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Italian Futurist Umberto Boccioni
Umberto Boccioni was one of the most noticeable and powerful artists among the Italian Futurists, an art movement that arose in the years before the
First World War. Boccioni was educated from 1898 to 1902 in the studio of the painter Giacomo Balla, where he learned to paint in the style of the
Pointillists. In 1907, he settled in Milan, where he progressively came under the influence of the poet Filippo Marinetti, who hurled the Futurist
movement, which adored the dynamism of modern technology. Boccioni's first major Futurist painting, Riot in the Gallery, endured close to
pointillism and displayed an affiliation with Futurism mainly in its violent substance matter and dynamic configuration. In 1912, he published the
"Manifesto of Futurist
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Futurism Timeline
Started: 1909 Ended: 1945 (end of WWII) Brief history Futurism was an art movement as well as a social movement that was developed in Italy in the
early 20th Century. It was all about being avant–garde (experimental / pushing the boundaries) and embracing ideas of the future. Futurism was seen as
a rebellion, being purposely revolutionary. Futurism was launched when Filoppo Marinetti (1876–1944) published his Manifesto of Futurism in the
Paris Newspaper Le Figaro (20th February 1909) This made futurism a revolutionary movement as all the arts could test their ideas and forms against
the new realities of scientific and industrial society. We intend to sing the love of danger, the habit of energy and fearlessness. Courage, audacity and
revolt...show more content...
This process was called 'DIVISIONISM'. The influence on Graphic Design Futurists known for expressive typography Breaking traditional rules and
layout Dynamic and abstract forms An artwork would usually include 3 or 4 ink colours Textured paper Up to 20 typefaces Associated artists: Benito
Mussolini (1883 – 1945) created the Fascist Party Filippo Tommaso Marinetti (1876– 1944) – founded Futurism with the publication of his manifesto
Umberto Boccioni (1882 – 1916) – artist that developed futurist theories Wyndham Lewis (1882 – 1957) – English artist and writer who founded the
Vorticist movement Oswald Mosley (1896– 1980) – English politician who was the leader of the British Union of Fascists Leni Riefenstahl (1902 –
2003) – German motion–picture director, actress, producer, and photographer who is best known for her documentary films of the 1930s dramatizing
the power and pageantry of the Nazi movement. Social / Political Industralisation Advancements in technology The futurist manifesto was promoting
nationalism Mussolini took inspiration from this to develop the Fascist
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Cubism And Futurism
Introduction
The two movements, with more or less abstract tendencies, that first influenced the majority of experimental artists in this country, beginning about
1913 when both movements were at their altitude. Cubism and Futurism, both of which had a great influence in the United States derives from the
researches of Cezanne and Seurat. The beginnings of Cubism date back to about 1908 under the twin aeg
Cubism
The 20th–century style and movement in art, particularly painting, in which perspective with a single viewpoint was reckless and use was made of
simple geometric shapes, linking planes, and later, collages. Cubism was a revolutionary style of modern art developed by Pablo Picasso and Georges
Braques. It was the first style of abstract art which changed at the beginning of the 20th century in response to a world that was changing too fast.
Cubism was an effort by artists to revive the tired traditions of Western art which they believed had run their progression. The Cubists challenged
conventional forms of representation, which had been the rule since the Renaissance.
From 1870–1910, western society saw more technological progress than in the previous four centuries. During this period, inventions such as
photography, sound recording, telephone, the motor car and the airplane indicated the start of a new age. Photography had begun to...show more
content...
Their aim was to change to a new seeing completely. They were more concerned in changing viewpoint as it was affected by space or time. The idea
of Cubism was to show all viewpoints at the same time. The usage of human form in paintings was influenced by African tribal masks. Pablo Picasso
and Georges Braque started the art movement known as Cubism in 1907. As an aesthetic and philosophical improvement, this type of sculpture and
painting changed modern abstract art for the rest of the 20th century. Paintings in this style are familiar by their faceted nudes,
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Futurism Research Paper
Definition
Futurism is an artistic movement that centered in Italy and emphasized the dynamism, speed, energy, and power of the machine and the vitality,
change, and restlessness of modern life in general.
Before Futurism
The world had become a new place. In the summer of 1900, with the opening of the Universal Exposition, Paris found itself electrified, its nights
almost transformed to day. The automobile dominated the city's streets by 1906. People were flying airplanes. Albert Einstein proposed a new theory
of relativity and Niels Bohr a new model for the atom. Many people felt that there could be no tradition, at least not one worth imitating, in the face of
so much change.
Futurism Began
The new movement in modern art, Futurism was first announced on Feb. 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the
Italian poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art
of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Marinetti's manifesto glorified the new technology of the
automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional
cultural, social, and...show more content...
Here, Boccioni illustrates the construction of a modern city. The chaos and movement in the piece resemble a war scene as indeed war was presented
in the Futurist Manifesto as the only means toward cultural progress. The large horse races into the foreground while several workers struggle to gain
control, indicating tension between human and animal. The horse and figures are blurred, communicating rapid movement while other elements, such
as the buildings in the background, are rendered more realistically. At the same time, the perspective teeters dramatically in different sections of the
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Creatio Tommaso Futurism
A new world, A new era, a new art form, Futurism and Dada are the cornerstone of Avant
–Garde art, celebrating a break from traditionalism, these new
art forms in different ways show a complete disdain for classical art, With Futurism and Dada tradition is out, new is in. Marking the important features
of Futurism and Dada are their key figureheads, such as Marcel Duchamp and Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, among many others contributed to the
artworks foundation, a foundation of such unique art that challenges the notion of tradition and what is means to be art.
The 20th century is the hall mark of new, airplanes, automobiles, electricity, the whole world was abuzz with the feelings of a new future, it was a
modern world now and that required modern art. Filippo Tommaso Marinetti understood this and wrote the Futurist Manifesto, the...show more
content...
The Futurist Manifesto outlined the principals of what makes a Futurist piece of art, yet even with such a guideline what was considered by futurist
was not truly clear to its members, the key tenets promoted was the rejection of traditionalist and use of motion and movement into art, yet for Umberto
Boccioni, the influence of cubism in his art was cause of rejection by some members of the group, due to cubism being considered lacking in
movement. Through this criticism that Boccioni faced, Futurism reach the zenith with the creation of Unique Forms of Continuity in Space (1913) a
sculpture by Boccioni that truly captured the movement energy of Futurism, Unfortunately, the movement was breaking up during the time, as each
member was creating their own personal positions on the matter on Futurism and the deaths of notable members such as Boccioni and Antonio
Sant'Elia. Notably the movement continued to exist for some time, but without the original energy. Given these points Futurism can be considered a
precursor to Dada which takes up some of the core values of
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Futurism: The Italian Movement
Futurism was a primarily Italian movement that expressed the ideals of industrialization, and strived to evoke all kinds of sensations through their
paintings. The movement also wanted to demonstrate the beauty of modern life and developed an entire philosophy that extended to social and
political beliefs. (Roth–Davies pg 10) Futurism was a movement born out of boredom with Romanticism, debauchery and sappiness.
Futurism focuses on the movement of the object within the piece, manipulating and overlaying an image several times to understand the motion and
movement it creates. (Art–educ)
In the painting above, Giacomo Balla depicted the fast movements of a motorcycle. I believe the swirls in the center of the image represent the wheels
of the
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Futurism Essay
FUTURISM
Futurism (lat. Futurus = future) was a movement in literature, visual art, fashion, architecture, theatre, music and film in the early 20th century,
launched by Italian poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. Futurism appeared as a fervent denouncer of the past. Italian art represented the past Ancient,
Renaissance and Baroque art and culture. In the early 1900s, Italian artists and writers believed that the "Machine Age" could have changed the
situation and develop into a new awareness. F. Marinetti called the new movement futurism to apprehend the idea of modernity, to glorify speed,
technological society, industrialism, dynamism, violence and youth.
Futurism appeared as a cult of power and dynamism, at the same time, in art, as a violation of aesthetic norms using the production of art as an...show
more content...
We will sing of the great crowds agitated by work, pleasure and revolt; the multi–colored and polyphonic surf of revolutions in modern capitals: the
nocturnal vibration of the arsenals and the workshops beneath their violent electric moons: the gluttonous railway stations devouring smoking serpents;
factories suspended from the clouds by the thread of their smoke; bridges with the leap of gymnasts flung across the diabolic cutlery of sunny rivers:
adventurous steamers sniffing the horizon; great–breasted locomotives, puffing on the rails like enormous steel horses with long tubes for bridle, and
the gliding flight of aeroplanes whose propeller sounds like the flapping of a flag and the applause of enthusiastic crowds.
The passionate tone of manifest was expressing the principles of futurism being a dynamic art corresponding to the new industrial era. Futurism
intended the keep up with the speed of the era. Compelling tone and the usage of "must, want, and will" evokes the impression of aggression,
determination, eagerness for a change, asperity and undoubtedly has ability to create a noisy voice even during the silent reading, representing strict
genuine reading
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The first Manifesto I read was "The Foundation and Manifesto of Futurism" by Marinetti. Marinetti highlights various concepts behind the futurist
movement. Throughout his manifesto he describes old versus new and personifies several places and machines. Like when he spoke of his automobile
he said "We approach the the three panting beasts to stroke their burning breasts, full of love and admiration." (Marinetti 643). He says that finally the
old and mystical ideals and myths are far behind them. He portrays these engines as demonic, but however his description sounds he isn't demonizing
technology, he is in fact admiring it. He also encourages people to take these risky leaps of faith. He highlights the point that humans need conflict and
revolutions bring out change....show more content...
Like Marinetti in the previous manifesto, Duxiu also talks about the change from old to new, however he states "Revolution means the elimination of
the old and the changeover to the new..." (Duxiu 647) He then speaks about how Europe has their own literary revolution but the people of his culture
do not revolt due to "Ethics, morality, and culture"(Duxiu 647) He then proceeds to talk about the "revolutions" or advancements they had within their
literature. He also mentions how other writers "only skills were in imitating the ancients and deceiving people..." (Duxiu 650) The whole thing is
basically a criticism of the three mentioned in the manifesto and why European Literature was more
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Futurism
Kris Valladares 
April 8 2016 ARTH 3334
Professor Orto 
 Futurism and its impact to Graphic Design 
As the turn of the century swept
Italy off its feet, a thirst for something new and unrelated to the past was brewing. The experimentation of the Futurist movement drastically changed
the way typography and design were to be handled from 1909 on. 
Futurism was founded in 1909 by the Italian poet Filippo Marinetti, originally as
a literary movement but quickly expanded to other artistic disciplines. In that same year Marinetti's Futurist Manifesto, was published in Le Figaro, a
major french newspaper. By having the manifesto printed in such a prominent source of media this highlighted the urgency and desire for the
movement to not remain...show more content...
The adaptive artist was able to create a lasting stamp on Futurism and the design aesthetic of the period. In Guerrapittura pictured to the right, the
viewer can see a number of dynamic elements that carry throughout this booklet. 
What sets apart Carra's design aesthetic from Marinetti's is that
Carra gravitates towards a strong linear and almost grid like handling of the type. Carra's forms flow into one another almost seamlessly and without
the reliance of warping the baseline but rather just with placement, rotation and negative space. Invisible grid systems can be seen when looking at the
page to the farther right side of the image, Carra utilizes a basic three by three grid but then adds intersecting gridlines to that system to push it further.
Guerrapittura shows growth and exploration of how typography on a page can imply
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Modern Art And Futurism
Appropriating ideas in the context of art is a double–edged sword. On one end, it can bring awareness and attention to artists of other cultures and time
periods, but on the other end, it is blatant plagiarism. In the art world, the time period of Cubism through Fauvism (with Futurism being the notable
modern art movement in between) was ripe with artists taking from fellow creators. Pablo Picasso was one of the most notable appropriators of others'
works. In the masterpiece Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (which is a Cubist work of art), he was inspired by nineteenth–century African masks. He
borrowed the lines and shapes of the faces on the masks to make a point about the culture of the French. In Futurism, it is ironic that there was as
much appropriation as there was. The movement was all about new and exciting things while the visual artists were painting many of the same
subjects, like war, seen in works like Christopher R. W. Nevinson's Returning to the Trenches in 1914
–1915 and Gino Severini's Armored Train from
1915. In the last mentioned movement, Fauvism, Henri Matisse was the biggest star. His color made him stand out but the subject of his wife was
taken from the father of modern art, Paul CГ©zanne. This is simply because of the awe CГ©zanne ignited in modern artists but also because of
what his wife stood for in his paintings completed in the late 1800's. She was a symbol of dread that was so iconic, Matisse had to include her in his
works such as Portrait of the
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Futurism
Futurism
[pic]
Content
Introduction
Background information
Cerebration
Futurist Painting
Futurist Sculpture
Artists
Influence
http://arttattler.com/italyvenice.html http://www.mathewadkins.co.uk/article1/ Introduction
What is Futurism?
Futurism was an art movement originated in Italy in the early 20th century. It was largely an Italian phenomenon, though there were parallel
movements in Russia, England and elsewhere.
Futurism is a term that may suggest a number of things. For example, when we describle soething as being 'futuristic', we mean to convey an idea of
scientific and technological advance beyond that which presently exists. The notion of 'futuristic' carries with it not only...show more content...
In 1901, Boccioni first visited the Famiglia Artistica, a society for artists in Milan. After moving there in 1907, he became acquainted with fellow
Futurists including the famous poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The two would later join with others in writing manifestos on futurism.
4) Gino Severini (1883 – 1966)
Gino Severini was Italian painter. He have been involved in publication of the Declaration on the future of painting, has participated in international
exhibition of futuristic. Published in 1921 "From Cubism to Classicism" summed up his life of artistic ideas. His Painting by the ever–changing curve
and interspersed in the multi–screen and a decent three–dimensional structure, was considered the future of painting as a model.
Futurist Painting
First Responses
Fiacomo Balla (1871–1958), Umberto Boccioni (1882 – 1916) and Carlo Carra (1881 – 1966), among others who signed the 'Manifesto of the Futurist
Painters' in 1910, were already inclined to an interest in the heated, fin–de–siecle fantasy mixed with modernist machine–workship and extremist
political rhetoric of Marinetti's manifesto. Each of them had developed practices as painters in response to the complex options available to them at the
end of the century – Social Realism, Symbolism, Impressionism and neo–Impressionism being just a few of the international styles within which their
art had been formed. Most of these technical movements had broader
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Marinetti Futurism Essay
Marinetti addressed the "death" of traditional art in his Futurist Manifesto of 1909 when he stated "Why should we look back, when what we want is
to break down the mysterious doors of the Impossible? Time and Space died yesterday. We already live in the absolute, because we have created
eternal, omnipresent speed" (2001 21–2). Marinetti, among with artists of the Futurist, Vorticist and Constructivist movements of the20th century,
believed that mechanisation was fundamental to creating a new future where machines played a vital role in modern society. The traditional style of
painting and sculpture – in accordance to Futurist principles – had no place in this new future. In this adapt–or–die situation, artists Umberto Boccioni
and Jacob Epstein responded to the world of machines by incorporating techniques learned from their past...show more content...
From viewing a painting as a single moment in time to trying to capture motion and movement within a single frame, painting in the early 20th century
went through radical changes in order to keep up with mechanisation entrancing the modern world. Boccioni was an Italian artist who created work in
the Divisionism style (where the colours are separated by singular, precise brushstrokes or dots while still maintaining visual harmony), which
according to Black "was the variant of French Impressionism" (2004 10). Despite initially still incorporating old techniques into Futurist artworks The
City Rises (1910–11) and Dynamism of a Cyclist (1913), that were meant to represent concepts of the new world, Boccioni captured the essence of the
Futurists key
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Futurism is an art movement of the early 20th century. It was founded in 1909 in Italy, by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, who was an Italian poet and
editor. Futurism celebrated the advanced technology of the time and how major cities were becoming more modern. The futurism movement was
important as it influenced most of Europe, and the most significant results were in the visual arts and poetry. Futurism was influenced by elements of
Neo–Impressionism and Cubism. A group of Italian writers and artists emerged in the early 1900's and were determined to praise industrialisation. The
leader of this group was Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. On February 20th, 1909, the Paris newspaper called 'Le Figaro' published Marinetti's Manifesto.
In this Manifesto,...show more content...
The futurists celebrated the new exciting world upon them, with a love for speed, machines, pollution, noises and cities. Futurism also glorified war,
and the growth of fascism, which would have been controversial for the time. They rejected anything old and looked toward a newer and better Italy.
Futurism has gone on to influence other artistic domains. The Italian futurist architects were constantly at odds with the fascist countries favour
towards Roman imperial and classical aesthetic patterns. Therefore, as a result, many futurist buildings were built in the years 1920–1940, such as
stations, maritime resorts, post offices. An example is Trento's railway station built by Angiolo
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1. Introduction The futurist art movement and its characteristic manifestos had a significant impact on 'modernist' art movements since the 20th
century. Aside from founder Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, who was a poet, many manifestos were written by painters or about visual art: Marinetti's
two founding manifestos were directly followed by three manifestos by Umberto Boccioni, Carlo CarrГ , Giacomo Balla, Luigi Russolo, and Gino
Severini, all of whom were painters. In 1911, composer Francesco Balilla Pratella was the first to publish a manifesto concerning futurist music. With
'The Art of Noises', published for the first time in 1913, Luigi Russolo followed up on Pratella's ideas with a manifesto that would prove just as, if not
more innovative:...show more content...
Since the consensus on 'well–made music' is established according to past ideals and with the intention to maintain them, it is not oriented towards
innovation and remains a stagnant model. The cycle continues with the publishing of music: As publishers can influence the works which will be
distributed and performed, they can choose to perpetuate the allegedly untouchable ideal as represented, for example, by Giacomo Puccini or Umberto
Giordano. Works similar to this ideal could then be selected to be performed, but according to Pratella, they would not surpass 'mediocrity' and not
cause any innovation. Furthermore, the process of education and recognition requires money, therefore the factors of status, power and privilege
cannot be ignored. Through this cycle, only someone who has acquired a musical education, conforms to the institutionalised ideals, and is able to
afford their cost can gain recognition as an artist, and eventually become an 'expert' in their field. It is evident that both Marinetti and Pratella oppose
the idea of academic and traditional educational institutions in their manifestos, and instead propose to abandon them entirely. Consequently,
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Traditional Fine Arts Response To Futurism
The Machine Aesthetic
Traditional Fine Arts Response to Mechanisation
Marinetti addressed the "death" of traditional art in his Futurist Manifesto of 1909 when he stated "Why should we look back, when what we want is
to break down the mysterious doors of the Impossible? Time and Space died yesterday. We already live in the absolute, because we have created
eternal, omnipresent speed" (2001 21–2). Marinetti, among with artists of the Futurist, Vorticist and Constructivist movements of the20th century,
believed that mechanisation was fundamental to creating a new future where machines played a vital role in modern society. The traditional style of
painting and sculpture – in accordance to Futurist principles – had no place in this new future....show more content...
Kulten discusses how Epstein destroyed The Rock Drill (1913–15) because in its complete form, it was "almost too symbolic" and in order to cope
with his work, had to reduce it to an aesthetic work only (1969 65). Epstein took the synthetic man and removed the legs and parts of the arms,
leaving only the torso which he cast into a bronze bust in 1916. Having been involved in sculpture his entire artistic career, Epstein reverted back to
the traditional methods of creating sculptures in order to gain familiarity in his work again. As a result of returning to traditional themes, Epstein's
work lost a majority of the revolutionary aspects that made The Rock Drill (1913–15) an important work for the recurring theme of mechanisation that
enveloped society in the early half of the 20th century (Kulten, 1969 65). Torso in Metal from 'The Rock Drill' (1916) is an important work to consider
when exploring the machine aesthetic, as it is the expression of a frightful artist, unable to cope with the mechanical world, thus turning his greatest
creation into a lifeless bust with minimal meaning or
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Futurism And Fascism Similarities
Futurism and Fascism were two essential movements in the history of the Italian state. Futurism was an attempt to rid Italy of its past and create a new,
improved country through the destruction and aggression while fascism was a radical, political movement. The relationship between these two ideas
continues to be questioned. Did Fascism cause Futurism, vice versa, or is there in fact no correlation between the two? I will discuss the interaction
between Fascism and Futurism as well as several pieces of Futurist art work. These pieces include Unique Forms of Continuity in Space by Boccioni,
Armored Train in Action by Severini, Funeral of the Anarchist Galli by CarrГ. Not only are these pieces the epitome of Futurism, but they also add
insight as to how the Futurist movement impacted the political ideology of Fascism. Futurism is not the sole cause of Fascism; rather, the Futurist
movement coordinated Fascist ideas and allowed it to grow as a political ideology....show more content...
This manifesto had a "fiery tone" and "lashed out against cultural tradition" (Casden). Its goal was to remove Italy from its past and embrace a new
futuristic society as well as speed. These artists appreciated industrialization and advocated for the abolition of museums and other former creative
institutions and ideas (Casden). The diction and tactics used by the Futurists were very aggressive because they believed the unrest created by the
movement would enable a contemporary Italy to take hold. In order to do this, futurists held serate futuriste, where political rhetoric was shouted at the
onlookers of art showings with the intent of sparking riots (Casden). This movement, with its hostile rhetoric, was very unique and laid the groundwork
for something far bigger than
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Filippo Tommaso Marinetti was one of the greatest visionaries of speed. In 1909, when the automobiles and airplanes were developing rapidly beyond
the travel of the horse, carriage and train, he initiated the futurist movement with his colourful essay "The Founding Manifesto of Futurism." Marinetti
praised technology as the vast wave of the future, it would sweep aside old traditions and explode in violent powers but he saw technology as
something that would capture minds with incredible fascination. Marinetti believed that futurism would put aside myths and promote a new, rational
world view. He happily disregards the old world's traditions as written in his manifesto "We will destroy the museums, libraries, academies of every
kind, will fight
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Filippo Marinetti's Manifesto Of Futurism
In 1909, former symbolist poet Filippo Marinetti published his subversive Manifesto of Futurism. This avant–garde proposal for literary revolution
proved highly influential to the world of visual art in Italy. Marinetti's call for dynamism and movement of both physical and societal nature triggered a
movement which stood proudly for vivacity, energy, and disruption, and reflected the state of politics and industry during its time. In his contribution to
the advent of a seismic change in Italian art that included introducing non academic approaches and abstraction Marinetti exemplified the avant–garde
art scene of early 20th century Italy. The most prominent aspect of futurism and The Futurist Manifesto is their focus on dynamism,...show more
content...
Unsatisfied with Italy's dilatory transition to modern styles of art, Marinetti called for a movement lead by youth conducting constant upheaval of
traditional art. These highly avant–garde notions lead him to relegate museums to the level of graveyards; perhaps to be visited annually in tribute to
the past, but never to be copied or exalted. He expresses that youth, still untired and fueled by rage, can offer the most to great art. He possesses a
genuine desire for constant change, and in suggesting that only those younger than forty can create change in the arts, he claims, "When we are forty,
the younger and stronger men will probably throw us in the wastebasket like useless manuscripts–we want it to happen!" In an extreme example of his
push forward, he propounds that artists not only adopt pejorative attitudes towards libraries, academies, and museums from the art world, but also
incinerate and flood these institutions. In his manifesto, as well as in futurist paintings such as Giacomo Balla's Street Light, the juxtaposition of
celestial light sources with overpowering man–made lamps suggests the superiority of progress, technology, and machine power over that of historical
insight and nature. Several times, Marinetti alludes to a transition from mythology, past knowledge, and logical thought in replacement of the life of
speed and revolution sought by the futurists and succeeding movements. For example, he claims, "Let us give ourselves utterly to the unknown, not in
desperation but only to replenish the wells of the absurd!" This break from adherence to previously acquired knowledge in pursuit of a rediscovery of
the nature of life and a study of the illogical aspects of life is in accordance with contemporaneous avant–garde movements such as Dada. (Despite the
Dadaists' opposition to
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Dada And Futurism
In this essay, I will be discussing the two movements 'Dada' and 'Futurism', with reference to their conceptual contexts and representative plays, there
will also be analysis to how these two movements contrast to realism/ naturalism. Links will also be made to the plays, with the use of scholarly
sources to back up the argument and then coming to a final conclusion at the end of the essay.
Dada was an artistic and literary movement, this arose as a reaction to World War one. Many citizens believed that Dada was actually the cause of
World War one, this movement likes to take the form of 'anti–art'. Therefore, how you can claim everything is art but in reality, nothing is art. For
example, take the painting 'Fountain' by a Dadaist painter Marcel Duchamp it is a readymade painting of an unused urinal. Which is basically
implying that he rejected art and thought that we should focus on the artist 's idea more rather than it being crafted. Therefore, using a urinal and
labelling it as 'art', get's Duchamp's point across that a work of art should be the artists idea instead of it being crafted. When looking at Dadaism by
Tristan Tzara, there were some interesting quotes. For example, "Like everything in life, Dada is useless. Dada is without pretension, as life should
be." (Tzara, 1918). This quote intrigues me, as Tzara is stating that all art is useless and that Dada is pretension and that is how life should be. This
can be used as an example of how Dadaism was inspired by
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Italian Futurist Umberto Boccioni

  • 1. Italian Futurist Umberto Boccioni Umberto Boccioni was one of the most noticeable and powerful artists among the Italian Futurists, an art movement that arose in the years before the First World War. Boccioni was educated from 1898 to 1902 in the studio of the painter Giacomo Balla, where he learned to paint in the style of the Pointillists. In 1907, he settled in Milan, where he progressively came under the influence of the poet Filippo Marinetti, who hurled the Futurist movement, which adored the dynamism of modern technology. Boccioni's first major Futurist painting, Riot in the Gallery, endured close to pointillism and displayed an affiliation with Futurism mainly in its violent substance matter and dynamic configuration. In 1912, he published the "Manifesto of Futurist Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 2. Futurism Timeline Started: 1909 Ended: 1945 (end of WWII) Brief history Futurism was an art movement as well as a social movement that was developed in Italy in the early 20th Century. It was all about being avant–garde (experimental / pushing the boundaries) and embracing ideas of the future. Futurism was seen as a rebellion, being purposely revolutionary. Futurism was launched when Filoppo Marinetti (1876–1944) published his Manifesto of Futurism in the Paris Newspaper Le Figaro (20th February 1909) This made futurism a revolutionary movement as all the arts could test their ideas and forms against the new realities of scientific and industrial society. We intend to sing the love of danger, the habit of energy and fearlessness. Courage, audacity and revolt...show more content... This process was called 'DIVISIONISM'. The influence on Graphic Design Futurists known for expressive typography Breaking traditional rules and layout Dynamic and abstract forms An artwork would usually include 3 or 4 ink colours Textured paper Up to 20 typefaces Associated artists: Benito Mussolini (1883 – 1945) created the Fascist Party Filippo Tommaso Marinetti (1876– 1944) – founded Futurism with the publication of his manifesto Umberto Boccioni (1882 – 1916) – artist that developed futurist theories Wyndham Lewis (1882 – 1957) – English artist and writer who founded the Vorticist movement Oswald Mosley (1896– 1980) – English politician who was the leader of the British Union of Fascists Leni Riefenstahl (1902 – 2003) – German motion–picture director, actress, producer, and photographer who is best known for her documentary films of the 1930s dramatizing the power and pageantry of the Nazi movement. Social / Political Industralisation Advancements in technology The futurist manifesto was promoting nationalism Mussolini took inspiration from this to develop the Fascist Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 3. Cubism And Futurism Introduction The two movements, with more or less abstract tendencies, that first influenced the majority of experimental artists in this country, beginning about 1913 when both movements were at their altitude. Cubism and Futurism, both of which had a great influence in the United States derives from the researches of Cezanne and Seurat. The beginnings of Cubism date back to about 1908 under the twin aeg Cubism The 20th–century style and movement in art, particularly painting, in which perspective with a single viewpoint was reckless and use was made of simple geometric shapes, linking planes, and later, collages. Cubism was a revolutionary style of modern art developed by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braques. It was the first style of abstract art which changed at the beginning of the 20th century in response to a world that was changing too fast. Cubism was an effort by artists to revive the tired traditions of Western art which they believed had run their progression. The Cubists challenged conventional forms of representation, which had been the rule since the Renaissance. From 1870–1910, western society saw more technological progress than in the previous four centuries. During this period, inventions such as photography, sound recording, telephone, the motor car and the airplane indicated the start of a new age. Photography had begun to...show more content... Their aim was to change to a new seeing completely. They were more concerned in changing viewpoint as it was affected by space or time. The idea of Cubism was to show all viewpoints at the same time. The usage of human form in paintings was influenced by African tribal masks. Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque started the art movement known as Cubism in 1907. As an aesthetic and philosophical improvement, this type of sculpture and painting changed modern abstract art for the rest of the 20th century. Paintings in this style are familiar by their faceted nudes, Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 4. Futurism Research Paper Definition Futurism is an artistic movement that centered in Italy and emphasized the dynamism, speed, energy, and power of the machine and the vitality, change, and restlessness of modern life in general. Before Futurism The world had become a new place. In the summer of 1900, with the opening of the Universal Exposition, Paris found itself electrified, its nights almost transformed to day. The automobile dominated the city's streets by 1906. People were flying airplanes. Albert Einstein proposed a new theory of relativity and Niels Bohr a new model for the atom. Many people felt that there could be no tradition, at least not one worth imitating, in the face of so much change. Futurism Began The new movement in modern art, Futurism was first announced on Feb. 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Marinetti's manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and...show more content... Here, Boccioni illustrates the construction of a modern city. The chaos and movement in the piece resemble a war scene as indeed war was presented in the Futurist Manifesto as the only means toward cultural progress. The large horse races into the foreground while several workers struggle to gain control, indicating tension between human and animal. The horse and figures are blurred, communicating rapid movement while other elements, such as the buildings in the background, are rendered more realistically. At the same time, the perspective teeters dramatically in different sections of the Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 5. Creatio Tommaso Futurism A new world, A new era, a new art form, Futurism and Dada are the cornerstone of Avant –Garde art, celebrating a break from traditionalism, these new art forms in different ways show a complete disdain for classical art, With Futurism and Dada tradition is out, new is in. Marking the important features of Futurism and Dada are their key figureheads, such as Marcel Duchamp and Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, among many others contributed to the artworks foundation, a foundation of such unique art that challenges the notion of tradition and what is means to be art. The 20th century is the hall mark of new, airplanes, automobiles, electricity, the whole world was abuzz with the feelings of a new future, it was a modern world now and that required modern art. Filippo Tommaso Marinetti understood this and wrote the Futurist Manifesto, the...show more content... The Futurist Manifesto outlined the principals of what makes a Futurist piece of art, yet even with such a guideline what was considered by futurist was not truly clear to its members, the key tenets promoted was the rejection of traditionalist and use of motion and movement into art, yet for Umberto Boccioni, the influence of cubism in his art was cause of rejection by some members of the group, due to cubism being considered lacking in movement. Through this criticism that Boccioni faced, Futurism reach the zenith with the creation of Unique Forms of Continuity in Space (1913) a sculpture by Boccioni that truly captured the movement energy of Futurism, Unfortunately, the movement was breaking up during the time, as each member was creating their own personal positions on the matter on Futurism and the deaths of notable members such as Boccioni and Antonio Sant'Elia. Notably the movement continued to exist for some time, but without the original energy. Given these points Futurism can be considered a precursor to Dada which takes up some of the core values of Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 6. Futurism: The Italian Movement Futurism was a primarily Italian movement that expressed the ideals of industrialization, and strived to evoke all kinds of sensations through their paintings. The movement also wanted to demonstrate the beauty of modern life and developed an entire philosophy that extended to social and political beliefs. (Roth–Davies pg 10) Futurism was a movement born out of boredom with Romanticism, debauchery and sappiness. Futurism focuses on the movement of the object within the piece, manipulating and overlaying an image several times to understand the motion and movement it creates. (Art–educ) In the painting above, Giacomo Balla depicted the fast movements of a motorcycle. I believe the swirls in the center of the image represent the wheels of the Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 7. Futurism Essay FUTURISM Futurism (lat. Futurus = future) was a movement in literature, visual art, fashion, architecture, theatre, music and film in the early 20th century, launched by Italian poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. Futurism appeared as a fervent denouncer of the past. Italian art represented the past Ancient, Renaissance and Baroque art and culture. In the early 1900s, Italian artists and writers believed that the "Machine Age" could have changed the situation and develop into a new awareness. F. Marinetti called the new movement futurism to apprehend the idea of modernity, to glorify speed, technological society, industrialism, dynamism, violence and youth. Futurism appeared as a cult of power and dynamism, at the same time, in art, as a violation of aesthetic norms using the production of art as an...show more content... We will sing of the great crowds agitated by work, pleasure and revolt; the multi–colored and polyphonic surf of revolutions in modern capitals: the nocturnal vibration of the arsenals and the workshops beneath their violent electric moons: the gluttonous railway stations devouring smoking serpents; factories suspended from the clouds by the thread of their smoke; bridges with the leap of gymnasts flung across the diabolic cutlery of sunny rivers: adventurous steamers sniffing the horizon; great–breasted locomotives, puffing on the rails like enormous steel horses with long tubes for bridle, and the gliding flight of aeroplanes whose propeller sounds like the flapping of a flag and the applause of enthusiastic crowds. The passionate tone of manifest was expressing the principles of futurism being a dynamic art corresponding to the new industrial era. Futurism intended the keep up with the speed of the era. Compelling tone and the usage of "must, want, and will" evokes the impression of aggression, determination, eagerness for a change, asperity and undoubtedly has ability to create a noisy voice even during the silent reading, representing strict genuine reading Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 8. The first Manifesto I read was "The Foundation and Manifesto of Futurism" by Marinetti. Marinetti highlights various concepts behind the futurist movement. Throughout his manifesto he describes old versus new and personifies several places and machines. Like when he spoke of his automobile he said "We approach the the three panting beasts to stroke their burning breasts, full of love and admiration." (Marinetti 643). He says that finally the old and mystical ideals and myths are far behind them. He portrays these engines as demonic, but however his description sounds he isn't demonizing technology, he is in fact admiring it. He also encourages people to take these risky leaps of faith. He highlights the point that humans need conflict and revolutions bring out change....show more content... Like Marinetti in the previous manifesto, Duxiu also talks about the change from old to new, however he states "Revolution means the elimination of the old and the changeover to the new..." (Duxiu 647) He then speaks about how Europe has their own literary revolution but the people of his culture do not revolt due to "Ethics, morality, and culture"(Duxiu 647) He then proceeds to talk about the "revolutions" or advancements they had within their literature. He also mentions how other writers "only skills were in imitating the ancients and deceiving people..." (Duxiu 650) The whole thing is basically a criticism of the three mentioned in the manifesto and why European Literature was more Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 9. Futurism Kris Valladares 
April 8 2016 ARTH 3334
Professor Orto 
 Futurism and its impact to Graphic Design 
As the turn of the century swept Italy off its feet, a thirst for something new and unrelated to the past was brewing. The experimentation of the Futurist movement drastically changed the way typography and design were to be handled from 1909 on. 
Futurism was founded in 1909 by the Italian poet Filippo Marinetti, originally as a literary movement but quickly expanded to other artistic disciplines. In that same year Marinetti's Futurist Manifesto, was published in Le Figaro, a major french newspaper. By having the manifesto printed in such a prominent source of media this highlighted the urgency and desire for the movement to not remain...show more content... The adaptive artist was able to create a lasting stamp on Futurism and the design aesthetic of the period. In Guerrapittura pictured to the right, the viewer can see a number of dynamic elements that carry throughout this booklet. 
What sets apart Carra's design aesthetic from Marinetti's is that Carra gravitates towards a strong linear and almost grid like handling of the type. Carra's forms flow into one another almost seamlessly and without the reliance of warping the baseline but rather just with placement, rotation and negative space. Invisible grid systems can be seen when looking at the page to the farther right side of the image, Carra utilizes a basic three by three grid but then adds intersecting gridlines to that system to push it further. Guerrapittura shows growth and exploration of how typography on a page can imply Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 10. Modern Art And Futurism Appropriating ideas in the context of art is a double–edged sword. On one end, it can bring awareness and attention to artists of other cultures and time periods, but on the other end, it is blatant plagiarism. In the art world, the time period of Cubism through Fauvism (with Futurism being the notable modern art movement in between) was ripe with artists taking from fellow creators. Pablo Picasso was one of the most notable appropriators of others' works. In the masterpiece Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (which is a Cubist work of art), he was inspired by nineteenth–century African masks. He borrowed the lines and shapes of the faces on the masks to make a point about the culture of the French. In Futurism, it is ironic that there was as much appropriation as there was. The movement was all about new and exciting things while the visual artists were painting many of the same subjects, like war, seen in works like Christopher R. W. Nevinson's Returning to the Trenches in 1914 –1915 and Gino Severini's Armored Train from 1915. In the last mentioned movement, Fauvism, Henri Matisse was the biggest star. His color made him stand out but the subject of his wife was taken from the father of modern art, Paul CГ©zanne. This is simply because of the awe CГ©zanne ignited in modern artists but also because of what his wife stood for in his paintings completed in the late 1800's. She was a symbol of dread that was so iconic, Matisse had to include her in his works such as Portrait of the Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 11. Futurism Futurism [pic] Content Introduction Background information Cerebration Futurist Painting Futurist Sculpture Artists Influence http://arttattler.com/italyvenice.html http://www.mathewadkins.co.uk/article1/ Introduction What is Futurism? Futurism was an art movement originated in Italy in the early 20th century. It was largely an Italian phenomenon, though there were parallel movements in Russia, England and elsewhere.
  • 12. Futurism is a term that may suggest a number of things. For example, when we describle soething as being 'futuristic', we mean to convey an idea of scientific and technological advance beyond that which presently exists. The notion of 'futuristic' carries with it not only...show more content... In 1901, Boccioni first visited the Famiglia Artistica, a society for artists in Milan. After moving there in 1907, he became acquainted with fellow Futurists including the famous poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The two would later join with others in writing manifestos on futurism. 4) Gino Severini (1883 – 1966) Gino Severini was Italian painter. He have been involved in publication of the Declaration on the future of painting, has participated in international exhibition of futuristic. Published in 1921 "From Cubism to Classicism" summed up his life of artistic ideas. His Painting by the ever–changing curve and interspersed in the multi–screen and a decent three–dimensional structure, was considered the future of painting as a model. Futurist Painting First Responses Fiacomo Balla (1871–1958), Umberto Boccioni (1882 – 1916) and Carlo Carra (1881 – 1966), among others who signed the 'Manifesto of the Futurist Painters' in 1910, were already inclined to an interest in the heated, fin–de–siecle fantasy mixed with modernist machine–workship and extremist political rhetoric of Marinetti's manifesto. Each of them had developed practices as painters in response to the complex options available to them at the end of the century – Social Realism, Symbolism, Impressionism and neo–Impressionism being just a few of the international styles within which their art had been formed. Most of these technical movements had broader Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 13. Marinetti Futurism Essay Marinetti addressed the "death" of traditional art in his Futurist Manifesto of 1909 when he stated "Why should we look back, when what we want is to break down the mysterious doors of the Impossible? Time and Space died yesterday. We already live in the absolute, because we have created eternal, omnipresent speed" (2001 21–2). Marinetti, among with artists of the Futurist, Vorticist and Constructivist movements of the20th century, believed that mechanisation was fundamental to creating a new future where machines played a vital role in modern society. The traditional style of painting and sculpture – in accordance to Futurist principles – had no place in this new future. In this adapt–or–die situation, artists Umberto Boccioni and Jacob Epstein responded to the world of machines by incorporating techniques learned from their past...show more content... From viewing a painting as a single moment in time to trying to capture motion and movement within a single frame, painting in the early 20th century went through radical changes in order to keep up with mechanisation entrancing the modern world. Boccioni was an Italian artist who created work in the Divisionism style (where the colours are separated by singular, precise brushstrokes or dots while still maintaining visual harmony), which according to Black "was the variant of French Impressionism" (2004 10). Despite initially still incorporating old techniques into Futurist artworks The City Rises (1910–11) and Dynamism of a Cyclist (1913), that were meant to represent concepts of the new world, Boccioni captured the essence of the Futurists key Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 14. Futurism is an art movement of the early 20th century. It was founded in 1909 in Italy, by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, who was an Italian poet and editor. Futurism celebrated the advanced technology of the time and how major cities were becoming more modern. The futurism movement was important as it influenced most of Europe, and the most significant results were in the visual arts and poetry. Futurism was influenced by elements of Neo–Impressionism and Cubism. A group of Italian writers and artists emerged in the early 1900's and were determined to praise industrialisation. The leader of this group was Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. On February 20th, 1909, the Paris newspaper called 'Le Figaro' published Marinetti's Manifesto. In this Manifesto,...show more content... The futurists celebrated the new exciting world upon them, with a love for speed, machines, pollution, noises and cities. Futurism also glorified war, and the growth of fascism, which would have been controversial for the time. They rejected anything old and looked toward a newer and better Italy. Futurism has gone on to influence other artistic domains. The Italian futurist architects were constantly at odds with the fascist countries favour towards Roman imperial and classical aesthetic patterns. Therefore, as a result, many futurist buildings were built in the years 1920–1940, such as stations, maritime resorts, post offices. An example is Trento's railway station built by Angiolo Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 15. 1. Introduction The futurist art movement and its characteristic manifestos had a significant impact on 'modernist' art movements since the 20th century. Aside from founder Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, who was a poet, many manifestos were written by painters or about visual art: Marinetti's two founding manifestos were directly followed by three manifestos by Umberto Boccioni, Carlo CarrГ , Giacomo Balla, Luigi Russolo, and Gino Severini, all of whom were painters. In 1911, composer Francesco Balilla Pratella was the first to publish a manifesto concerning futurist music. With 'The Art of Noises', published for the first time in 1913, Luigi Russolo followed up on Pratella's ideas with a manifesto that would prove just as, if not more innovative:...show more content... Since the consensus on 'well–made music' is established according to past ideals and with the intention to maintain them, it is not oriented towards innovation and remains a stagnant model. The cycle continues with the publishing of music: As publishers can influence the works which will be distributed and performed, they can choose to perpetuate the allegedly untouchable ideal as represented, for example, by Giacomo Puccini or Umberto Giordano. Works similar to this ideal could then be selected to be performed, but according to Pratella, they would not surpass 'mediocrity' and not cause any innovation. Furthermore, the process of education and recognition requires money, therefore the factors of status, power and privilege cannot be ignored. Through this cycle, only someone who has acquired a musical education, conforms to the institutionalised ideals, and is able to afford their cost can gain recognition as an artist, and eventually become an 'expert' in their field. It is evident that both Marinetti and Pratella oppose the idea of academic and traditional educational institutions in their manifestos, and instead propose to abandon them entirely. Consequently, Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 16. Traditional Fine Arts Response To Futurism The Machine Aesthetic Traditional Fine Arts Response to Mechanisation Marinetti addressed the "death" of traditional art in his Futurist Manifesto of 1909 when he stated "Why should we look back, when what we want is to break down the mysterious doors of the Impossible? Time and Space died yesterday. We already live in the absolute, because we have created eternal, omnipresent speed" (2001 21–2). Marinetti, among with artists of the Futurist, Vorticist and Constructivist movements of the20th century, believed that mechanisation was fundamental to creating a new future where machines played a vital role in modern society. The traditional style of painting and sculpture – in accordance to Futurist principles – had no place in this new future....show more content... Kulten discusses how Epstein destroyed The Rock Drill (1913–15) because in its complete form, it was "almost too symbolic" and in order to cope with his work, had to reduce it to an aesthetic work only (1969 65). Epstein took the synthetic man and removed the legs and parts of the arms, leaving only the torso which he cast into a bronze bust in 1916. Having been involved in sculpture his entire artistic career, Epstein reverted back to the traditional methods of creating sculptures in order to gain familiarity in his work again. As a result of returning to traditional themes, Epstein's work lost a majority of the revolutionary aspects that made The Rock Drill (1913–15) an important work for the recurring theme of mechanisation that enveloped society in the early half of the 20th century (Kulten, 1969 65). Torso in Metal from 'The Rock Drill' (1916) is an important work to consider when exploring the machine aesthetic, as it is the expression of a frightful artist, unable to cope with the mechanical world, thus turning his greatest creation into a lifeless bust with minimal meaning or Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 17. Futurism And Fascism Similarities Futurism and Fascism were two essential movements in the history of the Italian state. Futurism was an attempt to rid Italy of its past and create a new, improved country through the destruction and aggression while fascism was a radical, political movement. The relationship between these two ideas continues to be questioned. Did Fascism cause Futurism, vice versa, or is there in fact no correlation between the two? I will discuss the interaction between Fascism and Futurism as well as several pieces of Futurist art work. These pieces include Unique Forms of Continuity in Space by Boccioni, Armored Train in Action by Severini, Funeral of the Anarchist Galli by CarrГ. Not only are these pieces the epitome of Futurism, but they also add insight as to how the Futurist movement impacted the political ideology of Fascism. Futurism is not the sole cause of Fascism; rather, the Futurist movement coordinated Fascist ideas and allowed it to grow as a political ideology....show more content... This manifesto had a "fiery tone" and "lashed out against cultural tradition" (Casden). Its goal was to remove Italy from its past and embrace a new futuristic society as well as speed. These artists appreciated industrialization and advocated for the abolition of museums and other former creative institutions and ideas (Casden). The diction and tactics used by the Futurists were very aggressive because they believed the unrest created by the movement would enable a contemporary Italy to take hold. In order to do this, futurists held serate futuriste, where political rhetoric was shouted at the onlookers of art showings with the intent of sparking riots (Casden). This movement, with its hostile rhetoric, was very unique and laid the groundwork for something far bigger than Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 18. Filippo Tommaso Marinetti was one of the greatest visionaries of speed. In 1909, when the automobiles and airplanes were developing rapidly beyond the travel of the horse, carriage and train, he initiated the futurist movement with his colourful essay "The Founding Manifesto of Futurism." Marinetti praised technology as the vast wave of the future, it would sweep aside old traditions and explode in violent powers but he saw technology as something that would capture minds with incredible fascination. Marinetti believed that futurism would put aside myths and promote a new, rational world view. He happily disregards the old world's traditions as written in his manifesto "We will destroy the museums, libraries, academies of every kind, will fight Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 19. Filippo Marinetti's Manifesto Of Futurism In 1909, former symbolist poet Filippo Marinetti published his subversive Manifesto of Futurism. This avant–garde proposal for literary revolution proved highly influential to the world of visual art in Italy. Marinetti's call for dynamism and movement of both physical and societal nature triggered a movement which stood proudly for vivacity, energy, and disruption, and reflected the state of politics and industry during its time. In his contribution to the advent of a seismic change in Italian art that included introducing non academic approaches and abstraction Marinetti exemplified the avant–garde art scene of early 20th century Italy. The most prominent aspect of futurism and The Futurist Manifesto is their focus on dynamism,...show more content... Unsatisfied with Italy's dilatory transition to modern styles of art, Marinetti called for a movement lead by youth conducting constant upheaval of traditional art. These highly avant–garde notions lead him to relegate museums to the level of graveyards; perhaps to be visited annually in tribute to the past, but never to be copied or exalted. He expresses that youth, still untired and fueled by rage, can offer the most to great art. He possesses a genuine desire for constant change, and in suggesting that only those younger than forty can create change in the arts, he claims, "When we are forty, the younger and stronger men will probably throw us in the wastebasket like useless manuscripts–we want it to happen!" In an extreme example of his push forward, he propounds that artists not only adopt pejorative attitudes towards libraries, academies, and museums from the art world, but also incinerate and flood these institutions. In his manifesto, as well as in futurist paintings such as Giacomo Balla's Street Light, the juxtaposition of celestial light sources with overpowering man–made lamps suggests the superiority of progress, technology, and machine power over that of historical insight and nature. Several times, Marinetti alludes to a transition from mythology, past knowledge, and logical thought in replacement of the life of speed and revolution sought by the futurists and succeeding movements. For example, he claims, "Let us give ourselves utterly to the unknown, not in desperation but only to replenish the wells of the absurd!" This break from adherence to previously acquired knowledge in pursuit of a rediscovery of the nature of life and a study of the illogical aspects of life is in accordance with contemporaneous avant–garde movements such as Dada. (Despite the Dadaists' opposition to Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 20. Dada And Futurism In this essay, I will be discussing the two movements 'Dada' and 'Futurism', with reference to their conceptual contexts and representative plays, there will also be analysis to how these two movements contrast to realism/ naturalism. Links will also be made to the plays, with the use of scholarly sources to back up the argument and then coming to a final conclusion at the end of the essay. Dada was an artistic and literary movement, this arose as a reaction to World War one. Many citizens believed that Dada was actually the cause of World War one, this movement likes to take the form of 'anti–art'. Therefore, how you can claim everything is art but in reality, nothing is art. For example, take the painting 'Fountain' by a Dadaist painter Marcel Duchamp it is a readymade painting of an unused urinal. Which is basically implying that he rejected art and thought that we should focus on the artist 's idea more rather than it being crafted. Therefore, using a urinal and labelling it as 'art', get's Duchamp's point across that a work of art should be the artists idea instead of it being crafted. When looking at Dadaism by Tristan Tzara, there were some interesting quotes. For example, "Like everything in life, Dada is useless. Dada is without pretension, as life should be." (Tzara, 1918). This quote intrigues me, as Tzara is stating that all art is useless and that Dada is pretension and that is how life should be. This can be used as an example of how Dadaism was inspired by Get more content on HelpWriting.net