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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 06 Issue: 11 | Nov 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.34 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 36
Planning and Design of Small Hydro Power Station on D/S of Low Head
Weir (Kolhapur Type)
Rajendra Amgonda Patil 1, Amanulla Liyakatalli Mulla2
1,2Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji, India
---------------------------------------------------------------------***----------------------------------------------------------------------
Abstract - India is facing a serious problem of shortage of
power. It is necessary to generate as much power as possible
by using renewable source of energy viz. hydropower and also
to minimize the transmission losses by generating power by
using locally available resources. During the past couple of
decades large hydro power developmenthasbeenconstrained
by number of facts viz. environmental issues, resource crunch,
long gestation period, inter state or inter-national water
dispute etc. Small hydros, free from above problems
substantially, are increasingly gaining attention of planners
and developers. The growing interest in the development of
small hydro projects has resulted in evaluation of existing
irrigation systems with regard to their suitability for hydro
power development. Mainly low head weirs are potential for
such development. In Maharashtra state, (India) a number of
low head weirs (Kolhapur Type) have already been
constructed for irrigation purpose. Water is stored upstream
of weir and supplied to irrigation by pumping. From some
weirs water is continuously released to downstream side and
power potential is available at some of these K. T. weirs. A
small hydro power project is thereforeplanneddownstreamof
K. T. weir on Krishna river at Bahe in Sangli district of
Maharshtra state. A detailed survey of the river bed is carried
out. On downstream side of the weir river bed is having a
gentle slope and at a distance of 200 m from weir a fall of 9.5
m is available. At 50 m on the downstream of theweirtheriver
naturally gets divided in two parts by formationofan island. A
small discharge flows from north side of the island. While the
major river flow takes place throughthesouthportion, asmall
hydro power station is therefore proposed to be located in the
north side of island. River normally in floods for four monsoon
months. It is not possible to get any differential head between
u/s and d/s of K. T. weir for power development during this
period. The power station can therefore be run only for 8
months in a year. At the present site 7 m net head and 19
cumec design discharge is available.Byusingthis1MWpower
can be generated. The scheme consists of planning and
designing of following elements with cost economics.
Key Words: Hydropower, Generation, weirs, KT weir,
irrigation systems, power station.
1. INTRODUCTION
Uncertainties about availability of future fuels have greatly
renewed interest in the utilization ofrenewableresources in
general and Small Hydroelectric sources in particular, the
world over. Every drop of circulating water above mean sea
level have potential energy inherent in it by virtue of its
position.
The power demand of far flunge areas can best be
met by harnessing the local streams/canal falls through
construction of small Hydro power stations, rather than
extending transmission lines to these areas.
There is variety of types of generating equipment’s
available catering to the needs of small hydro development.
There is no restriction on the rate of discharge or the head
that can be gainfully utilized. There is wide choice for
selection of the equipment depending upon the
requirements of site conditions, maintenance,efficiencyand
overall economics.
1.1 Selection of Site
In Maharashtra State a number of Kolhapur Type
(K.T.) weirs have been constructed for irrigation purpose.
Water is stored upstream of the weir and supplied to
irrigation by pumping. For someweirs wateriscontinuously
released to downstream and power potential is available for
generation.
There exists acascadeofK.T.weirsonKrishnaRiver.
Out of these, one weir is selected forproposalofconstruction
of a Small Hydro station. Following are typical salient
features at this site:
 The discharge through K.T. weirs range from 1
cumec to 60 cumec during 8 months (October to
June every year).
 Good transportation facilitiesare available up tothe
K.T. weir site by road.
 Land on both the banks of the river is under
sugarcane cultivation and for irrigation river water
is used which is delivered to the field by installing
pumping units on the banks. Electrical energy
generated with the help of the proposed Small
Power Station can therefore be very conveniently
supplied to satisfy these power demands.
 Proposed Site is about 10 km from a Town Islampur
in Sangli District of Maharashtra,whichisabusiness
center.
 National Highway No. 4 is about 10 kms from the
proposed site therefore transportation is easy and
fast.
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 06 Issue: 11 | Nov 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.34 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 37
 (f) A railway station exists atabout8kmsfrom
the proposed site.
 (g) RCC pipe manufacturing facilities are
available at a distance of 25 kms from the proposed
site.
 (h) Within 15 kms circle there are 3 sugar
industries. Therefore, the site is developed and
power demand is ever increasing
2. Proposals
A detailed survey for L-Section and block leveling of the
riverbed (north side of the island) is carried out from the
K.T. weir to 250.00 m chainage andcontourplanisprepared.
A critical study of this contour plan indicates possibility of
two alignments. On further study one of these two
alignments, which gives minimum length, and therefore
minimum cost of penstock is finalized. Due toshorterlength
of penstock, head loss is also less. For this alignment
powerhouse is nearer to the island and is easily
approachable from it. Existing K.T. weir is situated at a
distance of 15 m upstream of the road bridge. The spacing
between the piers of the road bridge is 13.00 m. The
excavation of trenches for penstock below the bridge in
between two piers will therefore pose no problem during
construction.
From the L-Section along the penstock it is found that 9.5
m gross head (static head) is available which is expected to
give a net head of about 7.0 m.
2.1 Design Discharge
From second week of June to end of October, every
year, river is flooded hence it may not be possible to get any
useful head forpower development. Therefore,itisassumed
that power station can be run only fromNovemberfirstweek
to June first week i.e. approximately for 215 days in a year.
The existing weir is constructedforpurelyirrigation
purpose and discharge is further released through weir to
downstreamsideforirrigation. Thesedischargesvaryfrom1
cumec to more than 58 cumecs. From this informationFlow-
Duration curve is obtained.
It is a general practice to design such small schemes
on a 50% dependability of flow. From this graph for 50%
dependability a discharge of 19.25 cumec seems to be
available. Therefore, Design Discharge is taken as 19 cumec.
2.2 Weir
For the proposed small power project, weir already
exists. It is of Kolhapur Type (K.T.) weir. The few salient
features of this are as follows:
Table 1: Salient Features of K.T.Weir
(a) River Bed R.L. :549.40 m above M.S.L.
(b) F.S.L. :551.00 m above M.S.L.
(c) Maximum Depth at
F.S.L.
:1.80 m
(d) Length of the Weir :356.00 m
(e) No. of Openings :60
(f) Width of the Opening : 2.00 m
(g) Storage Capacity above
still
:17.85m.cum (629.93 m.cft)
(h) Gross Capacity :29.16 m.cum (1029 m.cft)
(i) Year of completion :1977
(j) Cost of the Scheme : Rs. 14,59,916 (1977 price).
2.3 Intake Structure
The intake is designed to withdraw flow from the
forebay as efficiently as possible with minimum vorticity or
no vorticity. The hydraulic design of intake structure has to
be planned in such a way that the cost is minimum and
maximum quantity of locally available material can be used.
Submergence of 2 m for the penstock entrance provided to
prevent air entertainment at the penstock entrance.
A sliding gate is placed at the start of the penstock
so that penstock can be drained for repairsandmaintenance
purpose. To prevent debris entering in to the waterways
trash-racks are provided.
At the site, hard rock is exposed in the riverbed and
sides, but some silt is likely to get carried by river water.
Desilting chamber (catch-pit) is therefore providedasa part
of intake structure on the upstream of gate of the capacity of
about 50 cubic meters. For desilting of catch pit, flow in the
intake can be stopped by fixing needles or bulkheads in the
slots provided in the K.T. weir.
Figure 1: Intake Structur1
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 06 Issue: 11 | Nov 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.34 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 38
2.4. Penstock
Penstock is designed to provide the required flow
for the hydroelectric plant. Energy loses in the penstock are
calculated as per flow though a closed conduit. Alternatives
for penstock pipes of various materials such as R.C.C. and
Mild Steel and either one or two numbers of pipes are
studied to achieve a workable as well as economical solution
before taking a final decision.
For such type of the projects with small head, net
head over the turbine assumes importance. Net head is
calculated by subtractinglossesbetweenintakestructuresto
Tail Race from the Gross head. Amongst the many
parameters governing, head loss at various locations along
the penstock, the main factor that governs majorheadlossis
friction to the flow through the penstock. Therefore, while
deciding the material of penstock and its diameter main aim
is to minimize this friction loss. Different diameters and
different numbers of steel and R.C.C. pipes are tried. For
these alternatives, head losses and costs are worked out.
That combination which gives reasonable head loss with
minimum cost is selected.
From these studies following two alternatives
appear to be promising.
Table No.2: Penstock Alternatives
HF (m) Cost (Rs.)
(i) 2,500 mm dia R.C.C.
pipe, One in Number
1.395 2308921
ii) 1,800 mm dia R.C.C.
pipe, Two in Number
1.563 2381796
Here former is better than latter as head loss and
cost, both are less. However, considering site conditions the
second alternative is chosen as there is no approach road in
the riverbed and this may pose transportation problem for
larger diameter pipes. Therefore, the "1,800 mm diameter
R.C.C. Two in Number" are selected as Penstock for the
proposed Small Hydro Scheme.
2.5 Y-Piece
From the intake total discharge is carriedby2R.C.C.
penstocks of diameter 1,800 mm. There are four
turbines; therefore, these two penstocks are bifurcated into
four branches. For this M.S. Y-Piece of diameter 1,800 mm
One No. branched in 1,600 mm diameter two nos. To select
the included angle between the Y-Piece legs different
alternatives are studied and 60o angle for Y-Piece gives a
reasonable solution.
2.6 Net Head
Having decided to use penstock of R.C.C. pipes1800
mm diameter 2 numbers, all possible head losses from
intake structure to tail race are calculated. From this net
head is calculated as follows:
Net Head = FBL - TWL - Losses.
Where, FBL = Fore Bay R.L. = 551.00 m
TWL = Tail Water R.L. = 541.50 m.
Total Losses = 2.112 m
Net Head = 551.00 - 541.50 - 2.112
= 7.388 m.
2.7 Installed Capacity
Two major factors are required for assessment of
power potential viz. the discharge available in the stream
and the head that could be exploited. There are no hard and
fast rules for determining the power potential of the small
hydro project. It is influenced by local considerations.
Power = C x 9.81 x Q x H (kW)
Where, Q = Discharge in m3/sec = 19 m3/sec
H = Net Head = 7.388 m
C = Coeff. of generation considering Overall
generating unit Efficiency = 0.85
Power = 0.85 x 9.81 x 19 x 7.388 = 1170.5 kW.
Therefore, the total Installed Capacity of this power
project is 1170 kW. Say 1100.
2.8 Selection of Hydro Mechanical Equipments
In large size conventional HydroPowerStations,the
Hydro Mechanical Equipment is 'Tailor made’ with a view to
suit site conditions and to work with maximum efficiency.
However, in case of Small Power Stations this logic has to be
changed. The equipment manufacturer Standardize their
designs for a few different categories of duty points for the
machines and to make small project viable one has to select
machines available from thisstandardlist. Keepingthislogic
in view the size and number of machines to be adopted is
required to satisfy the following conditions:
(i) The machines should be identical which minimizes
maintenance problems and reduces the cost of spares.
(ii) The numbers of machineshavetobesoselectedthat
within the working range of headanddischargetheseshould
give maximum power output with permutations and
combinations of numbers of machine to suit the discharge
available at a particular time.
In this particular situation it is proposed to use 4
identical units of equal capacity.
In the months of monsoon i.e. from June to
September power station has to remain flooded. To avoid
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 06 Issue: 11 | Nov 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.34 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 39
damage to the equipments, it is very necessary to select the
type of machinery such that everything is enclosed in the
conduit.
FortheproposedhydropowerprojectBulbTurbines
are selected. It is preferable to select smaller runner
dimensions, having higher specific speed. Duetothesmaller
runner diameter, weight of the unit becomes less and such
unit can be accommodated within the penstock diameter
itself. The selection is done from the literature available for
standardized equipments.
Table No.3: Turbine & Generator Specifications
Turbine:
Type : GD002-WP-100-4 units
Blade angle: + 5o
Head : 6.4 m
Discharge: 5.073 m3/sec
Output : 281 kW
Rated speed: 375 rpm
G.D. : Tubular with Fixed lade
002 : Runner Type
W : Horizontal Shaft
P : Bulb Unit
100 : Runner diameter100cm.(1.00m)
Generator:
Type : SFG 250-16
S : Hydro Turbine driving
F : Generator
G : Tubular
250 : Rated Power 250 kW Capacity
16 : 16 Poles
From the literature it is clear that this turbine can
work efficiently for varying head, ranging from 4.5 m to 6.4
m. Also it can work efficiently for discharges ranging from
4.671 cumec to 5.073 cumec.
Thus, by adopting four such units of Bulb Turbine it
is possible to generate maximum power equal to 4 x 281 =
1,124 kW, when discharge is sufficient to run 4 units.
When the discharge reduces gradually it will also
help to generate power by running either 3 or 2 or 1 unitata
time dependent upon the discharge available.
2.9 Power House (Civil Structure)
Powerhouse is situated in the riverbed itself and
more than 4 months in the year it will remain flooded.
Therefore, arrangement made here is very simple. Both
turbine and generator are enclosed in the conduit. Other
control equipments are kept above HFL. There is no special
powerhouse structure. It is as if pipe lines (penstocks) are
laid in trenches. Size of the total space required is 16.00 m x
27.00 m. Trenches of 4.00 wide and 2.8 m depth are
excavated and 300 mm thick p.c.c. 1:2:4 is laid at bed. Mild
steel pedestal at an interval of 4.00 m are fabricated and
embedded in the p.c.c. for supporting horizontal penstock.
During floods these trenches are covered by placing precast
R.C.C. slab panels of the size 2.00 m x 2.00 m on the trenches.
Weight of each individual panel and also the
machinery is not too large and can be conveniently handled
by a small size crane resting on tripod stand and a chain
pulley block unit. This will result in considerable economy.
Figure No.2: Layout of Mini Hydro Power Plant
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 06 Issue: 11 | Nov 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.34 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 40
Figure No. 3: Typical Sketch Plan of Proposed Scheme
2.10 Cost Estimate & Economics
Cost estimates for the variouselementsareworked
out in detail and total cost of the project is Rupees 6.8Crores
Only.
Cost per kW:
Total cost of the Project = Rs. 10.725 Crores
Installed Capacity = 1100 kW.
Cost per kW = Rs. 97500
Number of Units (kWh) generated and Load Factor:
Dependent upon the flow available in the river during
different periods the total annual generation (kWh) that
would be possible 43, 43,000 kWh.
The total kWh generated considering that all 4 units run for
215 days would be that could be 58, 00,000 units.
Load Factor = 75%.
Benefit Cost Ratio is 2.00.
3. CONCLUSIONS
From the studies it is seen that by investing Rs.
10.725 Crores one can generate about 1100 kW power. Cost
per kW is Rs. 97500/-, this is somewhat more than cost per
kW for conventional hydropower project of larger capacity.
But for small hydropower project, usually total capital
investment is very small and problems of land acquisition,
submergence, rehabilitation, deforestation, impact on
environment will not be present.
A comparison of the cost of civil structurestocostof
Hydro-Mech Electrical equipment shows that the ratio is
10:90 i.e. 10% of the total cost of the project. (Because cost
of the weir is not included in it as it is already constructed
for irrigation purpose). For the other civil structures use of
locally available material can be made. Also, no special type
of material or technology is required for planning, designing
and construction of civil structure.
The Cost-Economics of the scheme indicates that
B.C. ratio is 2.00.
In Maharashtra State, K.T. Weirs exist at many sites
and it would be worthwhile to examine the possibility of
hydropower development at every such site when the
country is facing acute power shortage.
REFERENCES
[1] Patil R.A., “A Proposal for Mini Hydro-Power Station,”
Dissertation,
[2] ESMAP, Report No. 139 A/91.
[3] Course Small Hydro Development, New Delhi., “CBI&P.,
21-26 August 1995, Proceedings,”
[4] Hangzhou Regional (Asia-Pacific) for Small Hydro
Power, Small Hydropower Equipment in China.

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IRJET- Planning and Design of Small Hydro Power Station on D/S of Low Head Weir (Kolhapur Type)

  • 1. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 06 Issue: 11 | Nov 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.34 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 36 Planning and Design of Small Hydro Power Station on D/S of Low Head Weir (Kolhapur Type) Rajendra Amgonda Patil 1, Amanulla Liyakatalli Mulla2 1,2Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji, India ---------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract - India is facing a serious problem of shortage of power. It is necessary to generate as much power as possible by using renewable source of energy viz. hydropower and also to minimize the transmission losses by generating power by using locally available resources. During the past couple of decades large hydro power developmenthasbeenconstrained by number of facts viz. environmental issues, resource crunch, long gestation period, inter state or inter-national water dispute etc. Small hydros, free from above problems substantially, are increasingly gaining attention of planners and developers. The growing interest in the development of small hydro projects has resulted in evaluation of existing irrigation systems with regard to their suitability for hydro power development. Mainly low head weirs are potential for such development. In Maharashtra state, (India) a number of low head weirs (Kolhapur Type) have already been constructed for irrigation purpose. Water is stored upstream of weir and supplied to irrigation by pumping. From some weirs water is continuously released to downstream side and power potential is available at some of these K. T. weirs. A small hydro power project is thereforeplanneddownstreamof K. T. weir on Krishna river at Bahe in Sangli district of Maharshtra state. A detailed survey of the river bed is carried out. On downstream side of the weir river bed is having a gentle slope and at a distance of 200 m from weir a fall of 9.5 m is available. At 50 m on the downstream of theweirtheriver naturally gets divided in two parts by formationofan island. A small discharge flows from north side of the island. While the major river flow takes place throughthesouthportion, asmall hydro power station is therefore proposed to be located in the north side of island. River normally in floods for four monsoon months. It is not possible to get any differential head between u/s and d/s of K. T. weir for power development during this period. The power station can therefore be run only for 8 months in a year. At the present site 7 m net head and 19 cumec design discharge is available.Byusingthis1MWpower can be generated. The scheme consists of planning and designing of following elements with cost economics. Key Words: Hydropower, Generation, weirs, KT weir, irrigation systems, power station. 1. INTRODUCTION Uncertainties about availability of future fuels have greatly renewed interest in the utilization ofrenewableresources in general and Small Hydroelectric sources in particular, the world over. Every drop of circulating water above mean sea level have potential energy inherent in it by virtue of its position. The power demand of far flunge areas can best be met by harnessing the local streams/canal falls through construction of small Hydro power stations, rather than extending transmission lines to these areas. There is variety of types of generating equipment’s available catering to the needs of small hydro development. There is no restriction on the rate of discharge or the head that can be gainfully utilized. There is wide choice for selection of the equipment depending upon the requirements of site conditions, maintenance,efficiencyand overall economics. 1.1 Selection of Site In Maharashtra State a number of Kolhapur Type (K.T.) weirs have been constructed for irrigation purpose. Water is stored upstream of the weir and supplied to irrigation by pumping. For someweirs wateriscontinuously released to downstream and power potential is available for generation. There exists acascadeofK.T.weirsonKrishnaRiver. Out of these, one weir is selected forproposalofconstruction of a Small Hydro station. Following are typical salient features at this site:  The discharge through K.T. weirs range from 1 cumec to 60 cumec during 8 months (October to June every year).  Good transportation facilitiesare available up tothe K.T. weir site by road.  Land on both the banks of the river is under sugarcane cultivation and for irrigation river water is used which is delivered to the field by installing pumping units on the banks. Electrical energy generated with the help of the proposed Small Power Station can therefore be very conveniently supplied to satisfy these power demands.  Proposed Site is about 10 km from a Town Islampur in Sangli District of Maharashtra,whichisabusiness center.  National Highway No. 4 is about 10 kms from the proposed site therefore transportation is easy and fast.
  • 2. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 06 Issue: 11 | Nov 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.34 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 37  (f) A railway station exists atabout8kmsfrom the proposed site.  (g) RCC pipe manufacturing facilities are available at a distance of 25 kms from the proposed site.  (h) Within 15 kms circle there are 3 sugar industries. Therefore, the site is developed and power demand is ever increasing 2. Proposals A detailed survey for L-Section and block leveling of the riverbed (north side of the island) is carried out from the K.T. weir to 250.00 m chainage andcontourplanisprepared. A critical study of this contour plan indicates possibility of two alignments. On further study one of these two alignments, which gives minimum length, and therefore minimum cost of penstock is finalized. Due toshorterlength of penstock, head loss is also less. For this alignment powerhouse is nearer to the island and is easily approachable from it. Existing K.T. weir is situated at a distance of 15 m upstream of the road bridge. The spacing between the piers of the road bridge is 13.00 m. The excavation of trenches for penstock below the bridge in between two piers will therefore pose no problem during construction. From the L-Section along the penstock it is found that 9.5 m gross head (static head) is available which is expected to give a net head of about 7.0 m. 2.1 Design Discharge From second week of June to end of October, every year, river is flooded hence it may not be possible to get any useful head forpower development. Therefore,itisassumed that power station can be run only fromNovemberfirstweek to June first week i.e. approximately for 215 days in a year. The existing weir is constructedforpurelyirrigation purpose and discharge is further released through weir to downstreamsideforirrigation. Thesedischargesvaryfrom1 cumec to more than 58 cumecs. From this informationFlow- Duration curve is obtained. It is a general practice to design such small schemes on a 50% dependability of flow. From this graph for 50% dependability a discharge of 19.25 cumec seems to be available. Therefore, Design Discharge is taken as 19 cumec. 2.2 Weir For the proposed small power project, weir already exists. It is of Kolhapur Type (K.T.) weir. The few salient features of this are as follows: Table 1: Salient Features of K.T.Weir (a) River Bed R.L. :549.40 m above M.S.L. (b) F.S.L. :551.00 m above M.S.L. (c) Maximum Depth at F.S.L. :1.80 m (d) Length of the Weir :356.00 m (e) No. of Openings :60 (f) Width of the Opening : 2.00 m (g) Storage Capacity above still :17.85m.cum (629.93 m.cft) (h) Gross Capacity :29.16 m.cum (1029 m.cft) (i) Year of completion :1977 (j) Cost of the Scheme : Rs. 14,59,916 (1977 price). 2.3 Intake Structure The intake is designed to withdraw flow from the forebay as efficiently as possible with minimum vorticity or no vorticity. The hydraulic design of intake structure has to be planned in such a way that the cost is minimum and maximum quantity of locally available material can be used. Submergence of 2 m for the penstock entrance provided to prevent air entertainment at the penstock entrance. A sliding gate is placed at the start of the penstock so that penstock can be drained for repairsandmaintenance purpose. To prevent debris entering in to the waterways trash-racks are provided. At the site, hard rock is exposed in the riverbed and sides, but some silt is likely to get carried by river water. Desilting chamber (catch-pit) is therefore providedasa part of intake structure on the upstream of gate of the capacity of about 50 cubic meters. For desilting of catch pit, flow in the intake can be stopped by fixing needles or bulkheads in the slots provided in the K.T. weir. Figure 1: Intake Structur1
  • 3. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 06 Issue: 11 | Nov 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.34 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 38 2.4. Penstock Penstock is designed to provide the required flow for the hydroelectric plant. Energy loses in the penstock are calculated as per flow though a closed conduit. Alternatives for penstock pipes of various materials such as R.C.C. and Mild Steel and either one or two numbers of pipes are studied to achieve a workable as well as economical solution before taking a final decision. For such type of the projects with small head, net head over the turbine assumes importance. Net head is calculated by subtractinglossesbetweenintakestructuresto Tail Race from the Gross head. Amongst the many parameters governing, head loss at various locations along the penstock, the main factor that governs majorheadlossis friction to the flow through the penstock. Therefore, while deciding the material of penstock and its diameter main aim is to minimize this friction loss. Different diameters and different numbers of steel and R.C.C. pipes are tried. For these alternatives, head losses and costs are worked out. That combination which gives reasonable head loss with minimum cost is selected. From these studies following two alternatives appear to be promising. Table No.2: Penstock Alternatives HF (m) Cost (Rs.) (i) 2,500 mm dia R.C.C. pipe, One in Number 1.395 2308921 ii) 1,800 mm dia R.C.C. pipe, Two in Number 1.563 2381796 Here former is better than latter as head loss and cost, both are less. However, considering site conditions the second alternative is chosen as there is no approach road in the riverbed and this may pose transportation problem for larger diameter pipes. Therefore, the "1,800 mm diameter R.C.C. Two in Number" are selected as Penstock for the proposed Small Hydro Scheme. 2.5 Y-Piece From the intake total discharge is carriedby2R.C.C. penstocks of diameter 1,800 mm. There are four turbines; therefore, these two penstocks are bifurcated into four branches. For this M.S. Y-Piece of diameter 1,800 mm One No. branched in 1,600 mm diameter two nos. To select the included angle between the Y-Piece legs different alternatives are studied and 60o angle for Y-Piece gives a reasonable solution. 2.6 Net Head Having decided to use penstock of R.C.C. pipes1800 mm diameter 2 numbers, all possible head losses from intake structure to tail race are calculated. From this net head is calculated as follows: Net Head = FBL - TWL - Losses. Where, FBL = Fore Bay R.L. = 551.00 m TWL = Tail Water R.L. = 541.50 m. Total Losses = 2.112 m Net Head = 551.00 - 541.50 - 2.112 = 7.388 m. 2.7 Installed Capacity Two major factors are required for assessment of power potential viz. the discharge available in the stream and the head that could be exploited. There are no hard and fast rules for determining the power potential of the small hydro project. It is influenced by local considerations. Power = C x 9.81 x Q x H (kW) Where, Q = Discharge in m3/sec = 19 m3/sec H = Net Head = 7.388 m C = Coeff. of generation considering Overall generating unit Efficiency = 0.85 Power = 0.85 x 9.81 x 19 x 7.388 = 1170.5 kW. Therefore, the total Installed Capacity of this power project is 1170 kW. Say 1100. 2.8 Selection of Hydro Mechanical Equipments In large size conventional HydroPowerStations,the Hydro Mechanical Equipment is 'Tailor made’ with a view to suit site conditions and to work with maximum efficiency. However, in case of Small Power Stations this logic has to be changed. The equipment manufacturer Standardize their designs for a few different categories of duty points for the machines and to make small project viable one has to select machines available from thisstandardlist. Keepingthislogic in view the size and number of machines to be adopted is required to satisfy the following conditions: (i) The machines should be identical which minimizes maintenance problems and reduces the cost of spares. (ii) The numbers of machineshavetobesoselectedthat within the working range of headanddischargetheseshould give maximum power output with permutations and combinations of numbers of machine to suit the discharge available at a particular time. In this particular situation it is proposed to use 4 identical units of equal capacity. In the months of monsoon i.e. from June to September power station has to remain flooded. To avoid
  • 4. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 06 Issue: 11 | Nov 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.34 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 39 damage to the equipments, it is very necessary to select the type of machinery such that everything is enclosed in the conduit. FortheproposedhydropowerprojectBulbTurbines are selected. It is preferable to select smaller runner dimensions, having higher specific speed. Duetothesmaller runner diameter, weight of the unit becomes less and such unit can be accommodated within the penstock diameter itself. The selection is done from the literature available for standardized equipments. Table No.3: Turbine & Generator Specifications Turbine: Type : GD002-WP-100-4 units Blade angle: + 5o Head : 6.4 m Discharge: 5.073 m3/sec Output : 281 kW Rated speed: 375 rpm G.D. : Tubular with Fixed lade 002 : Runner Type W : Horizontal Shaft P : Bulb Unit 100 : Runner diameter100cm.(1.00m) Generator: Type : SFG 250-16 S : Hydro Turbine driving F : Generator G : Tubular 250 : Rated Power 250 kW Capacity 16 : 16 Poles From the literature it is clear that this turbine can work efficiently for varying head, ranging from 4.5 m to 6.4 m. Also it can work efficiently for discharges ranging from 4.671 cumec to 5.073 cumec. Thus, by adopting four such units of Bulb Turbine it is possible to generate maximum power equal to 4 x 281 = 1,124 kW, when discharge is sufficient to run 4 units. When the discharge reduces gradually it will also help to generate power by running either 3 or 2 or 1 unitata time dependent upon the discharge available. 2.9 Power House (Civil Structure) Powerhouse is situated in the riverbed itself and more than 4 months in the year it will remain flooded. Therefore, arrangement made here is very simple. Both turbine and generator are enclosed in the conduit. Other control equipments are kept above HFL. There is no special powerhouse structure. It is as if pipe lines (penstocks) are laid in trenches. Size of the total space required is 16.00 m x 27.00 m. Trenches of 4.00 wide and 2.8 m depth are excavated and 300 mm thick p.c.c. 1:2:4 is laid at bed. Mild steel pedestal at an interval of 4.00 m are fabricated and embedded in the p.c.c. for supporting horizontal penstock. During floods these trenches are covered by placing precast R.C.C. slab panels of the size 2.00 m x 2.00 m on the trenches. Weight of each individual panel and also the machinery is not too large and can be conveniently handled by a small size crane resting on tripod stand and a chain pulley block unit. This will result in considerable economy. Figure No.2: Layout of Mini Hydro Power Plant
  • 5. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 06 Issue: 11 | Nov 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.34 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 40 Figure No. 3: Typical Sketch Plan of Proposed Scheme 2.10 Cost Estimate & Economics Cost estimates for the variouselementsareworked out in detail and total cost of the project is Rupees 6.8Crores Only. Cost per kW: Total cost of the Project = Rs. 10.725 Crores Installed Capacity = 1100 kW. Cost per kW = Rs. 97500 Number of Units (kWh) generated and Load Factor: Dependent upon the flow available in the river during different periods the total annual generation (kWh) that would be possible 43, 43,000 kWh. The total kWh generated considering that all 4 units run for 215 days would be that could be 58, 00,000 units. Load Factor = 75%. Benefit Cost Ratio is 2.00. 3. CONCLUSIONS From the studies it is seen that by investing Rs. 10.725 Crores one can generate about 1100 kW power. Cost per kW is Rs. 97500/-, this is somewhat more than cost per kW for conventional hydropower project of larger capacity. But for small hydropower project, usually total capital investment is very small and problems of land acquisition, submergence, rehabilitation, deforestation, impact on environment will not be present. A comparison of the cost of civil structurestocostof Hydro-Mech Electrical equipment shows that the ratio is 10:90 i.e. 10% of the total cost of the project. (Because cost of the weir is not included in it as it is already constructed for irrigation purpose). For the other civil structures use of locally available material can be made. Also, no special type of material or technology is required for planning, designing and construction of civil structure. The Cost-Economics of the scheme indicates that B.C. ratio is 2.00. In Maharashtra State, K.T. Weirs exist at many sites and it would be worthwhile to examine the possibility of hydropower development at every such site when the country is facing acute power shortage. REFERENCES [1] Patil R.A., “A Proposal for Mini Hydro-Power Station,” Dissertation, [2] ESMAP, Report No. 139 A/91. [3] Course Small Hydro Development, New Delhi., “CBI&P., 21-26 August 1995, Proceedings,” [4] Hangzhou Regional (Asia-Pacific) for Small Hydro Power, Small Hydropower Equipment in China.