmines, oil, stores, chemical plants and even in household kitchens. 6. To incorporate fire reducing and firefighting techniques and equipment while planning a building or coal mining operation. 7. In case of forest fires, the volunteer teams are essential not only for firefighting but also to keep watch on the start of forest and sound an alert. 8. To arrange frequent firefighting drills
  • 31. 31 Fig. Fire investigation team at Chachihal dense forest Observations: During our field work experience it was dry spell which caused frequent forest fire in the banihal forest. The key reasons behind the forest fire remained: a. Dry litter on the forest floor . b. Negligence by local people. c. False myth among the people that firing the forest floor this year will yield the high productivity of grass in successive year. Once the forest fire has incurred, these are the following ways and measures which are taken up to control forest fires are: 1. Creating of fire lines:- Fire lines are the barriers to the running forest fire in which the litter and other dry material on the ground which can act as fuel for forest fire removed so that forest fire stop at that line due to the shortage of fuel. 2. Counter fire:- it is mechanism in which the fire is stopped by giving cross fire from the opposite direction. This is the controlled process which is performed by highly skilled persons. 3. Firefighting with earth dust/soil:- Here the fire is spilled with soil/earth dust which minimizes and thus extinguishes the fire. 4. Controlled fire:- this is done in advance in a controlled manner in which the forest litter is burnt by controlled fire, so that the vulnerability of the area from the forest fire is reduced to minimum. 5. Water:- where there is availability/accessibility then it is bring on the fire spot to extinguish the forest fire.. Comments: 1. First aid facilities should be their present at the delivering end in case of any untoward fire incidents/injuries. 2. Only skilled man power should be engaged in firefighting process. 3. Fire resistant shoes and clothes should be provided to the staff engaged in firefighting.
  • 32. 32 Lesson No. 5 GPS Exercise Definition The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a system that very accurately tells us our latitude, longitude, altitude, velocity, and time. The United States government has created this system for military applications, but has made it available to anyone in the world. GPS positioning has a wide variety of applications, many unanticipated when the system was first designed. GPS receivers are showing up in commercial and private aircraft, boats, backpacks, cars, and even geology experiments. Introduction There are 24 GPS satellites in orbit around the Earth. Each satellite broadcasts a microwave signal that can communicate to a GPS receiver two messages: the precise orbital position of the satellite, and the GPS almanac. Each satellite applies its own individual code to the data it transmits. The receiver can link with a specific satellite by creating the satellite’s code and looking to see if any incoming signals are using the same code. After linking, the receiver measures the phase difference between the code it creates and the one it receives from the satellite. This gives the amount of time it took the signal to reach the receiver. By multiplying by the speed of light, the receiver calculates the distance, or pseudorange, to the satellite. A receiver needs at least four such links to calculate its position. If a receiver knows the pseudorange to and the precise locations of three satellites, it can geometrically find its location. However, because the GPS receiver clock and even the satellite’s atomic clock are not perfect, this location will have some error in it. Linking to a fourth satellite corrects for this clock error. The more satellites a receiver can track, the better the accuracy of the positioning.
  • 33. 33 Fig. GPS work in field for closure Objectives The following objects are: 1. Identify and define the key aspects of data quality, including resolution, precision, and accuracy; 2. List and explain the procedures land surveyors use to produce positional data, including traversing, triangulation, and trilateration; 3. Calculate plane coordinates by open traverse; 4. Calculate elevations by leveling; 5. Explain how radio signals broadcast by Global Positioning System satellites are used to calculate positions on the surface of the Earth; 6. State the kinds and magnitude of error associated with uncorrected GPS positioning; and 7. Identify and explain methods used to improve the accuracy of GPS positioning  Types of fieldwork & surveying using GPS Achieving GPS accuracy should not be pursued to the cost of the expedition’s field measurements. The field measurements should always be paramount and GPS accuracy should only be pursued if the situation dictates it. Environmental change analysis: Measuring changes in the physical conditions of the ground often requires very detailed analysis. For these surveys, averaging, WAAS or even differential measurements are required. Averaging is a good method because it does not require the use of cumbersome equipment, especially when mapping in difficult terrain but it takes much longer. If time in the field costs a lot of money then hiring differential equipment may offset this.
  • 34. 34 Geological mapping: To record the location of lithological units for future reference it is only necessary to record a location to standard waypoint accuracy. From this data the outcrop could be easily found. For recording individual rock units in a GIS the standard GPS accuracy is generally slightly too coarse and the time required for averaging makes this unsuitable Habitat mapping: Mapping the habitat of animals or the location of observed animals is only usually necessary to the accuracy of standard GPS waypoints. The location of an animal in the field rarely needs to be more accurate than tens of meters because by their very nature they are mobile. For boundary mapping where a vehicle is used then an external antenna and a standard GPS is the best solution Image rectification: Digital images often need to be given co-ordinates. This can be achieved from a map, by referencing common points or can be achieved in the field using GPS. The accuracy of the rectification will be affected by the accuracy of the data collected and commonly high precision data is required. However, the maximum rectification possible in imagery is related to the pixel size. Detailed Boundary Mapping: Mapping political boundaries is often not substantially more accurate than a standard GPS fix. Small areas will on occasion require a more precise fix but this depends on the type of work conducted. For closure making it is very useful to measure the area and gives the accurate measurement of land in hectares and it is also used to find out the wild animals in the dense forest and also their location or habitat areas. Benefits  GPS data collection systems complemented with GIS packages provides a means for comprehensive analysis of environmental concerns.  Environmental patterns and trends can be efficiently recognized with GPS/GIS data collection systems, and thematic maps can be easily created.  GPS data can be quickly analyzed without the preliminary requirement for field data transcription into a digitized form.  Accurate tracking of environmental disasters such as fires and oil spills can be conducted more efficiently.  Precise positional data from GPS can assist scientists in crustal and seismic monitoring.  Monitoring and preservation of endangered species can be facilitated through GPS tracking and mapping.  Accurate positioning of physical features that can be used in maps and models.  Faster delivery of geographic information needed by decision makers.  More effective monitoring to ensure schedule adherence, creating a transit system more responsive to transportation user’s needs.  Better location information with electronic maps to provide in-vehicle navigation systems for both commercial and private users.  Increased efficiencies and reduced costs in surveying roads.
  • 35. 35 Figure: The 3 GPS segments Procedure of working of GPS 1. Internal GPS Antenna: This antenna allows the receiver to track satellites signals. Thus, when using the GPS; the unit should be parallel to the ground and facing upwards. Apart from the cover of the holster nothing should be put on this part of the unit as this may stop satellite signal. 2. LCD Display Screen: Screen where all the information is displayed. The LCD Display is one fragile part of the eTRex it may be injured and it must be well protected. 3. The "Power" button: Is used to turn the unit on and off as well as switch on the display backlight. 4. The "Page" button: It allows switch between pages and stop something that you have started but that you do not want to continue. 5. The "Up" and "Down" buttons: These buttons are used to select options on pages and menus and to adjust the display contrast. 6. The "Enter" button: This button is used to confirm data entry or menu selection and to display options from the main pages. 7. The waterproof case: This plastic case protects the electronic part of the device from water. If the receiver falls into water make sure that the battery compartment is dry before using it again. 8. The battery Compartment: Represents the location of the 2 AA alkaline batteries used to make the GPS receiver work. 9. External Power and Data Connector: Allows the connection to an external source of power and to a computer for data download (will not be used in the context of the WHS). It should stay closed all the time in order to protect the connections. APPLICATIONS OF GPS  Providing geodetic control.  Survey control for Photogrammetric control surveys and mapping.  Finding out location of offshore drilling.  Pipeline and Power line survey.  Navigation of civilian ships and planes.  Crustal movement studies.  Geophysical positioning, mineral exploration and mining.  Determination of a precise geoid using GPS data.
  • 36. 36  Estimating gravity anomalies using GPS.  Offshore positioning: shipping, offshore platforms, fishing boats etc.  Observations: 1. Switch on the GPS device, it is calibrated so that it can all together receives the signal of four satellites. 2. Then we noted the latitude and longitude of that spot, then we’ll move along the fence line, where we have to take polygon. 3. It is noted that at the point where we move from one direction to another, we need to take the GPS coordinates at every turn/curve. 4. By doing this we finally reach to the point from where we started, which will form a polygon on the GPS device from where we can obtain the KMZ file/polygon on the computer. 5. This KMZ file is then loaded on the website of forest department to the sites where plantation has to be done this year and remains on record always. Comments: a. Usually we use to take the Geo-coordinates in the abandoned forest which are remote and does not have convenience of electricity and charging facilities. Therefore solar charging GPS devices should be used to get the work done without obstructions in an efficient manner.
  • 37. 37 Lesson N0. 6 Forest Marking & Enumeration Introduction Wood is a biological tissue made of cells, or tracheid’s, and of walls composed of lignin. The tracheid’s are like pipes, that transport the sap along the stem and they are filled by water. The density of tree wood is an interesting variable because it tells how much carbon the plant allocates into construction costs. Wood density varies within the plant, during the life of the plant, and between individuals of the same species. Also the branches and the outer part of the trunk tend to have a lighter wood than the pith. There are many definitions of wood density. Foresters measure the weight of a given volume of wood that has been ‘air-dried’. Depending on the country, conventions differ about air drying: the fraction of water remaining in the wood sample may be 12%, or 15%. This causes considerable trouble in the literature. In the present study, wood density is technically defined as the ratio of the oven-dry mass of a wood sample divided by the mass of water displaced by its green volume (wood specific gravity, or WSG). This can be calculated from measurements of oven-dry weight combined with measurement of green volume. Fig. During measurement of logs  Formulae for log volume calculation  Volume has been the traditional measure of wood quantity and continues to be the most important measure in spite of increasing use of weight or biomass as a measure of forest productivity.  Basal portion of the tree corresponds to the frustum of Neiloid, the middle portion to the frustum of Paraboloid and the top portion to a cone.  The following table gives formula for calculation of volume of the solid of revolution together with the formula for cylinder for comparison
  • 38. 38 S.NO Forms of solid Volume of full solid Volume of frustum of solid Remarks 1 Cylinder S1 S1 …… 2 paraboloid S1/2 S1+S2 X1 2 Sm X1 Smalian’s formula Hubers formula 3 Cone S1/3 S1+S2+√𝑆1𝑆2 𝑋1 3 4 Neiloid S1/4 S1+4Sm+S2 X1 6 Prismoidal or Newton’s formula Where, S is the sectional area at the base S1 is the sectional area at the thick end Sm is the sectional area at the middle S2 is the sectional area at the thin end and L is the length of the log or height of the solid  Prismoidal formula or Newton’s formula is the best and most accurate method for volume calculation.  Smalian’s formula over-estimates the volume.  Huber’s formula under-estimates the volume.  Huber's formula is more easy and accurate than Smalian’s formula.  We can use Smalian’s formula for calculating the volume of stacks wood.  Quarter Girth Formula Volume of log = (g/4)2 x L, where, g is the girth of the log at the middle (in inches) and L is the length of log (in ft). Volume of log in cubic feet is calculated using the following formula, V = (g/4)2 x L/144. This is the system of measurement used in Great Britain and also in Nepal for sale purpose when round timber is sold by volume. This formula gives only 78.5 % of the cubic volume of cylinders, thus allowing a loss of 21.46%. Quarter Girth formula is used to estimate the standing volume of a coupe in Nepal
  • 39. 39 Fig. during marking and felling the dry vegetation Measurement of Staked volume o It is the bulk volume occupied by pieces of wood one meter long piled on one meter width, and one meter high. o This volume contains air space and wood in variable proportions a/c to the form of the logs. o Piling co-efficient has to be used to get the actual volume. o Piling co-efficient = π/4=0.7854, if all pieces of wood were cylindrical and of the same diameter. Dimensions of Chatta o Standard size of Chatta = 5 ft. x 5 ft. x 20 ft. = 500 cft. including air space. o One Chatta in metric unit = 14.16 m3
  • 40. 40 o The following formula should be used in order to calculate the amount of fuelwood that is obtained from the total volume up to 10 cm top-diameter of class III and the remaining portions up to 10 cm top-diameter of class I and II trees which could not be used as timber. o Amount of fuelwood in terms of number of Chatta = (0.8778xvol.I+1.4316xvol.II+3xvol.III)/1000 Where, Vol.I = gross volume of up to 20 cm top-diameter of class I trees, Vol.II = gross volume of up to 20 cm diameter of class II trees and Vol.III = gross volume of up to 10 cm top-diameter of class III trees. (all trees except Khayar having dbh of 27.94 cm (11 in) or more should be classified) o Class I = Green, dead or dying, standing or uprooted tree having good and solid trunk in which sign of any disease or wound is not visible from outside o Class II = Green, dead or dying, standing or uprooted tree in which complete volume could not be realized due to hollowness or other sigh of defect but at least two straight logs of each 1.83 m (6ft) long or one straight log of 30.5m (10 ft.) long which should have at least 20 cm diameter could be recovered. o Class III = Remaining trees which do not belong to class I and class II RATE LIST OF TIMBER Govt. order No. 177-FST of 2015dated 31-07-2015 S.No. Zones From Deodar Kail Fir/Chir 1 A-Zone Log Sawn 222 258 156 192 89 125 2 B-Zone Log Sawn 428 465 304 341 171 208 3 C-Zone Municipal Council and committee Area Log Sawn 657 695 461 499 262 301 o Note:- These rates are exclusive of all taxes. o The aforesaid revised rate structure shall not be applicable to flood victims of sept. 2014 deluge who shall continue to be provided time at the rates prescribed under the Govt. order No. 305-FST of 2014 dated 15-10-2014
  • 41. 41 Laboratory measurements For measurements of green volume, the sample should be maintained at constant humidity. In the laboratory place the full core into water for ½ hour to ensure adequate swelling. Green volume can be measured using two different methods: 1. In the dimensional method, one calculates the volume of a tree core assuming a regular cylindrical shape. This requires measuring both the total length and its diameter at different points, with a caliper, avoiding pressure of the caliper blades on the wood. If L is total length of the sample and D the mean diameter, then the volume of the sample is given by the formula 𝜋 4 𝐷2 L 2. The water-displacement method allows for easy and reliable volume measurement for irregularly shaped samples. A container capable of holding the sample is filled with water and placed on a digital balance of precision at least 0.01 g. The balance is then re-zeroed (the reading should be zero). The sample is then carefully sunk in the water, such that it is completely underwater. You should not fill the container completely with water; enough room should be made for the sample. The sample should not contact the sides or bottom of the container, and it should be forced underwater with a thin needle. The measured weight of displaced water is equal to the sample’s volume (since water has a density of 1 – this is known as Phytagora’s theorem). The electronic balance should be re-zeroed after every measurement. Measurement of length, diameter and sectional area of logs 1. The ultimate object of all mensurational activity in forest is to calculate or estimate quantity of wood contained in trees and consequently in crops not only for sale but also for research, predicting future yields, estimating increment to assess return on capital etc. 2. Measurement of felled trees are to determine the quantity of merchantable volume, to obtain statistical data that could be applied to standing trees for the purpose of estimating the yield, to estimate the growing stock and to estimate the increment of woods and forests. 3. Volume estimation may be made most accurately when the logs are separated and accessible to the measurer. A tree, therefore, could be separated into stem wood, which may be further divided into timber and small-wood, crown and branch wood. Stem wood may be measured after division into sections for obtaining real volume. 4. The measurement requires length and mid diameter or mid girth except where the tip is measured as frustum of a cone where the diameter or girth at the ends are measured. Logs are neither cylinder nor often of any regular geometrical shape. Therefore in order to calculate the volume, the shape of a quadratic paraboloid is adopted. 5. It is usual to cut the tree into logs due to irregularity in tree tapers. The lengths of the logs depend upon the rate of taper and market requirements. As the diameter at the thin end of the log determines the sawn volume that can be taken out of it, the greater the rate of taper, the lesser is the length of the log. Another consideration that affects the length of log is the mode of transport. 6. When the logs are made for calculating volume of felled trees for research work, all logs including the first are of uniformly 3m in length except the top end log which may
  • 42. 42 be up to 4.5m. But if the end section is more than 1.5m in length, it is left as separate rate log. 7. Simple tape or a graduated rod can be used to measure the length of a given logs. Similarly, diameter tape, caliper and other optical instruments are used to measure the measure diameter and sectional area of logs. 8. Logs are the round pieces of a tree with square cut ends. Normally, a log is 8 ft or over in length and suitable for lumber. 9. The cross-sectional area or basal is found from the diameter as follows:  Observations: Preliminary marking is done by territorial wing of the forest department. 1. Only those trees are marked for felling which are coming under the alignments of FCA or which are dry standing or dry falling lying in the compartments. 2. The preliminary marking is then send to higher authorities for administrative approval and technical sanction. Once both the administrative approval and technical sanctions are accorded then final enumeration is done. 3. After this the coupes/areas/ trees are then handed over to SFC for further course of action that is felling, conversion, extraction etc. 4. Before all these exercise the SFCs counter measures the volume/number of the trees taken over by them. Comments: a. Mechanized volume estimation devices should be used so that proper vigil can be maintained. b. Old practices should be replaced by the latest ones for example saws with electric saws to get the more efficiency and less wastage.
  • 43. 43 Lesson No. 7 Forest vegetation in J&K Introduction Forest is referred to as an area occupied by different kinds of trees, shrubs, herbs and grasses and maintained for the production of wood products. Technically forest is an area set aside for the production of timber and other forest produce or maintained under woody vegetation for certain indirect benefits which it provides. Nature has endowed India with rich forests, which cover about 20% of the geography area of the country. Over 40,000 species of plants are found in these forests of which over 7,000 are endemic. India has about 3,000 species of trees. In their extent, distribution and potential the forest of Jammu and Kashmir constitute of the biggest industry and being so they are the mainstay of the economy of the state. Kashmir Himalaya range of India is pre-eminently a land of forests, which among other things are the mainstay of the economy. The valley is rich in forest wealth and 51% of its total geographic area is under forests. The forests of Kashmir valley are distinguishable into Deodar, Kail, Fir, Chir, and mixed broad leaved zones in the region. The forests of Kashmir valley have been classified by Champion and Seth (1968) under groups 12, 13, 14 and 15 in the revised classification of Forest Types of India. The forest, thrive better between 2500-2900 m. Beyond 3000 m, the arboreal forests fade into high level fir forest up to 3200 m, the upper timber forest are less dense and poor in quality, which ultimately gives way to bush-land vegetation beyond 3200 m. The valley is located in the northern part of India in the Karakoram and western mountain ranges. It lies in between the Himalayan range in the north and of the Pir panjal range5 in the south comprehended between latitude 330 55’’ to 340 50” and longitude 740 34” to 750 35”. The average elevation of the valley is 5,300 feet above sea level. Classification of broad leaved species Statement showing revised classification of Broad leaved species. Special class S.No Botanical Name Local Name 1 Juglans regia Akhur, Akhrut 2 Fraxinus excelsior Sum, Sinno, Hum 3 Buxus Sempervirens Chikri 4 Acer spp. Trikana, Kanzal. 5 Prunus padus Tarani zum, Bharat, Jammu 6 Cedrela spp Tun, Tooni. 7 Ulmus Wallichiana Bran, Bari, Mannu.
  • 44. 44 A Class S.No Botanical Name Local Name 1 Dalbergia sisoo Tahli, Shisham, Guzzu. 2 Aesculus indica Bankhor Bankhor, Coo. 3 Ougeinia Dalbergioides Sandan. 4 Mangifera Indica Am. 5 Olea cuspidate Kau. 6 Terminalia chebula Har, Harrir, Harror 7 Prunus armeniaca Hari. 8 Betula utilis Bhojpatra Burj 9 Celtis australis Kharok, Kharik. 10 Eugenia Jambolana Jaman. 11 Bambax Malabaricum Simbal. 12 Salix Alba Var, Caerulea Bed Angrizi. 13 Corylus Colurna Thangi, Findak Pinakooni. 14 Terminalia Belarica Bahera. 15 Phyllanthus emblica Amla Ambli
  • 45. 45 B Class S.No Botanical Name Local Name 1 Morus Spp Tut Krun. 2 Rhus succedanea Arkhun, Arkhar. 3 Populus alba Sufeda Fraste 4 Populus Ciliata Sifeda Sakki 5 Pisacia integerrima Makarsingi, Kakar, Kakro 6 Quercus Spp. Hir Bang Moru, Burj, Rhim, Karsu 7 Acacia modesta Phulai 8 Acacia catechu Khair 9 Acacia Arabica Kikar. 10 Alnus nitida Sarol, Champ, Kunis, Rajan 11 Parrotia Jacquemontiana Hatab 12 Cassia fistula Amaltas, Kirangal 13 Grewia oppositifolia Pahari 14 Stephegyne parvifolia Kam 15 Ilex dipyrena Dratha. 16 Bassia latifolita Mohwo 17 Aegle marmelos Bel, Billan. 18 Ficus religiosa Pipal. 19 Pyrus pashia Kaintha. 20 Ficus indica Bar, Bor. 21 Pyrus lanata Batta 22 Punica granatum Druni. 23 Lannaea grandis Khaimbal Khemal. 24 Albizzia Spp. Sarin.
  • 46. 46 C Class All other broad leaved tree Tree species in Banihal Range and their uses: During the visit of forest range banihal we were study the various tree species and medicinal plants and their importance and their uses. After making the list of all species the Range officer gives the brief lecture about the species and explains us the differences among these species and also says how you differentiate it from other species. The following tree species in Banihal range which comes under the supervision of Range officer Banihal are: 1. Scientific Name: - Abies pindrow (Pinaceae) Local name: Badul, drewar, tung. English name: Western Himalayan Siliver Fir. Tall evergreen trees with a narrow cylindrical crown of horizontal branches or drooping branches; bark dark grey or greyish-brown become more or less furrowed with maturity. Leaves linear, flattened, spirally arranged, 2-4 cm long. Cones erect or cylindrical. Flower Time:-April, cones ripen in Sep-Oct. Ethnobotanical importance: Wood used for packing cases, building construction and for furniture. Branches are used as fuel. Medicinal use: Fresh leaves ground and mixed with equal quantity of honey and is given to patients in doses of one teaspoonful twice a day for curing cough and cold. Bark is used as a tea substitute by nomads. Leaves are also used in asthma. 2. Scientific Name: - Betula utilis (Betulaceae) Local name: Burz-kul, bhojpatra. Englisn name: White birch, Himalayan siliver birch. Small deciduous tree; bark white, peeling off in papery layers. Leaves ovate, acute, serrate, base broadly cuneate or rounded. Flowering time: May-June; Fr. Sept.-Oct.
  • 47. 47 Medicinal use: Bark was used to perform the ceremony of lustration after a mother was bathed on the sixth day after a child birth in which wisps of birch bark were lightened and waved over the heads of the mother and the child, and then extinguished in a jar of water. The decoction of bark is used for washing the ulcerating sores. 3. Scientific Name: Aesculus indica (Hipocastanaceae) Local name: Handun. English name: Indian horse-chestnut. Deciduous tree; with scaly buds; the old bark peeling off upwards in long thick bands. Leaves opposite, digitate, exstipulate, deciduous. Flowers white-yellowish streaked. Fruit depressed dark brown. Flowering Time: April-May; Fr. Aug.-Sept. Ethnobotanical importance: Wood is used for house boats, buildings, construction of huts, water troughs and supports article. Medicinal Uses: The seed oil is used in rheumatism and also applied to wound. The bark is made into paste for the application on painful dislocated joints. The root is used as a cure for leucorrhoea; fruits are used as colic for application of fistules in dysentery and pneumonia. 4. Scientific Name: Cedrus deodara (Pinaceae) Local Name: deodar English Name: Deodar, Himalayan Cedar. Large evergreen tree with horizontal branches; bark brown often reddish or greyish. Leaves needle like, glaucous-green, many in clusters, 2.5-3.7 cm. Flowers monoecious; catkins solitary. Cones solitary, erect, ovoid, dark brown. Flowering Time:-April; Fr-Sep-Nov. Ethnobotanical importance: Wood used for building construction, furniture, packing cases, bridges and fuel. Medicinal Uses: - Reddish brown oil extracted from its wood is applied locally for treating piles, ulcers, skin disorders and rheumatic pain. It is also rubbed on body to repel insects, tics and mites. Decoction of bark in doses of 50ml is given orally once a day for 3-4 days against dysentery and fever. The wood is used as antidote of snake bite. Bark is also used in urinary disorders 5. Scientific Name: Celtis australis (Ulmaceae) Local name: Brimji. Deciduous tree; bark pale ashy or grey, smooth with numerous small circular lenticels. Leaves ovate or elliptic, caudate, acuminate, serrate. Flowers small, greenish.
  • 48. 48 Flowering time: April-May; Fr. Sept.-Oct. Medicinal uses: Seeds are eaten against rhatism, brain tonic. Seeds are used in Paralysis and leprosy. Seeds made into paste with cow's urine, are applied to cure scabies. 6. Scientific Name: Ailanthus altissima (Simaroubaceae) Local name: Alamthar, almtees. English name: Tree of haven. Deciduous tree; bark bitter, grey. Primitive leaves without stipules and sample hairs. Flowers yellowish, white. Fruit capsule, one seeded. Flowering time. April-May; Fr. Sep-Oct Ethnobotanical importance: Wood used for fuel. Medicinal uses: Decoction of bark is useful in diarrhoea and dysentery. Fruits used in eye troubles and as an. Leaves used for skin disease like scabies. 7. Scientific Name: Alnus nitida (Betulaceae) Local name: Champ-Kul, kanza/ Sarul. English name: Alder. Large tree; branch-lets pubescent; bark dark brown, deeply furrowed. Leaves elliptic or elliptic-ovate, acuminate, entire or obscurely crenate, glabrous. Fruit spikes. Flowering Time: Sep-Oct; Fr. Ripen in winter but remains long on the tree. Ethnobotanical importance: Wood used for house construction, boxes and carpentry. Medicinal uses: Bark is used to treat diphtheria; also for rheumatism.
  • 49. 49 8. Scientific Name: Crataegus songarica (Rosaceae) Local name: Rhing English name: Hawthorn. Small tree; bark dark grey or peeling off in long flakes. Leaves broader then long, pinnately irregular. Flowers white. Fruit red, ovoid. Flowering Time: April-May; Fr. Aug-Sept. Ethnobotanical importance: Wood used for axe-handles, walking sticks and as box-wood. Medicinal uses: Fruit extracted is used in heart disease, such as blood pressure. 9. Scientific Name: Cupressus torulosa (Cupressaceae) Local name: Sarva English name: Cypress. Large evergreen tree; bark pale brown or reddish; leaves opposite, amflexicaul scale like, imbrickted, thick. Cones 1.2-2cm in diameter, bluish. Flowering Time: Jan.-Feb; Fr. Oct- Nov. 10. Scientific Name: Fraxinus hookeri (Oleaceae) Local name: Hgom, ash, hum, kum, sum, sinum. English name: Ash. Small deciduous tree; bark grey. Leaves pinnate, leaflets elliptic, acuminate, serrate, and sub-sessile. Flowers in short racemes. Calyx and corolla absent. Flowering Time: April- May; Fr. Aug-Sep. Ethnobotanical importance: Wood is in house boats, building construction, axe handles and furniture. Medicinal uses: The bark has tonic febrifugal actions, and the leaves are almost cathartic, producing unequivocal action up on the kidneys. 11. Scientific Name: Juglans regia (Juglandaceae) Local name: Doon, Akhrot. English name: Walnut. Large deciduous tree; bark grey, vertically fissured. Leaves large elliptic to oblong- lanceolate. Flowers small green. Drupe ovoid, 5 cm long, green Flowering Time: April.-May; Fr. Sept.-Oct. Ethnobotanical importance: Wood is used in agricultural implements, furniture, musical instruments. Medicinal uses: The bark is used for cleaning teeth and is thought of heaving medicinal value. Exocarp is vermifugal and paste in warm water is used for frostbite. The leaves are to stop bleeding and are toxic. 12. Scientific Name: Morus alba (Moraceae) Local name: Tul. English name: White mulberry.
  • 50. 50 Large deciduous tree; bark dark brown. Leaves broadly ovate, long pointed. Flowers greenish. Fruit purple. Flowering Time: . April; Fr. May-June Ethnobotanical importance: Wood is used for sport goods, building construction, agricultural implements, and furniture. Leaves are used as fodder for cattle; mainly used for rearing silk worms. Medicinal uses: The ripe fruits are eaten and are considered to increase blood contents. The bark is considered purgative and anthelmintic. 13. Scientific Name: Picea smithiana (Pinaceae) Local name: Kachul, Rayal. English name: Western Himalayan Spruce. Large evergreen tree with drooping branches; bark reddish brown or pale grey, rough, exfoliating in thin woody plates. Leaves needle like single, spirally arranged around the branches. Cones cylindrical, dark brown. Flowering Time: April; Fr. Sept-Oct. Ethnobotanical importance: Wood is used for building construction and for boxes. Medicinal uses: Oleoresin is applied on cracks of heals and also on wounds. . Leaves used as bath salts; leaf oil is used as deodorants and room sprays. Leaves also used as manure and litter for cattle. 14. Scientific Name: Pinus roxburghii (Pinaceae) Local name: Kair, yari. English name: Chir pine. Large evergreen tree; bark grey or pinkish brown deeply furrowed. Leaves in bundles of 3, bright green. Cones solitary or 2-5 together. Scales woody with pointed or recurved tips. Flowering Time: April. Fr. Sep-Oct next year. Ethnobotanical importance: Wood is resinous and heavy. It is used in buildings, huts, for making of boxes and also used as firewood. Medicinal use: Resin called ‘Jeegan’ is applied on cracked heels. The carbon obtained from burning of resinous wood is mixed with few drops of mustard oil to make black paste called ‘Kajal’.This is applied by the young girls to make their eyes attractive. Resin is also used for skin diseases and in inflammation. 15. Scientific Name: Pinus wallichiana (Pinaceae) Local name: Kair, yari. English name: Himalayan blue pine. Large evergreen tree; bark of poles quite smooth and greenishgrey-pinkish brown. Leaves in bundles of 5. Cones solitary 2-5 together; scales woody slightly with obtuse tips. Flowering Time: Feb-Apr; Fr. Sep-Oct of next year. Ethnobotanical importance: Wood is used in building construction, bridges and also used as fire wood. Cones are also used as fire wood. Medicinal uses: Oleoresin is applied on cracked heals. The yellow dye made from decoction of its bark is used to dye wool. The leaves when ground with soil (peeli mitti) form a paste, which is applied to treat internal injuries of cattle. 16. Scientific Name: Platanus orientalis (Platanaceae) Local name: Boin, chinar, buna. English name: Orientale plane.
  • 51. 51 Large deciduous tree; with spreading branches; bark slightly white in old stem. Leaves palmately lobed and nerved. Flowers greenish brown in globose pendulus heads. Flowering Time: March-April; Fr. Sept.-Oct. Ethnobotanical importance: Wood is used for small boxes, trays and furniture. Leaves are mixed with mud to make the floor of rooms. Medicinal use: Fresh leaves-brushed and applied to the eyes in ophthalmic. Bark boiled in vinegar, is given in diarrhea and dysentery. 17. Scientific Name: Populus ciliata (Salicaceae) Local name: Panjeeb/ Parim phras. English name: Himalayan poplar. Large deciduous tree; bark brown, vertically deep-fissured, smooth on young trees. Leaves alternate broadly acute, cordate. Capsule ovoid, 0.8-1 cm, long. Seeds very minute. Flowering and Fruiting: March-May Ethnobotanical importance: Wood is used for building construction, sports goods, and boxes. Leaves used as fodder for cattle. Medicinal use: Decoction of bark acts as stimulant and purified of the blood. 18. Scientific Name: Populus nigra (Salicaceae) Local name: Kashur phras. English name: Italian poplar Large deciduous tree with narrow pyramidal crown and viscid buds; bark grey, rough, deeply furrowed in old trees. Leaves ovate-rhomboid. Flowers greenish. Flowering Time and fruiting : April.-May Ethnobotanical importance: Wood is used for building construction, sport goods and boxes. Medicinal use: An ointment prepared from leaves-bud balsam is used for curing cold. Resin obtained from buds is used as salve and to promote hair growth. 19. Scientific Name: Quercus dilatata (Fagaceae) Local name: Oak, tahal. English name: Grenn oak, Moru oak. Large shade-enduring tree, almost evergreen; bark dark grey or black peeling off in longitudinal scales. Leaves oblonglanceolate, acuminate, entire, coriaceous. Acorn solitary. Flowering Time: April.-May; Fr. 1-18 months after flowering 20. Scientific Name: Salix alba (Salicaceae) Local name: Bot-Vir. English name: White willow. Small deciduous tree; bark grey or yellow furrowed; young shoots and buds white and sticky. Leaves numerous, alternate, stipules small, lanceolate, erect. Flower greenish. Flowering And fruiting: Apr-May Ethnobotanical importance: Wood used for building construction and cricket bates Used in case of diarrhoea and dysentery. Bark is used for intermittent vomiting; branches are used to clean teeth. 21. Scientific Name: Salix babylonica (Salicaceae) Local name: Kashir vir. English name: Weeping willow. Small to moderate sized tree. Leaves linear-lanceolate. Flowers in short, terminal catkins; capsule narrow conic, glabrous.