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DISCLAIMER
All photos used in this presentation are
only for the purpose of giving examples
and/or giving explanation, and not in any
way advertise or discredit the company
or the owner.
THERMAL PROCESSING OF
FISH
MONICA R. MANALO
Science Research Specialist 1
Food Processing Division
Industrial Technology Development Institute
DOST Compound, Bicutan, Taguig City
Philippines
OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION
• Principles of Thermal Processing or Canning
• Thermal Process Establishment
• Basic Steps in Thermal Processing
(General Points on GMP)
• Evaluation of Thermally Processed Foods
Principles of Thermal
Processing
• Thermal Processing or Canning is a
method of food preservation wherein a
food and its container are rendered
commercially sterile by the application
of heat, alone, or in combination with pH
and/or water activity or other chemicals
http://www.science.ph/full_story.php?type=News&key=124858:dost-
technologies-water-retort
https://toriavey.com/how-to/pressure-canning/
- USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service, 2005
Principles of Thermal
Processing
• “Commercial sterility” is the condition
achieved by the application of heat, alone
or in combination with the other
appropriate treatment, sufficient to render
the food free from microorganisms capable
of growing in the food at ambient
conditions at which the food is likely to be
held during distribution and storage.
- USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service, 2005
Principles of Thermal
Processing
• The hermetically sealed (or fully sealed)
container maintains the sterility of the food.
• The product will remain shelf-stable as long as
the container is kept intact.
TYPES OF THERMAL PROCESSES
Conventional
Sterilization Pasteurization
In-pack Hot-fill-hold
Aseptic
Sterilization Pasteurization
Important Parameters in Food
Canning
• pH
Øthe measure of acidity or basicity of a food
material (pH range 2 to 7.0) or the negative log of
the Hydrogen ion concentration
• Water activity (aW)
Øthe amount of available water for the growth of
microorganism. It is also the ratio of the vapor
pressure of food over the vapor pressure of water
Ø(aW of foods = lower than 1.0)
https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.healthline.com
https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.humimeter.com
Canning Process Food Classification
Pasteurization or water bath
processing – 100ºC (212ºC) or lower
Equipment:
Ø Pasteurizer-steamer
Ø Boiling water bath
• Naturally acid foods with pH 4.6 or lower
(calamansi, mango, tamarind)
• Acidified foods with pH 4.6 or lower (nata
de coco and kaong in syrup)
• Water activity (aW) controlled foods with
aW of 0.85 and below, regardless of pH
Processing under pressure – (116ºC
(240ºF) to 121ºC (250ºF)
Equipment:
Ø Steam retort
Ø Pressure cooker
• Low-acid food with pH 4.6 or higher (fish,
meat, vegetables) and Water activity (aW)
controlled foods with aW of 0.85 and
above
Conventional Canning Methods
Two Thermal Processing Methods (Kitchen Scale)
Water Bath Canner (100ºC) Pressure Canner (115.6ºC or higher)
Thermal Process
Establishment
• Safe thermal processes are
established to prevent the
growth of Clostridium
botulinum, an anaerobic
bacterium that survives in
inadequately processed
canned low acid food (LACF),
like canned fish and shellfish.
https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.campdenbri.co.uk
https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.pmeasuring.com
The severity of any thermal process must be known and depend on factors
such as:
a. the physical characteristics of the food product including thermo-physical
properties, shape and size of the container holding the product
b. the type and thermal resistance of the target microorganisms that are
likely to be present in the food, and
c. the pH, water activity (aw) and salt content of the food.
Thermal Process Establishment
Thermal Process Establishment
Formulation
Thermal Resistance Studies Heat Penetration Studies
Process Calculation
Testing/Validation of the Calculated Process
Thermal Process Establishment
Heat Distribution Test Heat Penetration Test
Important factors that influence on the rate of heat penetration into a food:
1. Type of product
Ø Liquid or particulate foods (e.g. peas in brine) in which natural convection currents
are established heat faster than solid foods (e.g. fish, crabmeat) in which heat is
transferred by conduction.
Thermal Process Establishment
Important factors that influence on the rate of
heat penetration into a food:
2. Size of container
Ø Heat penetration to the center is faster in small
container than in large containers.
3. Temperature of the retort
Ø A higher temperature difference between the food
and the heating medium causes faster heat
penetration.
Thermal Process Establishment
Important factors that influence on the rate of
heat penetration into a food:
4. Shape of the container
Ø Tall containers promote convection currents in
convection heating foods.
5. Type of container
Ø Heat penetration is faster through metal than
through glass or plastics owing to differences in
thermal conductivity
Thermal Process Establishment
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
Cooling Inspection and labeling
Selection and Inspection of raw material
Preparation of raw material, container and ingredients
Washing, peeling, cutting, cooking,
etc
Preparation of packing
medium/ingredients
Preparation of container
Processing or sterilization
Filling into tin cans, glass jars, retort pouch
Addition of packing medium
Exhausting (removal or air and gases)
Sealing/closing of containers
Coding
Basic Equipment/Utensils for Thermal Processing of Fish
All American Pressure
Canner
Stainless steel (SS) knives
SS wide mouth funnel
Weighing scale
heavy duty cast
iron 3-way
burner
SS mixing bowl
SS ladle strainer
SS ladle
Strainer
Carajay
Dial Thermometer
SS scissors
Chopping board
Steam Jacketed Kettle
General Points on GMP
Business Ethics in Food Processing
Hygienic and Sanitary
(Malinis)
Safe
(Ligtas)
Correct Methods and Ways
(Tama)
Fair and Honest
(Tapat)
Food Safety
Fair Trade Practices
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
ØShould be of good quality to be obtained from reputable
suppliers
1. Selection and treatment of raw materials, ingredients and packaging
materials
https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=http%3A%2F%2Fkimastambayan.blogspot.
com
https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.
lazada.com.ph
https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.
rappler.com
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
Sensory factors in determining the quality of milk fish
PARAMETERS FRESH FISH STALE FISH
Odor Fishy Stale, sour or putrid
Eye Bright, not wrinkled or sunken, clear pupil Dull, wrinkled, sunken, graying to reddish pupil
Gills Bright red, covered with clear slime, odor under
gill cover is fresh and fishy
Dull brown or gray, slime cloudy, odor under
gill cover sour and offensive
Colors Bright Faded
Flesh Firm, body is stiff, impression made by fingers
do not remain, slime is present and clear
Soft and flabby, impressions made by fingers
remain, slime absent and sometimes milky
Belly Walls Intact Often ruptured, viscera protruding
Muscle tissue White Becomes pinkish, especially around backbone
Vent Pink and not protruding Brown and protruding
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
Raw Materials for Thermal Processing
Vegetables Fruits
Meat, fish and poultry
Basic Steps in Thermal
Processing/Canning of
Food Products
Packaging Materials for
Thermal Processing or
Canning
Retort Pouch
Cans
Glass Jars
Multi-layer brick type
flexible package
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
ØThese operations should be carried out in quick
and continuous manner to minimize microbial
contamination and loss of quality
2. Preparation of the food for canning
(washing, peeling, cutting or slicing,
brining, blanching, thawing and
heating)
Cutting of Fish
2. a. Preparation of the food material for canning
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
Preparation of Fish for Canning
https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.bakeryandsnacks.com
https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.britann
ica.com
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
Cooking of Sauce
2. b. Preparation of packing medium
• Sugar Syrup
• Fruit Juices
• Cooking Oil
• Brine (Salt and Water)
• Water (for Canned Tuna)
• Tomato Sauce
• Formulated Sauces
Steam Jacketed Kettles for Preparation of Packing Medium
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
Ø It is important to pack the food
uniformly maintaining the desired level
in the container, correct fill-in weight,
net weight and proper headspace
3. Filling of food in the containers
(cans, glass jars, flexible
packages)
Can filling line
https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fiorbitnews.com
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
ØContainers should be filled with
90% of the water capacity of
the container
ØRemaining 10% left for the
headspace (12 mm for large
cans 180 mm high and 6 mm
for small cans)
3. Filling of food in the containers
Piston filler for sauces
Funnel for manual filling
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
3. Filling of food in the containers
Filling of food leaving
appropriate headspace
• Fill-in-weight is the weight of the solid portion of
product without the liquid or packing medium
• Net weight is weight of the solid and the packing
medium
• Gross headspace is the distance from the top of the
container flange or double seam for cans and top of
the lip for glass containers to the top of the liquid in
the container
• Net headspace is the distance from the inside bottom
of the lid or glass closure to the liquid in the container
Headspace Gauge
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
3. Filling of food in the containers
• Mushiness of the contents due to
excessive movement inside the can.
• Low vacuum if heat exhaust is used.
Underfilling produces large headspace
which results in the following:
https://www.thrillist.com/eat/nation/
starkist-tuna-class-action-lawsuit-
you-can-get-25-cash-or-50-in-tuna
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
3. Filling of food in the containers
• Low vacuum
• Swelling of can due to hydrogen production.
• Under processing
• Springiness or can distortion
• Increased chance that food may be trapped
between the can lid and body with the
production of a faulty seam.
Overfilling produces small headspace which
results in the following:
https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.s
hape.com
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
3. Filling of food in the containers
ü cans are periodically weighed in line
ü headspaces, drained and net weights are determined on the
products to check the adequacy of the filling process.
https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A
%2F%2Fwww.bhg.com
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
3. Filling of food in the containers
Cold and Hot Packing in Glass jars
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
ØExhausting removes the air and
other gases from the product before
sealing so that an appropriate
vacuum will be obtained in the
finished product
ØAir remaining in the headspace of
the container contains oxygen which
may interact with the product and
the container increasing the rate of
deterioration.
4. Exhausting of filled containers
Exhaust Box
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
Dial Thermometer
Digital Thermometer
Thermometers for measuring exhausting temperature
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
4. Exhausting of filled containers
• Hot filling: filling the container with hot product
• Exhaust box: the filled container is heated by passing through a steam or hot water
exhaust box
• Mechanically: the container is filled; the lid is attached by a clinching machine then
passed into a vacuum chamber and sealed
• Steam injection: live steam is injected into the container headspace prior to sealing
container closure
• Combination of heating followed by injection of steam into the headspace
• Gas Flush: an inert gas such as nitrogen is used to flush the air out of the headspace
Containers may be exhausted by several methods, like:
5. Sealing of cans using can sealer and closing of glass jars manually or by using a jar
closing machine
Can Seaming Machine or Can Seamer
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
Locally Available All American Brand Can Sealers
ELECTRIC CAN SEALER MANUAL CAN SEALER
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
Continuous Conveyor band sealer
Portable band Sealer
Products in SUP
Band Sealers for Stand-up Pouch (SUP)
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
Automatic capping machine for glass jars
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
6. Washing the cans after sealing
• After sealing, cans should be washed to remove spilt products which might
contaminate the external surface of the cans and the sterilizing equipment
• Washing after sterilization is not recommended for canned food, except in
exceptional circumstances, because of the risk of post-process contamination.
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
7. Container Coding (with permanent, legible, identifying code mark)
• The mark shall identify in code the product and the day and the year the
product was packed
• Codes will either be embossed or imprinted directly on the container with
ink.
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
8. Heat processing (sterilization/pasteurization)
• involves heating the canned food for an accurately
pre-determined time and temperature using
superheated steam, atmospheric steam or in
heated water
• The process should render the product stable
against spoilage of microorganisms and enzymes.
• This is the “MOST IMPORTANT STEP IN THERMAL
PROCESSING”
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HiqFkPYzeQo&t=1s
https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A
%2F%2Fwww.jbtc.com
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
Relationships between pH, water activity (aW), and current USFDA
low-acid and acidified regulations*
*Does not apply to foods which are naturally or normally acid
Final Equilibrium
pH
Water Activity
(aw)
Registration and Process Filing Required as:
Low Acid
(21CFR 108.35/113))
Acidified
(21CFR 108.25/114)
≤4.6 ≤0.85 No No
≤4.6 >0.85 No Yes
>4.6 ≤0.85 Yes No
>4.6 >0.85 Yes No
USFDA Regulations on Low-acid and Acidified Foods
USFDA Regulations of Thermally Processed
Foods
1. Foods with pH values greater than 4.6 and water activity (aw) greater than
0.85 are covered by the low-acid canned foods regulations or LACF,
which are required to receive severe thermal process at 115.6ºC (240ºF)
or higher, to prevent the survival of Clostridium botulinum.
2. Foods with pH less than or equal to 4.6 and aw greater than 0.85 are
covered by the acidified foods regulations (AF) which requires mild heat
treatment like pasteurization at 100ºC (212ºF) or lower, to prevent the
growth of non-heat resistant pathogens and vegetative organisms.
3. Foods not covered by the above regulations are non-meat containing
foods with aw adjusted to 0.85 or less, regardless of pH and foods with
natural pH of 4.6 or less, also referred as acid foods. These products
require no thermal process.
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
Pressure Cookers for Small Scale Canning Operation
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
Exterior Interior
All American
Pressure Cookers
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
1. Temperature and pressure Gauge.
2. Heavy Duty Cast Aluminum throughout.
3. Polished finish.
4. Overpressure Release.
5. Sturdy Bakelite Handle.
6. Safety Control Valve
7. Easy On/Off cover.
8. Clamping Wing Nuts for opening and closing.
9. "METAL-TO-METAL" seal.
10. Double thickness edges
All American Pressure
Cooker Parts
Automatic pressure control (pressure
regulator weights and vent pipe)
Basic Steps in Thermal
Processing/Canning of
Food Products
Proper way of
using the
Pressure Cooker
https://www.theprairiehomestead.com/2012/08/how-to-use-a-pressure-canner-part-1.html
Do not place the
pressure regulator
weights on the vent
pipe during
venting/exhausting
Place pressure
regulator weights
on the vent pipe
after exhausting
Heat processing or sterilization Equipment
Vertical Steam
Retort
Vertical Retort
Horizontal Retort
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
Heat processing or sterilization Equipment
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
Pilot Type Retort
Heat processing or sterilization Equipment
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
Commercial Retort
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
Filled retort baskets ready for
retorting
Jumble-loaded retort basket
Upright product
orientation in retort
baskets
Heat processing or sterilization equipment
Heat processing or sterilization equipment
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
Lying orientation for flexible semi-rigid containers
Heat processing or sterilization Equipment
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
Horizontal Water Retorts for pouches, glass jars that require overpressure
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
9. Cooling of heat processed containers
• The processed cans should be cooled as quickly as possible to an average
product temperature of about 40-45ºC
“too low for thermophilic organism to survive”
“high enough to dry the can surface”
• Atmospheric cooling is recommended for products packed in glass jars if
processed in pressure cooker or still retort
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
9. Cooling of heat processed containers
Cooling of Glass Jars
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
10. Inspection of processed products
• All processed products should be visually inspected before
labeling and casing, and defective products should be withdrawn
or rejected
• Inspection should be done after the prescribed incubation
period when the product has passed quality evaluation
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
11. Labeling of containers
• Labels are automatically affixed to the containers by different
methods (paper labels are wrapped around and glued to the cans
or jars; plastic or foam label sleeves may be slipped around plastic
cups or glass jars and “shrunk” to the container with heat, etc)
Basic Steps in
Thermal
Processing/Canning
of Food Products
11. Labeling of
containers
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
11. Labeling of containers
Manual labeling of food products
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
1. Product Name/ Name of the Food
2. Use of Brand Name and/or Trade Mark (if has registered brand name or trade mark)
3. The complete list of ingredients and food additives used in the preparation of the
product in descending order of proportion.
4. The net contents and drained weight using the metric system. Other systems of
measurement required by importing countries shall appear in parenthesis after the
metric system unit.
5. The name and the address of either the manufacturer, packer, distributor, importer,
exporter or vendor of the food.
Labeling of retail packages/container
Labels of all pre-packaged food shall bear the following minimum mandatory information:
Reference: DOH A.O. 2014-0030
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
6. Lot identification marked in code identifying product lot.
7. Storage condition
8. Expiry or Expiration Date/ Use-by-date/ Consume Before Date (recommended last
consumption date).
9. Food Allergen Information (e.g. Contains food allergens: fish)
10.Direction/Instruction(s) for Use
11.Nutrition Facts/Nutrition Information/Nutritive Value
Labeling of retail packages/container
Labels of all pre-packaged food shall bear the following minimum mandatory information:
Reference: DOH A.O. 2014-0030
Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
Casing of Finished Products
Evaluation of Thermally
Processed Foods
Evaluation of Thermally Processed Foods
Cut Out Tests Equipment Required
1. Gross weight = weight of can and
contents
Digital top loading balance or triple
beam balance
2. Vacuum Vacuum gauge (cm or inch Hg)
3. Gross headspace = height from
food/liquid level to top of container
Headspace gauge or SS ruler
4. Net headspace = height from liquid
level to bottom of can seam
Headspace gauge or SS ruler
5. Net weight = weight of contents only Digital top loading balance or triple
beam balance
6. Drained weight = weight of solid
contents only
Digital top loading balance, USA
Standard Testing Sieve No. 8 and
stopwatch timer with alarm
1. Physical Test
Evaluation of Thermally Processed Foods
1. Physical Test
Tear down examination for Cans Equipment Required
1. Seam length Can seam micrometer
2. Seam Thickness Can seam micrometer
3. Cover Hook Sanitary can opener (or long nose
pliers); can end nippers (or nipper-
pliers); can seam micrometer
4. Body Hook Sanitary can opener (or long nose
pliers); can end nippers (or nipper-
pliers); can seam micrometer
5. % Overlap calculator
6. Wrinkle Rating Magnifying glass; can seam
micrometer
Evaluation of Thermally Processed Foods
Tools for Tear Down Examination of Cans
Evaluation of Thermally Processed Foods
a. For Low-acid Foods
Culture Media/incubation temperature
Spore-forming organisms
(including Clostridium botulinum)
Cooked meat medium/liver broth/beef liver broth at
mesophilic (37ºC) and thermophilic (55ºC) conditions and
aerobic and anaerobic conditions.
Flat-sour organisms (including
thermophilic flat sour organisms)
Bromcresol purple dextrose broth at mesophilic (37ºC) and
thermophilic (55ºC) conditions at aerobic and anaerobic
conditions.
2. Commercial Sterility Test
Evaluation of Thermally Processed Foods
b. For Acid/acidified Foods
Culture Media/incubation temperature
Acid tolerant microorganisms Acid product test broth at mesophilic (37ºC) and
thermophilic (55ºC) conditions and aerobic and anaerobic
conditions
Yeast and mold growth Malt extract broth at mesophilic (37ºC) and thermophilic
(55ºC) conditions and aerobic and anaerobic conditions
2. Commercial Sterility Test
Technical Services offered by DOST-ITDI related
to Thermal Processing of Fish/Food
FOOD PROCESSING DIVISION
• Water activity determination
• Cut Out Test
• Heat Penetration Test
• Heat Distribution Test
• Shelf-life Testing
Standard Testing Division
• pH and water activity determination
• Commercial Sterility Test
~ END OF PRESENTATION ~

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ITDI Thermal Processing of Fish 03-26-2021.pdf

  • 1. DISCLAIMER All photos used in this presentation are only for the purpose of giving examples and/or giving explanation, and not in any way advertise or discredit the company or the owner.
  • 2. THERMAL PROCESSING OF FISH MONICA R. MANALO Science Research Specialist 1 Food Processing Division Industrial Technology Development Institute DOST Compound, Bicutan, Taguig City Philippines
  • 3. OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION • Principles of Thermal Processing or Canning • Thermal Process Establishment • Basic Steps in Thermal Processing (General Points on GMP) • Evaluation of Thermally Processed Foods
  • 4. Principles of Thermal Processing • Thermal Processing or Canning is a method of food preservation wherein a food and its container are rendered commercially sterile by the application of heat, alone, or in combination with pH and/or water activity or other chemicals http://www.science.ph/full_story.php?type=News&key=124858:dost- technologies-water-retort https://toriavey.com/how-to/pressure-canning/ - USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service, 2005
  • 5. Principles of Thermal Processing • “Commercial sterility” is the condition achieved by the application of heat, alone or in combination with the other appropriate treatment, sufficient to render the food free from microorganisms capable of growing in the food at ambient conditions at which the food is likely to be held during distribution and storage. - USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service, 2005
  • 6. Principles of Thermal Processing • The hermetically sealed (or fully sealed) container maintains the sterility of the food. • The product will remain shelf-stable as long as the container is kept intact.
  • 7. TYPES OF THERMAL PROCESSES Conventional Sterilization Pasteurization In-pack Hot-fill-hold Aseptic Sterilization Pasteurization
  • 8. Important Parameters in Food Canning • pH Øthe measure of acidity or basicity of a food material (pH range 2 to 7.0) or the negative log of the Hydrogen ion concentration • Water activity (aW) Øthe amount of available water for the growth of microorganism. It is also the ratio of the vapor pressure of food over the vapor pressure of water Ø(aW of foods = lower than 1.0) https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.healthline.com https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.humimeter.com
  • 9. Canning Process Food Classification Pasteurization or water bath processing – 100ºC (212ºC) or lower Equipment: Ø Pasteurizer-steamer Ø Boiling water bath • Naturally acid foods with pH 4.6 or lower (calamansi, mango, tamarind) • Acidified foods with pH 4.6 or lower (nata de coco and kaong in syrup) • Water activity (aW) controlled foods with aW of 0.85 and below, regardless of pH Processing under pressure – (116ºC (240ºF) to 121ºC (250ºF) Equipment: Ø Steam retort Ø Pressure cooker • Low-acid food with pH 4.6 or higher (fish, meat, vegetables) and Water activity (aW) controlled foods with aW of 0.85 and above Conventional Canning Methods
  • 10. Two Thermal Processing Methods (Kitchen Scale) Water Bath Canner (100ºC) Pressure Canner (115.6ºC or higher)
  • 11. Thermal Process Establishment • Safe thermal processes are established to prevent the growth of Clostridium botulinum, an anaerobic bacterium that survives in inadequately processed canned low acid food (LACF), like canned fish and shellfish. https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.campdenbri.co.uk https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.pmeasuring.com
  • 12. The severity of any thermal process must be known and depend on factors such as: a. the physical characteristics of the food product including thermo-physical properties, shape and size of the container holding the product b. the type and thermal resistance of the target microorganisms that are likely to be present in the food, and c. the pH, water activity (aw) and salt content of the food. Thermal Process Establishment
  • 13. Thermal Process Establishment Formulation Thermal Resistance Studies Heat Penetration Studies Process Calculation Testing/Validation of the Calculated Process
  • 14. Thermal Process Establishment Heat Distribution Test Heat Penetration Test
  • 15. Important factors that influence on the rate of heat penetration into a food: 1. Type of product Ø Liquid or particulate foods (e.g. peas in brine) in which natural convection currents are established heat faster than solid foods (e.g. fish, crabmeat) in which heat is transferred by conduction. Thermal Process Establishment
  • 16. Important factors that influence on the rate of heat penetration into a food: 2. Size of container Ø Heat penetration to the center is faster in small container than in large containers. 3. Temperature of the retort Ø A higher temperature difference between the food and the heating medium causes faster heat penetration. Thermal Process Establishment
  • 17. Important factors that influence on the rate of heat penetration into a food: 4. Shape of the container Ø Tall containers promote convection currents in convection heating foods. 5. Type of container Ø Heat penetration is faster through metal than through glass or plastics owing to differences in thermal conductivity Thermal Process Establishment
  • 18. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products Cooling Inspection and labeling Selection and Inspection of raw material Preparation of raw material, container and ingredients Washing, peeling, cutting, cooking, etc Preparation of packing medium/ingredients Preparation of container Processing or sterilization Filling into tin cans, glass jars, retort pouch Addition of packing medium Exhausting (removal or air and gases) Sealing/closing of containers Coding
  • 19. Basic Equipment/Utensils for Thermal Processing of Fish All American Pressure Canner Stainless steel (SS) knives SS wide mouth funnel Weighing scale heavy duty cast iron 3-way burner SS mixing bowl SS ladle strainer SS ladle Strainer Carajay Dial Thermometer SS scissors Chopping board Steam Jacketed Kettle
  • 21. Business Ethics in Food Processing Hygienic and Sanitary (Malinis) Safe (Ligtas) Correct Methods and Ways (Tama) Fair and Honest (Tapat) Food Safety Fair Trade Practices
  • 22. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products ØShould be of good quality to be obtained from reputable suppliers 1. Selection and treatment of raw materials, ingredients and packaging materials https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=http%3A%2F%2Fkimastambayan.blogspot. com https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww. lazada.com.ph https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww. rappler.com
  • 23. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products Sensory factors in determining the quality of milk fish PARAMETERS FRESH FISH STALE FISH Odor Fishy Stale, sour or putrid Eye Bright, not wrinkled or sunken, clear pupil Dull, wrinkled, sunken, graying to reddish pupil Gills Bright red, covered with clear slime, odor under gill cover is fresh and fishy Dull brown or gray, slime cloudy, odor under gill cover sour and offensive Colors Bright Faded Flesh Firm, body is stiff, impression made by fingers do not remain, slime is present and clear Soft and flabby, impressions made by fingers remain, slime absent and sometimes milky Belly Walls Intact Often ruptured, viscera protruding Muscle tissue White Becomes pinkish, especially around backbone Vent Pink and not protruding Brown and protruding
  • 24. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products Raw Materials for Thermal Processing Vegetables Fruits Meat, fish and poultry
  • 25. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products Packaging Materials for Thermal Processing or Canning Retort Pouch Cans Glass Jars Multi-layer brick type flexible package
  • 26. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products ØThese operations should be carried out in quick and continuous manner to minimize microbial contamination and loss of quality 2. Preparation of the food for canning (washing, peeling, cutting or slicing, brining, blanching, thawing and heating) Cutting of Fish
  • 27. 2. a. Preparation of the food material for canning Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products Preparation of Fish for Canning https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.bakeryandsnacks.com https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.britann ica.com
  • 28. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products Cooking of Sauce 2. b. Preparation of packing medium • Sugar Syrup • Fruit Juices • Cooking Oil • Brine (Salt and Water) • Water (for Canned Tuna) • Tomato Sauce • Formulated Sauces
  • 29. Steam Jacketed Kettles for Preparation of Packing Medium Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
  • 30. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products Ø It is important to pack the food uniformly maintaining the desired level in the container, correct fill-in weight, net weight and proper headspace 3. Filling of food in the containers (cans, glass jars, flexible packages) Can filling line https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fiorbitnews.com
  • 31. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products ØContainers should be filled with 90% of the water capacity of the container ØRemaining 10% left for the headspace (12 mm for large cans 180 mm high and 6 mm for small cans) 3. Filling of food in the containers Piston filler for sauces Funnel for manual filling
  • 32. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products 3. Filling of food in the containers Filling of food leaving appropriate headspace • Fill-in-weight is the weight of the solid portion of product without the liquid or packing medium • Net weight is weight of the solid and the packing medium • Gross headspace is the distance from the top of the container flange or double seam for cans and top of the lip for glass containers to the top of the liquid in the container • Net headspace is the distance from the inside bottom of the lid or glass closure to the liquid in the container Headspace Gauge
  • 33. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products 3. Filling of food in the containers • Mushiness of the contents due to excessive movement inside the can. • Low vacuum if heat exhaust is used. Underfilling produces large headspace which results in the following: https://www.thrillist.com/eat/nation/ starkist-tuna-class-action-lawsuit- you-can-get-25-cash-or-50-in-tuna
  • 34. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products 3. Filling of food in the containers • Low vacuum • Swelling of can due to hydrogen production. • Under processing • Springiness or can distortion • Increased chance that food may be trapped between the can lid and body with the production of a faulty seam. Overfilling produces small headspace which results in the following: https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.s hape.com
  • 35. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products 3. Filling of food in the containers ü cans are periodically weighed in line ü headspaces, drained and net weights are determined on the products to check the adequacy of the filling process. https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A %2F%2Fwww.bhg.com
  • 36. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products 3. Filling of food in the containers Cold and Hot Packing in Glass jars
  • 37. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products ØExhausting removes the air and other gases from the product before sealing so that an appropriate vacuum will be obtained in the finished product ØAir remaining in the headspace of the container contains oxygen which may interact with the product and the container increasing the rate of deterioration. 4. Exhausting of filled containers Exhaust Box
  • 38. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products Dial Thermometer Digital Thermometer Thermometers for measuring exhausting temperature
  • 39. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products 4. Exhausting of filled containers • Hot filling: filling the container with hot product • Exhaust box: the filled container is heated by passing through a steam or hot water exhaust box • Mechanically: the container is filled; the lid is attached by a clinching machine then passed into a vacuum chamber and sealed • Steam injection: live steam is injected into the container headspace prior to sealing container closure • Combination of heating followed by injection of steam into the headspace • Gas Flush: an inert gas such as nitrogen is used to flush the air out of the headspace Containers may be exhausted by several methods, like:
  • 40. 5. Sealing of cans using can sealer and closing of glass jars manually or by using a jar closing machine Can Seaming Machine or Can Seamer Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
  • 41. Locally Available All American Brand Can Sealers ELECTRIC CAN SEALER MANUAL CAN SEALER Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
  • 42. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products Continuous Conveyor band sealer Portable band Sealer Products in SUP Band Sealers for Stand-up Pouch (SUP)
  • 43. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products Automatic capping machine for glass jars
  • 44. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products 6. Washing the cans after sealing • After sealing, cans should be washed to remove spilt products which might contaminate the external surface of the cans and the sterilizing equipment • Washing after sterilization is not recommended for canned food, except in exceptional circumstances, because of the risk of post-process contamination.
  • 45. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products 7. Container Coding (with permanent, legible, identifying code mark) • The mark shall identify in code the product and the day and the year the product was packed • Codes will either be embossed or imprinted directly on the container with ink.
  • 46. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products 8. Heat processing (sterilization/pasteurization) • involves heating the canned food for an accurately pre-determined time and temperature using superheated steam, atmospheric steam or in heated water • The process should render the product stable against spoilage of microorganisms and enzymes. • This is the “MOST IMPORTANT STEP IN THERMAL PROCESSING” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HiqFkPYzeQo&t=1s https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A %2F%2Fwww.jbtc.com
  • 47. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products Relationships between pH, water activity (aW), and current USFDA low-acid and acidified regulations* *Does not apply to foods which are naturally or normally acid Final Equilibrium pH Water Activity (aw) Registration and Process Filing Required as: Low Acid (21CFR 108.35/113)) Acidified (21CFR 108.25/114) ≤4.6 ≤0.85 No No ≤4.6 >0.85 No Yes >4.6 ≤0.85 Yes No >4.6 >0.85 Yes No USFDA Regulations on Low-acid and Acidified Foods
  • 48. USFDA Regulations of Thermally Processed Foods 1. Foods with pH values greater than 4.6 and water activity (aw) greater than 0.85 are covered by the low-acid canned foods regulations or LACF, which are required to receive severe thermal process at 115.6ºC (240ºF) or higher, to prevent the survival of Clostridium botulinum. 2. Foods with pH less than or equal to 4.6 and aw greater than 0.85 are covered by the acidified foods regulations (AF) which requires mild heat treatment like pasteurization at 100ºC (212ºF) or lower, to prevent the growth of non-heat resistant pathogens and vegetative organisms. 3. Foods not covered by the above regulations are non-meat containing foods with aw adjusted to 0.85 or less, regardless of pH and foods with natural pH of 4.6 or less, also referred as acid foods. These products require no thermal process.
  • 49.
  • 50. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products Pressure Cookers for Small Scale Canning Operation
  • 51. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products Exterior Interior All American Pressure Cookers
  • 52. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products 1. Temperature and pressure Gauge. 2. Heavy Duty Cast Aluminum throughout. 3. Polished finish. 4. Overpressure Release. 5. Sturdy Bakelite Handle. 6. Safety Control Valve 7. Easy On/Off cover. 8. Clamping Wing Nuts for opening and closing. 9. "METAL-TO-METAL" seal. 10. Double thickness edges All American Pressure Cooker Parts Automatic pressure control (pressure regulator weights and vent pipe)
  • 53. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products Proper way of using the Pressure Cooker
  • 54. https://www.theprairiehomestead.com/2012/08/how-to-use-a-pressure-canner-part-1.html Do not place the pressure regulator weights on the vent pipe during venting/exhausting Place pressure regulator weights on the vent pipe after exhausting
  • 55. Heat processing or sterilization Equipment Vertical Steam Retort Vertical Retort Horizontal Retort Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products
  • 56. Heat processing or sterilization Equipment Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products Pilot Type Retort
  • 57. Heat processing or sterilization Equipment Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products Commercial Retort
  • 58. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products Filled retort baskets ready for retorting Jumble-loaded retort basket Upright product orientation in retort baskets Heat processing or sterilization equipment
  • 59. Heat processing or sterilization equipment Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products Lying orientation for flexible semi-rigid containers
  • 60. Heat processing or sterilization Equipment Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products Horizontal Water Retorts for pouches, glass jars that require overpressure
  • 61. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products 9. Cooling of heat processed containers • The processed cans should be cooled as quickly as possible to an average product temperature of about 40-45ºC “too low for thermophilic organism to survive” “high enough to dry the can surface” • Atmospheric cooling is recommended for products packed in glass jars if processed in pressure cooker or still retort
  • 62. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products 9. Cooling of heat processed containers Cooling of Glass Jars
  • 63. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products 10. Inspection of processed products • All processed products should be visually inspected before labeling and casing, and defective products should be withdrawn or rejected • Inspection should be done after the prescribed incubation period when the product has passed quality evaluation
  • 64. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products 11. Labeling of containers • Labels are automatically affixed to the containers by different methods (paper labels are wrapped around and glued to the cans or jars; plastic or foam label sleeves may be slipped around plastic cups or glass jars and “shrunk” to the container with heat, etc)
  • 65. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products 11. Labeling of containers
  • 66. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products 11. Labeling of containers Manual labeling of food products
  • 67. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products 1. Product Name/ Name of the Food 2. Use of Brand Name and/or Trade Mark (if has registered brand name or trade mark) 3. The complete list of ingredients and food additives used in the preparation of the product in descending order of proportion. 4. The net contents and drained weight using the metric system. Other systems of measurement required by importing countries shall appear in parenthesis after the metric system unit. 5. The name and the address of either the manufacturer, packer, distributor, importer, exporter or vendor of the food. Labeling of retail packages/container Labels of all pre-packaged food shall bear the following minimum mandatory information: Reference: DOH A.O. 2014-0030
  • 68. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products 6. Lot identification marked in code identifying product lot. 7. Storage condition 8. Expiry or Expiration Date/ Use-by-date/ Consume Before Date (recommended last consumption date). 9. Food Allergen Information (e.g. Contains food allergens: fish) 10.Direction/Instruction(s) for Use 11.Nutrition Facts/Nutrition Information/Nutritive Value Labeling of retail packages/container Labels of all pre-packaged food shall bear the following minimum mandatory information: Reference: DOH A.O. 2014-0030
  • 69. Basic Steps in Thermal Processing/Canning of Food Products Casing of Finished Products
  • 71. Evaluation of Thermally Processed Foods Cut Out Tests Equipment Required 1. Gross weight = weight of can and contents Digital top loading balance or triple beam balance 2. Vacuum Vacuum gauge (cm or inch Hg) 3. Gross headspace = height from food/liquid level to top of container Headspace gauge or SS ruler 4. Net headspace = height from liquid level to bottom of can seam Headspace gauge or SS ruler 5. Net weight = weight of contents only Digital top loading balance or triple beam balance 6. Drained weight = weight of solid contents only Digital top loading balance, USA Standard Testing Sieve No. 8 and stopwatch timer with alarm 1. Physical Test
  • 72. Evaluation of Thermally Processed Foods 1. Physical Test Tear down examination for Cans Equipment Required 1. Seam length Can seam micrometer 2. Seam Thickness Can seam micrometer 3. Cover Hook Sanitary can opener (or long nose pliers); can end nippers (or nipper- pliers); can seam micrometer 4. Body Hook Sanitary can opener (or long nose pliers); can end nippers (or nipper- pliers); can seam micrometer 5. % Overlap calculator 6. Wrinkle Rating Magnifying glass; can seam micrometer
  • 73. Evaluation of Thermally Processed Foods Tools for Tear Down Examination of Cans
  • 74. Evaluation of Thermally Processed Foods a. For Low-acid Foods Culture Media/incubation temperature Spore-forming organisms (including Clostridium botulinum) Cooked meat medium/liver broth/beef liver broth at mesophilic (37ºC) and thermophilic (55ºC) conditions and aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Flat-sour organisms (including thermophilic flat sour organisms) Bromcresol purple dextrose broth at mesophilic (37ºC) and thermophilic (55ºC) conditions at aerobic and anaerobic conditions. 2. Commercial Sterility Test
  • 75. Evaluation of Thermally Processed Foods b. For Acid/acidified Foods Culture Media/incubation temperature Acid tolerant microorganisms Acid product test broth at mesophilic (37ºC) and thermophilic (55ºC) conditions and aerobic and anaerobic conditions Yeast and mold growth Malt extract broth at mesophilic (37ºC) and thermophilic (55ºC) conditions and aerobic and anaerobic conditions 2. Commercial Sterility Test
  • 76. Technical Services offered by DOST-ITDI related to Thermal Processing of Fish/Food FOOD PROCESSING DIVISION • Water activity determination • Cut Out Test • Heat Penetration Test • Heat Distribution Test • Shelf-life Testing Standard Testing Division • pH and water activity determination • Commercial Sterility Test
  • 77. ~ END OF PRESENTATION ~