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ITEE & ITSS


     AOTS
 Tsunoda Kazuhiro
                                               1
               Copyright   C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
Topic
1. Overview of the ITEE
2. ITSS and ITEE
3. Benefit of ITEE Certification
4. When you have job in Japanese
   Market, What should you do?


                                                       2
                       Copyright   C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
1. Overview of the ITEE
(Information Technology Engineers Examination)




                                                                3
                                Copyright   C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
Mutual Recognitions between Asian
            Countries and Japan
☆   In 2000, the economic ministers of ASEAN,
    Japan, China and Korea agreed to promote a
    program to recognize common Skill Standards
    in the IT field across Asia.
☆   4 countries and 1 region have their own ITEE.
(India, Singapore, Korea, China, Taiwan)

☆   6 countries introduce Japanese ITEE. (ITPEC)
(Thai, Philippine, Vietnam, Myanmar, Malaysia, Mongolia)

                                                                           4
                                           Copyright   C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
The Mutual Recognitions Agreement




              Reference : Mutual Recognition on IPA’s web page
                                                                    5
                                    Copyright   C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
Mutual recognition with Japan
                                                       Gr o u p A (Own Ma k in g )
                     Japan              India      Singapore Korea          China             Taiwan
   MOU                  -               9-Feb-01    24-Aug-01    21-Dec-01     31-Jan-02      2-Dec-03
                                         MCIT        MICA         Labour       Information
                       METI                                                                   ( EA IDB )
                                                                                               MO
                                          DIT
                                         ( )         (IDA)      Department    Industry Dep.
Organization
                                        DOEACC
                      JITEC
                                         Society
                                                      SCS       (HRD Korea)     CEIAEC        (III/CSF)
               Information Security
                     Specialist                                                                  ○

                 Project Manager                       ○

                System Architect          ○                                         ○
 Mutual
Certificated Network Specialist                                                     ○            ○
  Exam       Data Base Specialist                                                   ○

               Applied IT Engineer        ○                         ○               ○            ○

               Fudamental IT Engineer     ○                         ○               ○

                   IT Passport                                      ○


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                                                                        Copyright   C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
Mutual recognition with Japan
                                               Gr o u p B ( t r o d u c e d J a p a n e s e e x a m s ys t e m )
                                                           In
                     Japan               Thai       Philippine Viet Nam Myanmar Malaysia Mongolia
   MOU                  -               25-Jun-02     17-Apr-02     4-Jul-02     13-Nov-02     5-Jan-05    28-Aug-07

                                         MOST                                   (MCSDC)
                       METI                              DTI         MOST        e-National   (MOHE)
Organization                            (NSTDA)                                 Taskforce
                       JITEC            (NECTEC)      (PhilNITS)    (VITEC)       (MCF)       (METEOR)       (NITP)
               Information Security
                    Specialist
                 Project Manager

                  System Architect
 Mutual
Certificated     Network Specialist        ○
  Exam.
                Data Base Specialist       ○

                Applied IT Engineer                                    ○

               Fudamental IT Engineer      ○             ○             ○            ○              ○           ○

                    IT Passport            ○             ○             ○            ○                          ○



                                                                                                                   7
                                                                                  Copyright    C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
ITPEC => Mutual recognition
    (Information Technology Professional Examination Council)

☆   ITPEC was established in 2005 by representatives
    from the countries that have adopted Japanese
    ITEE to conduct the common FE examination.
☆   ITPEC conducts the exam on the same date and
    time with the same set of questions.
☆   The mutual recognition will facilitate cross-
    border cooperation among businesses and the
    exchange of IT human resources across the
    region.                                       8
                                           Copyright   C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
Number of Applicants & Successful
   Examinees in 6 Countries




                                                       9
                       Copyright   C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
Japanese IT Certifications supported
             Japanese Technology

☆   The Japanese students who study IT aim at
    certifying examination with “Official
    authorization”.
☆   There is various IT related qualification in the
    world.
☆   IT Certification examination is one of the most
    prestigious exams in Japan.
                                                                   10
                                    Copyright   C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
Japanese ITEE
☆   The Ministry of International Trade and
    Industry launched this exam system in 1969.
☆   The government continuously reformed the
    exam system according to the market
    changes.
☆   As of Spring 2010, the examination has been
    taken by over 15.40 million applicants,
    approximately 1.7 million of whom passed
    successfully.
                                                                11
                                 Copyright   C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
Applicants, Passed Examinees in Japan




                     Reference : JITEC on IPA’s web page
                                                            12
                             Copyright   C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
Structure of the IP exam
              Total 2 hours and 45 minutes
                           9:30 - 12:15
Multiple-choice test (select 1 correct answer from 4 choices)
• Short question type (1 question contains 1 question)
• Medium question type (1 question contains 4 sub-questions.).
All 100 questions must be answered
•Short question type: 88 questions
•Medium question type: 12 questions (3 questions consisting of 4
sub-questions each)
Passing standard: There are 2 criteria to be satisfied to pass the IP.
•60% of the full points.
•30% of full points in each category (Strategy, Management and
Technology field)
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                                               Copyright   C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
IP Exam
☆   Ranges and the number of questions
    1) Strategy field: about 35%
    2) Management field: about 25%
    3) Technology field: about 40%




                                                           14
                            Copyright   C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
Structure of the FE exam
                      Total 5.0 hours
     Morning Exam                       Afternoon Exam
9:30 - 12:00 (2.5 hours)           13:30 – 16:00 (2.5 hours)
Multiple-choice test (select 1   Multiple-choice test (Each question
correct answer from 4 choices)   has several sub-questions)
All 80 questions must be         7 out of 8 questions must be
answered                         answered
Passing standard point is 60%    Passing standard point is 60% of
of full points.                  full points.


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                                              Copyright   C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
Correspondence with the past FE Exam
☆   The Morning Exam covers the same fields as the
    past FE exam. The Afternoon Exam covers the
    same technology fields as the past FE exam,
    while incorporating management and strategy
    fields, questions is spread evenly across a broad
    range of fields.
☆   The level of the examination is almost equivalent
    to that of the past FE exam.

                                                                   16
                                    Copyright   C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
FE Morning Exam
☆   Ranges and the number of questions
    ◦ Q1 ~ Q50: Technology field       =>
      60 %
    ◦ Q51~ Q60: Management field       =>
      15 %
    ◦ Q61~ Q80: Strategy field  => 25 %



                                                              17
                               Copyright   C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
FE Afternoon Exam
☆   Ranges and the number of questions
◦ Q1~Q6: Must answer all questions (compulsory).
   • 4 questions from Hardware, Software, Database, Network and
                      Information Security
   • Program Design
• Data Structure or Algorithms
◦ Q7~Q8: Choose 1 out of 2 questions.
   • 2questions from Software Development (C, JAVA)




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                                          Copyright   C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
Structure of the AP exam
                    Total 5.0 hours
     Morning Exam                     Afternoon Exam
9:30 - 12:00 (2.5 hours)         13:30 – 16:00 (2.5 hours)
Multiple-choice test (Select 1   Description test (Each question
correct answer from 4 choices)   has several sub-questions)
All 80 questions must be         6 out of 12 questions must be
answered                         answered
Passing standard point is 60% Passing standard point is 60%
of full points.               of full points.

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                                           Copyright   C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
Correspondence with the past SW Exam
☆  The Morning Exam covers strategy fields in addition
   to the technology and management fields covered in the
   past SW Exam. The Afternoon Exam covers almost
   the same technology fields as the past SW Exam, but
   also includes management and strategy questions.
Several questions are provided, allowing the examinee to
   select and answer the questions that best match his/her
   area of profession.
☆   The level of the examination is almost equivalent to that
    of the past SW exam.
                                                                        20
                                         Copyright   C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
AP Morning Exam
☆   Ranges and the number of questions
    ◦ Q1 ~ Q49: Technology field       => 60
      %
    ◦ Q50~ Q60: Management field       => 15
      %
    ◦ Q61~ Q80: Strategy field   => 25 %



                                                             21
                              Copyright   C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
AP Afternoon Exam
☆   Ranges and the number of questions
◦ Q1~Q2: Choose 1 out of 2 questions
   • 1 question from Management Strategy , Information Strategy
   and Strategy Planning/Consulting Techniques.
   • Programming (Algorithms)
    ◦ Q3~Q12: Choose 5 out of 10 questions
    • 1 question from Management Strategy , Information Strategy
    and Strategy Planning/Consulting Techniques.
    • 9 questions from System Architecture, Network, Database,
    Embedded System Development, Information
    System Development, Information Security,
    Project Management, IT Service Management
    and System Audit.                                        22
                                            Copyright   C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
1. ITSS and ITEE
   (ITSS : IT Skill Standards)

                              [Reference]
        Skill Standards for IT Professionals model curriculum
   - To get level 2 - (Corresponding with ITSS V3) Incorporated
Administrative Agency Information-Technology Promotion Agency (IPA)


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                                               Copyright   C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
ITSS Utilization
                                                                Refer to “The Preliminary Trend Survey for IT Human Resource in Japan(2007), IPA”
                                                                             URL : http://www.ipa.go.jp/jinzai/itss/activity/activity2.html#20080129
ITSS Utilization in IT Vendors
    The ratio of “current use of ITSS” companies is about 30 % of the total.
    The ratio of large companies is high, but many small and medium-sized companies are “under review”.
    The ratio of “no use and no plan” companies is low, and most companies, over 80%, need to use ITSS.
                                                                                                                                               2.2
                                                                                                                                               %     ( N=3
        All                          28.3                              27.5                            27.2                         14.8
                                      %                                 %                               %                            %               57 )
                             Current use                                       Under review to use
                             Need to use, but no review                        No use and no plan to use in the future
                             No answer

                                                          0%            20%              40%              60%            80%                 100%

    By Company               1,0000 0
                                 1and over (N=41) )
                                   0 名以上(     N=41                               63.4%                           14.6%       9.8%     12.2%
        Size
                          3 0 under 0
                          300 – 0 1,000 (N=65) )
                           0 ~1 0 名未満(     N=65                         43.1%                           33.8%                16.9%         4.6% 1.5%
    (by Employee
      number)              1000 under 名未満(
                           1 –~3 0 300 (N=172) )
                             0     0      N=172                19.2%                  34.3%                     28.5%           14.5%          3.5%


                                under 名未満(
                                 100 100 (N=72) )
                                            N=72               19.4%          13.9%               38.9%                      26.4%             1.4%


                             現在利用し
                             Current use ている                  現在利用を検討し
                                                       Under review to use   ている
                             必要性は感じ no review検討には至っていない use 特に利用しto use in the future
                                           ているが、
                             Need to use, but          No     and no plan ておらず、今後も利用の予定はない
                             無回答
                             No answer


                                                                                                                                            24
                                                                                                     Copyright           C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
ITSS is …

The INDEX, which identifies and systemizes
business capabilities for IT services.
It provides Framework for the education and
training of IT professionals in businesses and
universities.

         Visualization of invisible
            skills ( business
              capability )
                                                                
                                 Copyright   C                  25
                                                 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
ITSS Objective

  The objective of the skill standards is

   effective capital investment for human resources
   development
 in the IT service industry.


 To promote the IT professionals for business strategy.
  1. Human Resource Development for IT Professionals ( for
  Companies)
  2. Carrier Path Development (for Individuals)
                                                                             
                                              Copyright   C                  26
                                                              2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
Education




                                                  Instructions
                                                  Instructions
                                                                                                                                                              2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda




                                                  Planning the training
                                                  Planning the training
                                                  Service Desk
                                                  Service Desk
                                                                                                                                                                             27
                                                                                                                                                                             
                           Management
                            I Service




                                                  Operation
                                                  Operation
                                                  System operation
                                                  System operation
                            T




                                                  Operations management
                                                  Operations management
                                                  Facility management
                                                  Facility management
                           Customer
                            Service




                                                  Software
                                                  Software
ITSS V3 Career framework




                                                  Hardware
                                                  Hardware
                                                  Application software
                           Development




                                                                                                                                                                            C
                            Software




                                                  Middleware
                                                  Middleware
                                                                                                                                                                          Copyright
                                                  Basic software
                           Application
                            Specialist




                                                  Business application package
                                                  Business application system
                                                  Business application system
                                                  Security
                                                  Systems Management
                                                  Systems Management
                             TSpecialist




                                                  Common Application infrastructure
                                                  Database
                             I




                                                  Network
                                                  Platform
                                                  Software product development
                           Management




                                                  Network service
                             Project




                                                  IT outsourcing
                                                  Systems development
                                                  Infrastructure Architecture
                             TArchitect




                                                  Integration Architecture
                             I




                                                  Application Architecture
                              Consultant




                                                  Business function
                                                  Industry
                                                  Sales via media
                              Sales




                                                  Product sales by visiting customers
                                                  Consulting by visiting customers
                                                  Market Communication
                              Marketing



                                                  Sales channel strategy
                                                  Marketing management
                             Job Classification




                                                                      Specialty Fields
                               JOB Category




                                                                                         Level 7

                                                                                                   Level 6

                                                                                                             Level 5

                                                                                                                       Level 4

                                                                                                                                 Level 3

                                                                                                                                           Level 2

                                                                                                                                                     Level1
ITSS Characteristic
1. Scope is IT Vendors. But, possible to use in User Companies.

2. Classify 11 Job Categories. And 35 Specialty Fields.

3. Specify 7 Levels based on the ability and business results of
     Individuals.

4. Level is certified by the KPI(*1) of “Experience and Results”.

5. Define “Career” and its expected “Skill”.

6. Reference Model (No need full installation. Use only a part. )

7. Use ITEE(*2) as level certification tool. (at Level 1, 2 and 3)
                        (*1): Key Performance Indicator
                        (*2): IT Engineering Examination
                                                                                          
                                                           Copyright   C                  28
                                                                           2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
Analogies of “Job category” (compare
 it to professional in other industries)


               Sales   Consultant
                                      IT Architect


                                                     Project Management
                       Analogies of
                       Job category
                         in ITSS
   Education




                                                                             
                                              Copyright   C                  29
                                                              2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
JOB Category Definition                                                            blue : outcome
                                                                                               red :
                                                                                                responsibility
    Job Category                                                      Description

                       Performs planning and preparation of business strategy such as sales strategies, implementation
                       plans, financial planning, and sales channel strategies, etc, in order to response to customer needs by
     Marketing         carrying out forecasts and analysis of market trends of company, business, products and services. Has
                       responsibility in the investment effects of planed business strategy through analysis of market, etc,
                       novelty, and customer satisfactions

                       Performs confirmation of customer's management policy, and to realize the policy, provides proposals
                       and closes contracts by offering solution for resolution of issues, improvement of business process,
        Sales
                       and necessary solutions, products and services. Enhance customer satisfactions, by establishing
                       good relations with customers.

                       Contributes realization of customer business strategies and vision and solving of problems, through
                       implementation of counseling on customer management strategies, business strategies and formulation
     Consultant
                       of IT strategies, proposal and advice, by utilizing intellectual property and consulting methodology. Has
                       responsibility in values and effects brought by proposal, customer satisfaction, feasibility, etc.

                       Analyzes problem of business and IT, and re-composes solution as requirements of information
                       systematization. Designs IT architecture with quality (consistency, etc.) of whole information
                       systems in order to realize customer business strategies by utilizing hardware and software related skills
    IT Architect       (application related skills and methodology). Designed architecture confirms that follow-on development
                       and installation, and confirms solution construction on problems. In addition, clarifies that information
                       system satisfies appropriate standard in order to construct solution, and evaluates effects from technical
                       risks against feasibility in advance.

                   Performs proposing, initiation, planning, execution, monitoring and controlling, and closing of a project,
Project Management by utilizing project management related skill and business management technology. Has responsibility
                   in the completion of the planned deliverable and required quality of service, cost, and target date.

                                                                                                                          
                                                                                         Copyright     C                  30
                                                                                                           2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
Concept of level and assessment
   level            Level 1 1
                     Level                     Level 22
                                                Level               Level 33
                                                                     Level                      Level 4 4
                                                                                                 Level                 Level 5 5
                                                                                                                        Level                       Level 66
                                                                                                                                                     Level                   Level 77
                                                                                                                                                                              Level
                                                                                                                           Business, technology, methodology
                        Able to find out and resolve a problem on-the-job problem                                           Lead (creation) business, technology and
                         Discovery of an on-the-job problem, solution
                                                         (utilization)
                                 are possible (practical use)                                                                              methodology
                                                                                                                                         I lead you
                                                                                                                                               (creation)
                     Carry out under the guidance                     Lead in the scope
                                                                   Sphere of business (a project)   of work             Contribute to             Contribute to                 Lead the
                         I carry it out with                                                                           I contribute               I contribute to             I lead the
   Value                      guidance                                             (project)
                                                                                     An o                                the company
                                                                                                                       to an office               the industry
                                                                                                                                                   the industry                  industry
                                                                                                                                                                               industry
 Contribution
  creation                                                                            lead
   for value
          Contri                                                                                                                                                             A shadow to
    creation
          bution                                                                                                                                                              influence
                                                                                                                                                                                      to
                                                                                                                                                                               a market
                                                                                                                                                                              the market
                                                                                                                                                        Recognized in a the market
                                                                                                                                                         I am recognized in
                                                                                                                                                                    market
                                                                                                                                          I am recognized in
                                                                                                                                          Recognized in
                                                                                                                                               an office
                                                                                                                                                                       the company
                                                                                                                                   I can teach it
                                                                                                                                        Guides subordinates
                                                                                                                  It is possiblebyan
                                                                                                                                by him/her self
                                                                                                                 Practicesentirely
                                                                                                                  own effort
 Achievement
 It is worked on                         Ableconstant part of
                                            At to ….a
    of required
     a demand                                   degree
                                         assignment without
                                           If there is it, it is
         works
     Achieveme
       nt of no
                                               supervisor's
                                             an own effort
                                                I attend and
                                                  assistance
                                                   have it
                     Under the
                   Able to…under
                     guidance
                    the guidance
                          It is
                      possible

                                                                                                                                                    Result as a member of the
Assessment                                                                                                                                              as industry
                                                                                                                                                             a member of        the industry
  range
                                                                                                                    Results as a member of anof an organization
                                                                                                                       Result as a member
                                                                                                                             organization
     Assessment
                                                                                             Result as an
       object                                                                                  Results
                                                                                              individual
                                                                                                            as an individual

                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                           Copyright          C                    31
                                                                                                                                                    2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
Education/Training Roadmap
                    Structure example
Education Course Groups of Application Specialist
                Beginner Lever                                        Entry Level                                                              Mid Level                         Advanced Level
                   Level 1                                    Level 2                                        Level 3                 Level 4                 Level 5          Level 6       Level 7

                                                                                                                                                     Latest IT Trends
                                                                                                             Component
                                                                                                             Technology          Advanced Component Technology
                                                                                                            Fundamentals

  Technology                                                                                             System Design                Advanced System Design



                                                                      System Development Fundamentals
                                                  IT Fundamentals 2
                                                                                                        System Development        Advanced System Development
                                                                                                                System
                                                                                                                                Advanced System Operation/Maintenance
                     IT Fundamentals 1




                                                                                                        Operation/Maintenance
                                                                                                         Application Package      Application Package by Product
                                                                                                           Fundamentals

                                                                                                                                 System Development Methodology               Community Activities
                                                                                                                                                         Method of Defining
 Methodology                                                                                                                                            System Requirements
                                                                                                                                  Consulting
                                                                                                                                  Methodology

                                                                                                                                   Project
   Project                                                                                                                      Management
 Management                                                                                                                     Fundamentals

   Business/                                                                                               Industry
                                                                                                                                          Industry Applications Trends
                                                                                                          Application
   Industry                                                                                              Fundamentals                          Latest Business Trends
                                                     Leadership                                                                   Leadership for Application Specialist
                                                    Fundamentals
                                                   Communication
   Personal                                         Fundamentals                                                                  Communication for Application Specialist
                                                     Negotiation                                                                 Negotiation for Application Specialist
                                                    Fundamentals


                                         : Common to All Types of Professions                                                       : Choice by Area of Specialization
                                                                                                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                                                     Copyright   C                  32
                                                                                                                                                                                     2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
ITSS as a reference model
                                                                                                                                                                     Blank for no use job category


                                                                     Project                                                    Application
   JOB Category                          Sales
                                                                   Management
                                                                                                     IT Specialist
                                                                                                                                 Specialist

                                                                                                                                                                
                     Customers
                       Consulting by Visiting




                                                     System Development




                                                                                Platform
                                                                                           Network
                                                                                                      Database




                                                                                                                     Security

                                                                                                                                 Business Application System
  Specialty Fields                                                                                                                                                    Blank for no use
Use the levels                                                                                                                                                        specialty fields
  without
modification

      Level 7
                                                                                                                                                                    Adopt vendor test
      Level 6
                                                                                                                                                                   independently as the
      Level 5                                                                                                                                                        certification tool

      Level 4                                                                                *

      Level 3                                          ITEE AP
      Level 2                                             ITEE FE
      Level 1                                             ITEE IP
 *: Vendor Test
                                                                                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                                               Copyright   C                  33
                                                                                                                                                                               2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
Model Curriculum & training road map
              Training Road Map                                           Model Curriculum
                                                                                                                    Related
                                                                                      Period                         Exam
Level Course Group           Course Name                        Subject                                 Units
                                                                                      (hours)

                                                    IT Engineer Fundamentals (1)         22.5        15 (3 days)
                       IT Engineer Fundamentals
                                                    IT Engineer Fundamentals (2)         22.5        15 (3 days)
      IT Basic 2
                       Programming                  Programming Fundamentals (1)         22.5        15 (3 days)
                       Fundamentals                 Programming Fundamentals (2)         22.5        15 (3 days)
                                                    Application Development
                                                    Fundamentals (1)                     22.5        15 (3 days)
                       Application Development
                       Fundamentals                 Application Development
                                                                                         22.5        15 (3 days)     FE
                                                    Fundamentals (2)
 2    System
      Development      Database Fundamentals        Database Fundamentals                22.5        15 (3 days)
      Fundamentals                                  Network Fundamentals (1)             22.5        15 (3 days)
                       Network Fundamentals
                                                    Network Fundamentals (2)             22.5        15 (3 days)
                       Security Fundamentals        Security Fundamentals                22.5        15 (3 days)
                                         Subtotal                                       225.0       150 (30 days)
      Personal Skill   Personal Skill
                                                    Personal Skill Fundamentals          22.5       15 (3 days)
      Fundamentals     Fundamentals                                                                                    -
                                        Total                                           247.5       165 (33 days)

Each subject is structured with 90 minutes x 15 units.
                                                                                                                   34
                                                                                   Copyright    C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
Training course group of
 common job category
                    Level 1              Level 2                                        Level 3
                                                                                  Component Technology




                                               System Development Fundamentals
                                                                                     Fundamentals

                                                                                    System Design

Technology                                                                       System Development




                                  IT Basic 2
                                                                                         System
                                                                                 Operation/Maintenance
                                                                                  Application Package
                                                                                     Fundamentals




                     IT Basic 1
Methodology


Project
Management
                                                                                  Industry Application
Business/Industry
                                                                                     Fundamentals


                                    Personal
Personal
                                      Skill
                                  Fundamentals

                                                                                                                     35
                                                                                   Copyright      C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
Subject overview list                                                 <Structure of Subject Code>
             (A part of the list of Level 2 )                               (Column 1) (Column 2) (Column 3) (Column 4)
                                                                              Level      Course     Course     Subject
                                                                                         Group      Name
   Course          Course      Subject
                                       Subject Name                                    Overview
   Group           Name         Code
                                                 This subject aims at learning of the technical knowledge needed basically and
                                    IT Engineer
                                                 universally for the information system.
                               B111 Fundamentals
                                                 The learner learns such technologies as platform, network, database and
                                         (1)
                IT Engineer                      software engineering as technical knowledge.
                Fundamentals                     This subject aims at learning of the technical knowledge needed basically and
                                    IT Engineer
                                                 universally for the information system.
                               B112 Fundamentals
                                                 The learner learns system architecture, development procedure, development
IT Basic 2                               (2)
                                                 method as technical knowledge.
                                    Programming
                               B121 Fundamentals This subject aims at learning of fundamental knowledge and programming
                Programming              (1)     language (Java) that are used when creating program. Moreover, the learner
                Fundamentals        Programming practices the program creation and learns flow of the program development,
                               B122 Fundamentals the usage method of development environment.
                                         (2)
                                    Application       This subject aims at learning of the fundamental knowledge about business
                                    Development       requirement analysis method, design method, development method,
                               B211
                                    Fundamentals      technology and the related knowledge and management technique when
System       Application                 (1)          developing application.
Development Development
Fundamentals Fundamentals           Application
                                                 Business requirement analysis and design flow, coding and test in the
                                    Development
                               B212              application development are experienced by using the theme of virtual
                                    Fundamentals
                                                 business application development through Group exercise/practice.
                                         (2)

                                                                                                                       36
                                                                                       Copyright    C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
Subject Structure --- Level 2

                                                                Database Fundamentals
                                                                       [B221]



                                                              Network Fundamentals (1)          Network Fundamentals (2)
                                                                      [B231]                            [B232]
IT Engineer Fundamentals (1)   IT Engineer Fundamentals (2)
          [B111]                         [B112]
                                                                Security Fundamentals
                                                                        [B241]
Programming Fundamentals (1)   Programming Fundamentals (2)
          [B121]                         [B122]
                                                               Application Development          Application Development
                                                                  Fundamentals (1)                 Fundamentals (2)
                                                                        [B211]                           [B212]



                                                              Personal Skill Fundamentals
                                                                        [B311]




                                                                                                                   37
                                                                                    Copyright   C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
Subject Details --- IT Engineer Fundamentals (1)
(1) Subject Syllabus
           Subject                                                             IT Engineer Fundamentals (1)
Subject Code              B111
Job Category              Common Job category
Target Learners           Learners who want to achieve Level 2 of IT Skill Standards
Prerequisites             Learners should pass through "Introduction to IT (1), (2)" or an equivalent level of knowledge.
Course Group              IT Basic 2
Course Name               IT Engineer Fundamentals
Overview                  This subject aims at learning of the technical knowledge needed basically and universally for the information system.
                          The learner learns such technologies as platform, network, database and software engineering as technical knowledge.
Learning Objectives       The learner can perform the development, operation, and maintenance work by using basic technical knowledge concerning the
                          information system under the direction of high-level professionals as a team member of an application system development.
Training and Teaching     Lecture
Method                    (A part of the lecture can be done by e-Learning)
Assessment method of      The trainer judges the assess lecture reports after the lecture, questionnaires, knowledge confirmation tests and the effort for the
Acquired Skill            exercises synthetically then evaluates them.
Curriculum Constitution   90 minutes (1 unit) x 15 times (Total: 22.5 hours)
                          [Field] Technology
Knowledge Item                              [Major Category] [Middle Category]
Classification                              1 Basic Theories 1 Basic Theories
                                                              2 Algorithms and Programming
                                            2 Computer System                  3 Computer Component
                                                              4 System Component
                                                              5 Software
                                                              6 Hardware
                                            3 Technology Element               7 Human Interfaces
                                                              8 Multimedia
                                                              9 Database
                                                              10 Network

                                                                                                                                              38
                                                                                                           Copyright       C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
(2) Unit Syllabus --- 1) List of Unit Title
(Level 2 => IT Basic 2 => IT Engineer Fundamentals => IT Engineer Fundamentals (1) )
 Unit
                     Title                                                        Learning Objectives
 No.
        Orientation                       The learner can explain transition of positioning of the information system in the information society,
    1
        What is the information system?   roles, and the usage.
                                          The learner can explain computer components in general and the input-output equipment in
    2 Input/output devices
                                          particular.
                                          The learner can explain the memory (memory storage) and auxiliary storage devices which are the
    3 Memory(Storage)
                                          components of the computer.
    4 Processor and bus                   The learner can explain the processor and bus which are the components of the computer.

    5 Operating system                    The learner can explain the operating system (OS) which is the component of the computer.
                                          The learner can explain the middleware which becomes indispensable when constructing the
    6 Middleware
                                          information system
                                          The learner can explain the file system which is the component of the computer. In addition, the
    7 File system
                                          learner can explain the database which is a part of the middleware.
                                          The learner can explain the types and roles of network. In addition, the learner can explain the
    8 Network
                                          overview of communication protocol also.
    9 Data representation                 The learner can explain the methods of data representation which is processed in a computer.

   10 Basic theories of Information       The learner can explain the basic principle of the set and logical operation.
                                          The learner can explain the theory that becomes basic of the program from among a basic theory
   11 Basic theories of program
                                          concerning the principle of operation of the computer.
                                          The learner can explain the data structure which is an element which forms a program, i.e., the
   12 Data structures
                                          structure of the data which is a candidate for processing of a program.
                                          The learner can explain that what kind of procedure performs processing of alignment and search
   13 Algorithm(1)
                                          among the algorithms which are the elements which form a program.
                                          The learner can explain that what kind of procedure performs processing of flow chart and arrays
   14 Algorithm(2)
                                          among the algorithms which are the elements which form a program.
                                          The learner can establish IT engineer technology by reviewing current lectures’ content through doing
   15 Summary
                                          exercise.

                                                                                                                                  39
                                                                                                Copyright      C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
(2) Unit Syllabus --- 2) Unit Syllabus (A part of the list)
Unit   Unit Title            Objectives                                               Contents
No.
                                                1. Orientation
                                                2. Information society and network
                                                (1) Information and information processing
                  The learner can explain
     Orientation                                (2) Component of information system
                  transition of positioning of
     What is the                                (3) Communications using information system
   1              the information system in the
     information                                3. System processing form and using form
                  information society roles,
     system?                                    4. Current status of applicability area of information system and the future trend
                  and the usage.
                                                (1) Information system and its roles in company
                                                (2) Information system and its roles as social infrastructure
                                                1. Trend of components
                                                (3)Computer base technology which composes information system
                                                (1) Computer component and its roles
                                                (2) Data flow and control flow
                                                2. I/O devices
                                                (1) Data representation
                                                (2) Types and characteristics of I/O devices
                                                (3) I/O interfaces
                                                (4) Device driver etc.
                  The learner can explain
                                                3. Input devices
                  computer components in
     Input/output                               (1) Keyboard
   2              general and the input -
     devices                                    (2) Bar-code reader
                  output equipment in
                                                (3) OCR/OMR
                  particular.
                                                (4) Image scanner
                                                (5) Voice recognizer etc.
                                                4. Output devices and display devices
                                                (1) Printer
                                                (2) Display etc.
                                                |
                                                |
                                                |
                                                                                                                        40
                                                                                        Copyright    C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
Approach to promote ITEE with ITSS
                                                                                                                         IS
                                                                                                                         TS                                                                                             IE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        TE
     Career path by ITSS & ITEE                        Level 7
                                                                                              Internal high- end player and
                                                                                                    world class player


•   What is the meaning the passing ITEE in career ?   Level 6                                                   Internal high- end player

     – Skill Standards for IT professionals provides   Level 5                                                  Intra-firm high- end player
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Informatio n Techno lo gy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Eng ineers Examination
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 co rrespo nding to up to level 4


       index to assess broader aspects of IT                                                                                                                                                                           High level
                                                       Level 4                                High level knowledge and skill
       professionals.                                                                                                                                                                                                 examination

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Middle level
     – Skill Standards for IT professionals provides   Level 3                                                  Applied knowledge and skill
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      examination

       index for the passing each examination.         Level 2                            Fundamental knowledge and skill
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Basic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      examination

                                                                                                                    Required minimum                                                                                     Entry
                                                       Level 1                                                      basic knowledge                                                                                   examination

      Total HRD by ITSS & ITEE
                                                                                                                               Caree
                                                                                    Beginner
                                                                                                                                 r In
                                                                                                                                 Entry Level                                       Mid Level                                           Advanced Level



•   How to use the ITEE in HRD?
                                                                                     Lever                             Level 1


                                                                                                                                 dex
                                                                                                                                                Level 2                Level 3                    Level 4


                                                                                                                                                                                              Latest IT Trends
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Level 5               Level 6   Level 7




     – How to assess the HRD beyond ITEE?
                                                                                                                                                Compo nent
                                                                                                                                                Techno logy             Advanced Component Technology
                                                                                                                                               Fundamentals
                                                        Technology
                                                                                                                                               System Design                Advanced System Design
                                                                                                                        System


           • Skill Standards for IT professionals
                                                                                                                     Development         System Development              Ad vanced System Development




                                                                                            IT Fundamentals 2
                                                                                                                     Fundamentals
                                                                                                                                                System
                                                                                                                                                                    Ad vanced System Operation/Maintenance
                                                                                                                                        Operation/Maintenance
                                                                                                                                                Application


             provides KPI to broader fields in HR.
                                                                                                                                                 Package                Application Package by Product
                                                                                                                                               Fundamentals




                                                                      IT Fundamentals 1
                                                                                                                                                                       System Development Methodology
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Community Activities




      – How to develop HR ?
                                                                                                                                                                                             Method of Defining
                                                        Methodology                                                                                                                         Sys tem Requirements

                                                                                                                                                                    Consulting
                                                                                                                                                                    Methodology




           • Skill Standards for IT professionals         Project
                                                         Management
                                                                                                                                                                Project Management
                                                                                                                                                                   Fundamentals




             provides Education/Training Roadmap          Business/
                                                          Industry
                                                                                                                                         Industry Application
                                                                                                                                            Fundamentals
                                                                                                                                                                                       Industry Applications Trends


                                                                                                                                                                                           Latest Business Trends



             and Model Curriculum.                        Persona l
                                                                                                                      Leadership
                                                                                                                     Fundamentals
                                                                                                                    Communication
                                                                                                                     Fundamentals
                                                                                                                                                                      Leadership for Application Specialist

                                                                                                                                                                    Communication for Application Specialist




      – How to define Career Path ?
                                                                                                                      Negotiation
                                                                                                                     Fundamentals                                     Negotiation for Application Specialist



                                                                                                      :Common to All Types of Professions                            :
                                                                                                                                                                     Choice by Area of Specialization



           • Skill Standards for IT professionals       Education/Training Roadmap Structure
             provides Skill Dictionary.
                                                                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                 Copyright                                      C                     41
                                                                                                                                                                       2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
Sample of level assessment (level 1, 2)
Basic concept : level 1,2  ⇒  Certified as level 1,2 by passing IP and FE of ITEE

    Level assessment ( level 2)




             Certificate of
               FE ITEE
                                                           基本情報技術者試験


               Name: E

                                                            1.Mr. E doesn’t have remarkable result yet.
                                                            2 He has passed Fundamental ITEE.

                                                            Mr. E seems to carry out his assigned duties
                                                             respectably.
                                                            Our company assesses him as the engineer for
                                                             level 2 of ITSS



                                  Note ) Likewise, in level 1 ( to assess by utilizing IT Passport Exam as level
                                  assessment )                                                               
                                                                            Copyright     C                  42
                                                                                              2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
Sample of level assessment (level 3)
Basic concept : level 3  ⇒ Certified as level 3 by passing AP of ITEE. Job categories and
                         specialty fields ,defined in ITSS, will be determined based on the job
                         assignment.
      Level assessment (level 3)




                                                    応用情報技術者試験


              Certificate of
                AP ITEE
                                                     1 Mr. B does not have remarkable result yet, but carries
                Name: B                                 out his assigned duties properly as project member
                                                      2 He has passed AP ITEE for skill proficiency.


                                                     Mr. B seems to carry out his duties properly equivalent to
                                                       level 3. His current assignment is application
                                                       development.
                                                     Our company assesses him as an engineer for level 3 ( in
                                                       APS of job category of ITSS.

   ※ APS: Application Specialist
                                                                                                       
                                                                       Copyright    C                  43
                                                                                        2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
3. Benefit of ITEE Certification




                                                     44
                      Copyright   C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
Hiring employees
☆   People are chosen:
    • by personal connection
    • by measuring talents by public standards
☆   Most foreign-affiliated companies already
    select persons through the exam.



                                                               45
                                Copyright   C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
Benefits for worker
☆   When employee succeed the ITEE.
    • Employee Prize bonus money
    • Wages for job qualification
    • Wide knowledge required for systems
      development can be mastered.
☆   After succeed, Chance of having a rise of
    step up in company.
    • Employer would choose excellent worker.
    • Employee will carrier up more.
                                                             46
                              Copyright   C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
Benefits for Company
☆   When succeed the ITEE.
    • Certification proofs high job level of company

☆   Japanese company demands successors in
    project team.
    • Company should announce the numbers of
       successors.
    • Other Asian countries also recognize the IT
       Certifications.
                                                                  47
                                   Copyright   C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
4. When you have job
   in Japanese Market,
   What should you do?


                                              48
               Copyright   C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
Japanese enterprises employ
            many engineers
☆   Basis of Japanese industry is hi-technology
    and technical innovation.
☆   Japanese company import raw material,
    makes value-added products (raises a price),
    and export.
☆   Reproduction on an enlarged scale


                                                                49
                                 Copyright   C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
What Japanese company expect
☆   A success of examination is not goal of you.
    • Technology is changing every year.
    • IT technology is called dog year advancing
☆   Everyone should try skill up more high level.
    • ITSS will guide you to carrier up.
☆   Company expects from the workers to gain better
    results in their tasks.
    • Not only certification paper but also good jobs.

                                                                   50
                                    Copyright   C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
Japanese Company
☆   Measure of results are satisfactions by customers.
    • If quality is good, they should satisfy.
    • If delivery date are strictly kept, they should
      satisfy.
    • If completing the required task and changing,
      they should satisfy.
☆   Satisfied customers will give you more big
    business.
    • More big business will need more high
      technology and skill, good management. AOTS, Tsunoda
                                        Copyright 2011 by
                                              C
                                                          51
Japanese Company
☆   Wall of Language
    • Almost Japanese businessmen in Japan
      cannot speak English.
    • They hope to talk Japanese on discussion.

☆   Unique custom of business
    • Ambiguous specification
    • Frequently change of Specification
    • The Japanese are severe on the quality, the
      delivery date, etc, (Project Management).
                                                                  52
                                   Copyright   C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
Thank you for
your attention !

                                          53
           Copyright   C   2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda

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Itee and itss r1

  • 1. ITEE & ITSS AOTS Tsunoda Kazuhiro 1 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 2. Topic 1. Overview of the ITEE 2. ITSS and ITEE 3. Benefit of ITEE Certification 4. When you have job in Japanese Market, What should you do? 2 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 3. 1. Overview of the ITEE (Information Technology Engineers Examination) 3 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 4. Mutual Recognitions between Asian Countries and Japan ☆ In 2000, the economic ministers of ASEAN, Japan, China and Korea agreed to promote a program to recognize common Skill Standards in the IT field across Asia. ☆ 4 countries and 1 region have their own ITEE. (India, Singapore, Korea, China, Taiwan) ☆ 6 countries introduce Japanese ITEE. (ITPEC) (Thai, Philippine, Vietnam, Myanmar, Malaysia, Mongolia) 4 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 5. The Mutual Recognitions Agreement Reference : Mutual Recognition on IPA’s web page 5 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 6. Mutual recognition with Japan Gr o u p A (Own Ma k in g ) Japan India Singapore Korea China Taiwan MOU - 9-Feb-01 24-Aug-01 21-Dec-01 31-Jan-02 2-Dec-03 MCIT MICA Labour Information METI ( EA IDB ) MO DIT ( ) (IDA) Department Industry Dep. Organization DOEACC JITEC Society SCS (HRD Korea) CEIAEC (III/CSF) Information Security Specialist ○ Project Manager ○ System Architect ○ ○ Mutual Certificated Network Specialist ○ ○ Exam Data Base Specialist ○ Applied IT Engineer ○ ○ ○ ○ Fudamental IT Engineer ○ ○ ○ IT Passport ○ 6 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 7. Mutual recognition with Japan Gr o u p B ( t r o d u c e d J a p a n e s e e x a m s ys t e m ) In Japan Thai Philippine Viet Nam Myanmar Malaysia Mongolia MOU - 25-Jun-02 17-Apr-02 4-Jul-02 13-Nov-02 5-Jan-05 28-Aug-07 MOST (MCSDC) METI DTI MOST  e-National (MOHE) Organization (NSTDA) Taskforce JITEC (NECTEC) (PhilNITS) (VITEC) (MCF) (METEOR) (NITP) Information Security Specialist Project Manager System Architect Mutual Certificated Network Specialist ○ Exam. Data Base Specialist ○ Applied IT Engineer ○ Fudamental IT Engineer ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ IT Passport ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 7 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 8. ITPEC => Mutual recognition (Information Technology Professional Examination Council) ☆ ITPEC was established in 2005 by representatives from the countries that have adopted Japanese ITEE to conduct the common FE examination. ☆ ITPEC conducts the exam on the same date and time with the same set of questions. ☆ The mutual recognition will facilitate cross- border cooperation among businesses and the exchange of IT human resources across the region. 8 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 9. Number of Applicants & Successful Examinees in 6 Countries 9 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 10. Japanese IT Certifications supported Japanese Technology ☆ The Japanese students who study IT aim at certifying examination with “Official authorization”. ☆ There is various IT related qualification in the world. ☆ IT Certification examination is one of the most prestigious exams in Japan. 10 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 11. Japanese ITEE ☆ The Ministry of International Trade and Industry launched this exam system in 1969. ☆ The government continuously reformed the exam system according to the market changes. ☆ As of Spring 2010, the examination has been taken by over 15.40 million applicants, approximately 1.7 million of whom passed successfully. 11 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 12. Applicants, Passed Examinees in Japan Reference : JITEC on IPA’s web page 12 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 13. Structure of the IP exam Total 2 hours and 45 minutes 9:30 - 12:15 Multiple-choice test (select 1 correct answer from 4 choices) • Short question type (1 question contains 1 question) • Medium question type (1 question contains 4 sub-questions.). All 100 questions must be answered •Short question type: 88 questions •Medium question type: 12 questions (3 questions consisting of 4 sub-questions each) Passing standard: There are 2 criteria to be satisfied to pass the IP. •60% of the full points. •30% of full points in each category (Strategy, Management and Technology field) 13 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 14. IP Exam ☆ Ranges and the number of questions 1) Strategy field: about 35% 2) Management field: about 25% 3) Technology field: about 40% 14 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 15. Structure of the FE exam Total 5.0 hours Morning Exam Afternoon Exam 9:30 - 12:00 (2.5 hours) 13:30 – 16:00 (2.5 hours) Multiple-choice test (select 1 Multiple-choice test (Each question correct answer from 4 choices) has several sub-questions) All 80 questions must be 7 out of 8 questions must be answered answered Passing standard point is 60% Passing standard point is 60% of of full points. full points. 15 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 16. Correspondence with the past FE Exam ☆ The Morning Exam covers the same fields as the past FE exam. The Afternoon Exam covers the same technology fields as the past FE exam, while incorporating management and strategy fields, questions is spread evenly across a broad range of fields. ☆ The level of the examination is almost equivalent to that of the past FE exam. 16 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 17. FE Morning Exam ☆ Ranges and the number of questions ◦ Q1 ~ Q50: Technology field => 60 % ◦ Q51~ Q60: Management field => 15 % ◦ Q61~ Q80: Strategy field => 25 % 17 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 18. FE Afternoon Exam ☆ Ranges and the number of questions ◦ Q1~Q6: Must answer all questions (compulsory). • 4 questions from Hardware, Software, Database, Network and Information Security • Program Design • Data Structure or Algorithms ◦ Q7~Q8: Choose 1 out of 2 questions. • 2questions from Software Development (C, JAVA) 18 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 19. Structure of the AP exam Total 5.0 hours Morning Exam Afternoon Exam 9:30 - 12:00 (2.5 hours) 13:30 – 16:00 (2.5 hours) Multiple-choice test (Select 1 Description test (Each question correct answer from 4 choices) has several sub-questions) All 80 questions must be 6 out of 12 questions must be answered answered Passing standard point is 60% Passing standard point is 60% of full points. of full points. 19 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 20. Correspondence with the past SW Exam ☆ The Morning Exam covers strategy fields in addition to the technology and management fields covered in the past SW Exam. The Afternoon Exam covers almost the same technology fields as the past SW Exam, but also includes management and strategy questions. Several questions are provided, allowing the examinee to select and answer the questions that best match his/her area of profession. ☆ The level of the examination is almost equivalent to that of the past SW exam. 20 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 21. AP Morning Exam ☆ Ranges and the number of questions ◦ Q1 ~ Q49: Technology field => 60 % ◦ Q50~ Q60: Management field => 15 % ◦ Q61~ Q80: Strategy field => 25 % 21 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 22. AP Afternoon Exam ☆ Ranges and the number of questions ◦ Q1~Q2: Choose 1 out of 2 questions • 1 question from Management Strategy , Information Strategy and Strategy Planning/Consulting Techniques. • Programming (Algorithms) ◦ Q3~Q12: Choose 5 out of 10 questions • 1 question from Management Strategy , Information Strategy and Strategy Planning/Consulting Techniques. • 9 questions from System Architecture, Network, Database, Embedded System Development, Information System Development, Information Security, Project Management, IT Service Management and System Audit. 22 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 23. 1. ITSS and ITEE (ITSS : IT Skill Standards) [Reference] Skill Standards for IT Professionals model curriculum - To get level 2 - (Corresponding with ITSS V3) Incorporated Administrative Agency Information-Technology Promotion Agency (IPA) 23 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 24. ITSS Utilization Refer to “The Preliminary Trend Survey for IT Human Resource in Japan(2007), IPA” URL : http://www.ipa.go.jp/jinzai/itss/activity/activity2.html#20080129 ITSS Utilization in IT Vendors The ratio of “current use of ITSS” companies is about 30 % of the total. The ratio of large companies is high, but many small and medium-sized companies are “under review”. The ratio of “no use and no plan” companies is low, and most companies, over 80%, need to use ITSS. 2.2 % ( N=3 All 28.3 27.5 27.2 14.8 % % % % 57 ) Current use Under review to use Need to use, but no review No use and no plan to use in the future No answer 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% By Company 1,0000 0 1and over (N=41) ) 0 名以上( N=41 63.4% 14.6% 9.8% 12.2% Size 3 0 under 0 300 – 0 1,000 (N=65) ) 0 ~1 0 名未満( N=65 43.1% 33.8% 16.9% 4.6% 1.5% (by Employee number) 1000 under 名未満( 1 –~3 0 300 (N=172) ) 0 0 N=172 19.2% 34.3% 28.5% 14.5% 3.5% under 名未満( 100 100 (N=72) ) N=72 19.4% 13.9% 38.9% 26.4% 1.4% 現在利用し Current use ている 現在利用を検討し Under review to use ている 必要性は感じ no review検討には至っていない use 特に利用しto use in the future ているが、 Need to use, but No and no plan ておらず、今後も利用の予定はない 無回答 No answer 24 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 25. ITSS is … The INDEX, which identifies and systemizes business capabilities for IT services. It provides Framework for the education and training of IT professionals in businesses and universities. Visualization of invisible skills ( business capability )   Copyright C 25 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 26. ITSS Objective   The objective of the skill standards is effective capital investment for human resources development in the IT service industry. To promote the IT professionals for business strategy. 1. Human Resource Development for IT Professionals ( for Companies) 2. Carrier Path Development (for Individuals)   Copyright C 26 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 27. Education Instructions Instructions 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda Planning the training Planning the training Service Desk Service Desk 27   Management I Service Operation Operation System operation System operation T Operations management Operations management Facility management Facility management Customer Service Software Software ITSS V3 Career framework Hardware Hardware Application software Development C Software Middleware Middleware Copyright Basic software Application Specialist Business application package Business application system Business application system Security Systems Management Systems Management TSpecialist Common Application infrastructure Database I Network Platform Software product development Management Network service Project IT outsourcing Systems development Infrastructure Architecture TArchitect Integration Architecture I Application Architecture Consultant Business function Industry Sales via media Sales Product sales by visiting customers Consulting by visiting customers Market Communication Marketing Sales channel strategy Marketing management Job Classification Specialty Fields JOB Category Level 7 Level 6 Level 5 Level 4 Level 3 Level 2 Level1
  • 28. ITSS Characteristic 1. Scope is IT Vendors. But, possible to use in User Companies. 2. Classify 11 Job Categories. And 35 Specialty Fields. 3. Specify 7 Levels based on the ability and business results of Individuals. 4. Level is certified by the KPI(*1) of “Experience and Results”. 5. Define “Career” and its expected “Skill”. 6. Reference Model (No need full installation. Use only a part. ) 7. Use ITEE(*2) as level certification tool. (at Level 1, 2 and 3) (*1): Key Performance Indicator (*2): IT Engineering Examination   Copyright C 28 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 29. Analogies of “Job category” (compare it to professional in other industries) Sales Consultant IT Architect Project Management Analogies of Job category in ITSS Education   Copyright C 29 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 30. JOB Category Definition blue : outcome red : responsibility Job Category Description Performs planning and preparation of business strategy such as sales strategies, implementation plans, financial planning, and sales channel strategies, etc, in order to response to customer needs by Marketing carrying out forecasts and analysis of market trends of company, business, products and services. Has responsibility in the investment effects of planed business strategy through analysis of market, etc, novelty, and customer satisfactions Performs confirmation of customer's management policy, and to realize the policy, provides proposals and closes contracts by offering solution for resolution of issues, improvement of business process, Sales and necessary solutions, products and services. Enhance customer satisfactions, by establishing good relations with customers. Contributes realization of customer business strategies and vision and solving of problems, through implementation of counseling on customer management strategies, business strategies and formulation Consultant of IT strategies, proposal and advice, by utilizing intellectual property and consulting methodology. Has responsibility in values and effects brought by proposal, customer satisfaction, feasibility, etc. Analyzes problem of business and IT, and re-composes solution as requirements of information systematization. Designs IT architecture with quality (consistency, etc.) of whole information systems in order to realize customer business strategies by utilizing hardware and software related skills IT Architect (application related skills and methodology). Designed architecture confirms that follow-on development and installation, and confirms solution construction on problems. In addition, clarifies that information system satisfies appropriate standard in order to construct solution, and evaluates effects from technical risks against feasibility in advance. Performs proposing, initiation, planning, execution, monitoring and controlling, and closing of a project, Project Management by utilizing project management related skill and business management technology. Has responsibility in the completion of the planned deliverable and required quality of service, cost, and target date.   Copyright C 30 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 31. Concept of level and assessment level Level 1 1 Level Level 22 Level Level 33 Level Level 4 4 Level Level 5 5 Level Level 66 Level Level 77 Level Business, technology, methodology Able to find out and resolve a problem on-the-job problem Lead (creation) business, technology and Discovery of an on-the-job problem, solution (utilization) are possible (practical use) methodology I lead you (creation) Carry out under the guidance Lead in the scope Sphere of business (a project) of work Contribute to Contribute to Lead the I carry it out with I contribute I contribute to I lead the Value guidance (project) An o the company to an office the industry the industry industry industry Contribution creation lead for value Contri A shadow to creation bution influence to a market the market Recognized in a the market I am recognized in market I am recognized in Recognized in an office the company I can teach it Guides subordinates It is possiblebyan by him/her self Practicesentirely own effort Achievement It is worked on Ableconstant part of At to ….a of required a demand degree assignment without If there is it, it is works Achieveme nt of no supervisor's an own effort I attend and assistance have it Under the Able to…under guidance the guidance It is possible Result as a member of the Assessment as industry a member of the industry range Results as a member of anof an organization Result as a member organization Assessment Result as an object Results individual as an individual   Copyright C 31 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 32. Education/Training Roadmap Structure example Education Course Groups of Application Specialist Beginner Lever Entry Level Mid Level Advanced Level Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6 Level 7 Latest IT Trends Component Technology Advanced Component Technology Fundamentals Technology System Design Advanced System Design System Development Fundamentals IT Fundamentals 2 System Development Advanced System Development System Advanced System Operation/Maintenance IT Fundamentals 1 Operation/Maintenance Application Package Application Package by Product Fundamentals System Development Methodology Community Activities Method of Defining Methodology System Requirements Consulting Methodology Project Project Management Management Fundamentals Business/ Industry Industry Applications Trends Application Industry Fundamentals Latest Business Trends Leadership Leadership for Application Specialist Fundamentals Communication Personal Fundamentals Communication for Application Specialist Negotiation Negotiation for Application Specialist Fundamentals : Common to All Types of Professions : Choice by Area of Specialization   Copyright C 32 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 33. ITSS as a reference model Blank for no use job category Project Application JOB Category Sales Management IT Specialist Specialist                   Customers Consulting by Visiting System Development Platform Network Database Security Business Application System Specialty Fields Blank for no use Use the levels specialty fields without modification Level 7 Adopt vendor test Level 6 independently as the Level 5 certification tool Level 4 * Level 3 ITEE AP Level 2 ITEE FE Level 1 ITEE IP *: Vendor Test   Copyright C 33 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 34. Model Curriculum & training road map Training Road Map Model Curriculum Related Period Exam Level Course Group Course Name Subject Units (hours) IT Engineer Fundamentals (1) 22.5 15 (3 days) IT Engineer Fundamentals IT Engineer Fundamentals (2) 22.5 15 (3 days) IT Basic 2 Programming Programming Fundamentals (1) 22.5 15 (3 days) Fundamentals Programming Fundamentals (2) 22.5 15 (3 days) Application Development Fundamentals (1) 22.5 15 (3 days) Application Development Fundamentals Application Development 22.5 15 (3 days) FE Fundamentals (2) 2 System Development Database Fundamentals Database Fundamentals 22.5 15 (3 days) Fundamentals Network Fundamentals (1) 22.5 15 (3 days) Network Fundamentals Network Fundamentals (2) 22.5 15 (3 days) Security Fundamentals Security Fundamentals 22.5 15 (3 days) Subtotal 225.0 150 (30 days) Personal Skill Personal Skill Personal Skill Fundamentals 22.5 15 (3 days) Fundamentals Fundamentals - Total 247.5 165 (33 days) Each subject is structured with 90 minutes x 15 units. 34 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 35. Training course group of common job category Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Component Technology System Development Fundamentals Fundamentals System Design Technology System Development IT Basic 2 System Operation/Maintenance Application Package Fundamentals IT Basic 1 Methodology Project Management Industry Application Business/Industry Fundamentals Personal Personal Skill Fundamentals 35 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 36. Subject overview list <Structure of Subject Code> (A part of the list of Level 2 ) (Column 1) (Column 2) (Column 3) (Column 4) Level Course Course Subject Group Name Course Course Subject Subject Name Overview Group Name Code This subject aims at learning of the technical knowledge needed basically and IT Engineer universally for the information system. B111 Fundamentals The learner learns such technologies as platform, network, database and (1) IT Engineer software engineering as technical knowledge. Fundamentals This subject aims at learning of the technical knowledge needed basically and IT Engineer universally for the information system. B112 Fundamentals The learner learns system architecture, development procedure, development IT Basic 2 (2) method as technical knowledge. Programming B121 Fundamentals This subject aims at learning of fundamental knowledge and programming Programming (1) language (Java) that are used when creating program. Moreover, the learner Fundamentals Programming practices the program creation and learns flow of the program development, B122 Fundamentals the usage method of development environment. (2) Application This subject aims at learning of the fundamental knowledge about business Development requirement analysis method, design method, development method, B211 Fundamentals technology and the related knowledge and management technique when System Application (1) developing application. Development Development Fundamentals Fundamentals Application Business requirement analysis and design flow, coding and test in the Development B212 application development are experienced by using the theme of virtual Fundamentals business application development through Group exercise/practice. (2) 36 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 37. Subject Structure --- Level 2 Database Fundamentals [B221] Network Fundamentals (1) Network Fundamentals (2) [B231] [B232] IT Engineer Fundamentals (1) IT Engineer Fundamentals (2) [B111] [B112] Security Fundamentals [B241] Programming Fundamentals (1) Programming Fundamentals (2) [B121] [B122] Application Development Application Development Fundamentals (1) Fundamentals (2) [B211] [B212] Personal Skill Fundamentals [B311] 37 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 38. Subject Details --- IT Engineer Fundamentals (1) (1) Subject Syllabus Subject IT Engineer Fundamentals (1) Subject Code B111 Job Category Common Job category Target Learners Learners who want to achieve Level 2 of IT Skill Standards Prerequisites Learners should pass through "Introduction to IT (1), (2)" or an equivalent level of knowledge. Course Group IT Basic 2 Course Name IT Engineer Fundamentals Overview This subject aims at learning of the technical knowledge needed basically and universally for the information system. The learner learns such technologies as platform, network, database and software engineering as technical knowledge. Learning Objectives The learner can perform the development, operation, and maintenance work by using basic technical knowledge concerning the information system under the direction of high-level professionals as a team member of an application system development. Training and Teaching Lecture Method (A part of the lecture can be done by e-Learning) Assessment method of The trainer judges the assess lecture reports after the lecture, questionnaires, knowledge confirmation tests and the effort for the Acquired Skill exercises synthetically then evaluates them. Curriculum Constitution 90 minutes (1 unit) x 15 times (Total: 22.5 hours) [Field] Technology Knowledge Item [Major Category] [Middle Category] Classification 1 Basic Theories 1 Basic Theories 2 Algorithms and Programming 2 Computer System 3 Computer Component 4 System Component 5 Software 6 Hardware 3 Technology Element 7 Human Interfaces 8 Multimedia 9 Database 10 Network 38 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 39. (2) Unit Syllabus --- 1) List of Unit Title (Level 2 => IT Basic 2 => IT Engineer Fundamentals => IT Engineer Fundamentals (1) ) Unit Title Learning Objectives No. Orientation The learner can explain transition of positioning of the information system in the information society, 1 What is the information system? roles, and the usage. The learner can explain computer components in general and the input-output equipment in 2 Input/output devices particular. The learner can explain the memory (memory storage) and auxiliary storage devices which are the 3 Memory(Storage) components of the computer. 4 Processor and bus The learner can explain the processor and bus which are the components of the computer. 5 Operating system The learner can explain the operating system (OS) which is the component of the computer. The learner can explain the middleware which becomes indispensable when constructing the 6 Middleware information system The learner can explain the file system which is the component of the computer. In addition, the 7 File system learner can explain the database which is a part of the middleware. The learner can explain the types and roles of network. In addition, the learner can explain the 8 Network overview of communication protocol also. 9 Data representation The learner can explain the methods of data representation which is processed in a computer. 10 Basic theories of Information The learner can explain the basic principle of the set and logical operation. The learner can explain the theory that becomes basic of the program from among a basic theory 11 Basic theories of program concerning the principle of operation of the computer. The learner can explain the data structure which is an element which forms a program, i.e., the 12 Data structures structure of the data which is a candidate for processing of a program. The learner can explain that what kind of procedure performs processing of alignment and search 13 Algorithm(1) among the algorithms which are the elements which form a program. The learner can explain that what kind of procedure performs processing of flow chart and arrays 14 Algorithm(2) among the algorithms which are the elements which form a program. The learner can establish IT engineer technology by reviewing current lectures’ content through doing 15 Summary exercise. 39 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 40. (2) Unit Syllabus --- 2) Unit Syllabus (A part of the list) Unit Unit Title Objectives Contents No. 1. Orientation 2. Information society and network (1) Information and information processing The learner can explain Orientation (2) Component of information system transition of positioning of What is the (3) Communications using information system 1 the information system in the information 3. System processing form and using form information society roles, system? 4. Current status of applicability area of information system and the future trend and the usage. (1) Information system and its roles in company (2) Information system and its roles as social infrastructure 1. Trend of components (3)Computer base technology which composes information system (1) Computer component and its roles (2) Data flow and control flow 2. I/O devices (1) Data representation (2) Types and characteristics of I/O devices (3) I/O interfaces (4) Device driver etc. The learner can explain 3. Input devices computer components in Input/output (1) Keyboard 2 general and the input - devices (2) Bar-code reader output equipment in (3) OCR/OMR particular. (4) Image scanner (5) Voice recognizer etc. 4. Output devices and display devices (1) Printer (2) Display etc. | | | 40 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 41. Approach to promote ITEE with ITSS IS TS IE TE Career path by ITSS & ITEE Level 7 Internal high- end player and world class player • What is the meaning the passing ITEE in career ? Level 6 Internal high- end player – Skill Standards for IT professionals provides Level 5 Intra-firm high- end player Informatio n Techno lo gy Eng ineers Examination co rrespo nding to up to level 4 index to assess broader aspects of IT High level Level 4 High level knowledge and skill professionals. examination Middle level – Skill Standards for IT professionals provides Level 3 Applied knowledge and skill examination index for the passing each examination. Level 2 Fundamental knowledge and skill Basic examination Required minimum Entry Level 1 basic knowledge examination Total HRD by ITSS & ITEE Caree Beginner r In Entry Level Mid Level Advanced Level • How to use the ITEE in HRD? Lever Level 1 dex Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Latest IT Trends Level 5 Level 6 Level 7 – How to assess the HRD beyond ITEE? Compo nent Techno logy Advanced Component Technology Fundamentals Technology System Design Advanced System Design System • Skill Standards for IT professionals Development System Development Ad vanced System Development IT Fundamentals 2 Fundamentals System Ad vanced System Operation/Maintenance Operation/Maintenance Application provides KPI to broader fields in HR. Package Application Package by Product Fundamentals IT Fundamentals 1 System Development Methodology Community Activities – How to develop HR ? Method of Defining Methodology Sys tem Requirements Consulting Methodology • Skill Standards for IT professionals Project Management Project Management Fundamentals provides Education/Training Roadmap Business/ Industry Industry Application Fundamentals Industry Applications Trends Latest Business Trends and Model Curriculum. Persona l Leadership Fundamentals Communication Fundamentals Leadership for Application Specialist Communication for Application Specialist – How to define Career Path ? Negotiation Fundamentals Negotiation for Application Specialist :Common to All Types of Professions : Choice by Area of Specialization • Skill Standards for IT professionals Education/Training Roadmap Structure provides Skill Dictionary.   Copyright C 41 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 42. Sample of level assessment (level 1, 2) Basic concept : level 1,2  ⇒  Certified as level 1,2 by passing IP and FE of ITEE Level assessment ( level 2) Certificate of FE ITEE 基本情報技術者試験 Name: E 1.Mr. E doesn’t have remarkable result yet. 2 He has passed Fundamental ITEE. Mr. E seems to carry out his assigned duties respectably. Our company assesses him as the engineer for level 2 of ITSS Note ) Likewise, in level 1 ( to assess by utilizing IT Passport Exam as level assessment )   Copyright C 42 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 43. Sample of level assessment (level 3) Basic concept : level 3  ⇒ Certified as level 3 by passing AP of ITEE. Job categories and specialty fields ,defined in ITSS, will be determined based on the job assignment. Level assessment (level 3) 応用情報技術者試験 Certificate of AP ITEE   1 Mr. B does not have remarkable result yet, but carries Name: B out his assigned duties properly as project member 2 He has passed AP ITEE for skill proficiency. Mr. B seems to carry out his duties properly equivalent to level 3. His current assignment is application development. Our company assesses him as an engineer for level 3 ( in APS of job category of ITSS. ※ APS: Application Specialist   Copyright C 43 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 44. 3. Benefit of ITEE Certification 44 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 45. Hiring employees ☆ People are chosen: • by personal connection • by measuring talents by public standards ☆ Most foreign-affiliated companies already select persons through the exam. 45 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 46. Benefits for worker ☆ When employee succeed the ITEE. • Employee Prize bonus money • Wages for job qualification • Wide knowledge required for systems development can be mastered. ☆ After succeed, Chance of having a rise of step up in company. • Employer would choose excellent worker. • Employee will carrier up more. 46 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 47. Benefits for Company ☆ When succeed the ITEE. • Certification proofs high job level of company ☆ Japanese company demands successors in project team. • Company should announce the numbers of successors. • Other Asian countries also recognize the IT Certifications. 47 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 48. 4. When you have job in Japanese Market, What should you do? 48 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 49. Japanese enterprises employ many engineers ☆ Basis of Japanese industry is hi-technology and technical innovation. ☆ Japanese company import raw material, makes value-added products (raises a price), and export. ☆ Reproduction on an enlarged scale 49 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 50. What Japanese company expect ☆ A success of examination is not goal of you. • Technology is changing every year. • IT technology is called dog year advancing ☆ Everyone should try skill up more high level. • ITSS will guide you to carrier up. ☆ Company expects from the workers to gain better results in their tasks. • Not only certification paper but also good jobs. 50 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 51. Japanese Company ☆ Measure of results are satisfactions by customers. • If quality is good, they should satisfy. • If delivery date are strictly kept, they should satisfy. • If completing the required task and changing, they should satisfy. ☆ Satisfied customers will give you more big business. • More big business will need more high technology and skill, good management. AOTS, Tsunoda Copyright 2011 by C 51
  • 52. Japanese Company ☆ Wall of Language • Almost Japanese businessmen in Japan cannot speak English. • They hope to talk Japanese on discussion. ☆ Unique custom of business • Ambiguous specification • Frequently change of Specification • The Japanese are severe on the quality, the delivery date, etc, (Project Management). 52 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda
  • 53. Thank you for your attention ! 53 Copyright C 2011 by AOTS, Tsunoda

Editor's Notes

  1. What is ITSS. This answer is here. ITSS is , in short a word, “the index for IT services industry”. It indentifies and systemized business capabilities. Also, ITSS provides framework for education and training of IT professionals in businesses and universities. ITSS is visualization of invisible human skill.
  2. The object of ITSS is “effective capital investment for human resources development”. For companies, human resource development. And for individuals, carrier path development.
  3. This chart is ITSS career framework. From left to right, job category is defined. Job category is not a person who work each job, it is job role. About several years ago, there are programmer and SE in IT industry. Now, we have 11 job category , consultant, project management, IT architect, IT specialist, and so on. In vertical line, we have defined 7 level. Level is career level and level 7 is high and level 1 is low. The white blank out part is not recognized as IT professional in ITSS. For example, please see Consultant job category. In consultant firm, trainee and assistant consultant exist, but Level 1, 2 and 3 are not recognized as ITSS consultant.
  4. This page shows ITSS characteristic. There are 7 characteristics in ITSS. First one is “ Scope is IT vendors”. But, it is possible to use in user companies. Second one is 11 job categories. And 35 specialty fields. Third one is Level. 4 th one is “Level is certified by the KPI. KPI is Key performance indicator and it means experience and results. 5 th one is ITSS defined career and its expected skill. 6 th one is ITSS is reference model. No need full installation. Only use a part of ITSS. The last one is “ITSS use ITEE as level certification tool at level 1,2 and 3. We’ll explain the more detail after that. But if you hear ITSS at first time, please remember “JOB category” and “Level” as ITSS characteristic.
  5. This page show the analogies of job category. For example, Project management is a conductor. Consultant is a doctor, IT architect is an architect. Education is a teacher. Do you get the image of job category in ITSS ?!
  6. This page table is job category definition. Each 11 job category is defined. Blue word is outcome and red is responsibility. For example, see project management job category. PM has responsibility in the completion of the planned deliverable and required quality of service, cost and target date. Planned deliverable and service is outcome. And required quality, cost and target date is responsibility. But, I think everyone cannot understand job category and image. So, we’d like to have the analogy , specific example in other industries. Please see next page.
  7. This chart shows the concept of level. In ITSS document, the level is defined in detail. In this chart, shows the concept of level. Level 1 is the lowest and level 1 person can work under the command of upper level person. Level 2 person can work a part of assignment without supervisor’s support. Level 3 person can work by him/herself. At the upper level 4, has responsibility for job. Level 4 person can lead member. Level 5 person is recognized as the authority in the company. Level 6 person is recognized as the authority in the market. Level 7 person leads the industry.
  8. This systematic chart shows a training roadmap for Application specialist. It indicates what courses need to complete before going next level. Courses are classifies in five categories, Technology, Methodology, Project Management, Business/Industry, and Personal. People who are entering Project Management job career needs to finish courses shown in Level2. To show courses in organized way, it will make possible individuals and companies to make development planning effectively, and education venders to provide corresponding courses.
  9. It is the sample for ITSS installation in a company. We can use ITSS as a reference model. It is no need to install ITSS fully. It is no problem to install ITSS for specific job category and part level. So, it is possible to blank out job category and specialty fields except use. Also, it is possible to adapt vendor test as certification tool. But, please attention for some points. First one is to use ITSS career framework without modification. If you cannot use some job career , please blank out like this sample. Second one is do not change level definition. Use level concept without modification. Third one is use ITEE as certification tool at level 1, 2 and 3.
  10. This page show the approach to promote ITEE with ITSS. First one is “Career path”. What is …….. The answer is xxxxxxxxx. Second one is “Total Human resource development”. How to use……. That is how to assess…. The answer is xxxxxx It is just proposal and if you want to know the detail, please contact to me.
  11. This page shows the sample of level assessment at level 2. Please see the balloon. You have not so good job result and experience. But, you passed the fundamental examination. I can consider you seems to carry out your assigned duties. So our company assesses you as the engineer for level2 of ITSS.
  12. This page shows the sample of level assessment at level 3. Please see the balloon. You have not so good job result but you can carry out your duties as project member. You passed the AP examination. I can consider you seems to carry out your duties and you are assigned to application development. So our company assesses you as the engineer for level3 in APS Application specialist job category of ITSS.