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Iran-Iraq War Research Paper
The findings of the Ottoman Empire date all the way back to 1299 under Osman I, the founder and
leader of the Ottoman Turks in northwest Anatolia. By 1900, the Ottoman Empire was a large
multinational, multilingual empire, consisting of Southeast Europe, Western Asia, Northern Africa
and even the oil fields of Southern Iraq. Although being under Turkish rule, this large population of
this geographic area was full of different nationalities containing multiple ethnic and religious
groups, many of which disliked each other. Due to this aversion of one another, these groups
identified themselves to their own distinct nationality rather than being part of the Ottoman Empire.
The result of this internal conflict led to a fragile nation that struggled ... Show more content on
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Iran has been the center of the Shiite branch of Islam, while Iraq, where Shiites are in a slight
majority, has been led by political elites from the Sunni branch of Islam. On September 22, 1980,
Iraq invaded Iran by air and land. Iraq maintains that Iran started the war on September 4 with
artillery attacks on Iraqi towns. The aim of Iraq's attack, according to President Saddam Hussein,
was to boost claims for Iraqi sovereignty over the Shatt al Arab, and for a shift of the boundary to
the Iranian side. Hussein also demanded border adjustments in the north and the return to "Arab"
sovereignty of three islands at the mouth of the Gulf that Iran occupied in 1971. Experts on the
fighting say Hussein began the war to topple the Khomeini regime and to make Iraq the dominant
Gulf power. The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute confirms that 95 per cent of
military supplies to him came from France, the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe and China. Saddam
fought the Iran–Iraq war with Soviet tanks and artillery, Soviet and French aircraft, and French
electronic air defenses. Iraq used chemical weapons repeatedly against Iran during the Iran–Iraq war
and against the
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The Cold War
Given what we now think about how frequently the extremely modern order and control frameworks
of the Cold War years were strained by mix–ups and false cautions, human mistake and human
stupidity; given what we think about how substantially less complex are the charge and control
frameworks of a percentage of the fresher atomic outfitted states; and given what we both know and
can figure about the amount more refined and able digital offense will be of overcoming digital
protection in the years ahead, it is not the nature of frameworks or statesmanship that drove us to
maintain a strategic distance from an atomic weapons calamity for so long, however sheer blind
luckiness – and it is absolutely unrealistic intuition to trust that our Cold War fortunes can proceed
in ceaselessness. Whatever the gathered strategy utility of atomic prevention in keeping up stable
peace – an inquiry which I 'll come to in a minute – in pragmatic operational terms it has dependably
been an unbelievably delicate protection. For a begin, as the surely understood Australian global
relations researcher Hedley Bull has put it, 'shared atomic prevention ... does not make atomic war
inconceivable, but rather basically renders it silly '. Atomic discouragement relies on upon objective
performers on both sides, every making sound judgments about the danger components included –
and the assumption is by all accounts, as Bull wryly puts it, that a discerning vital man is one 'who
on further colleague
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U.s. Foreign Policy During The Cold War Essay
The overview of The U.S. Foreign Policy
The objective of 'the U.S. foreign policy' course is to develop personal ability for applying IR
theories to the U.S. foreign policy. Then, students will be able to understand the direction as well as
the grounds of the U.S. foreign policy. To achieve this objective, I will discuss major the theoretical
issues through the brief history of the U.S. foreign policy until the Cold War. After that, I will
examine the challenges which the U.S. confronts.
One of the theoretical issues in the U.S. foreign policy is the concept of isolationism and
internationalism(or interventionism). To comprehend this concept, we need to figure out the history
of the U.S. foreign policy briefly to find consistency in the flow of the policies. The Monroe
Doctrine, which is famous for the declaration against European Imperialism (Monroe, 1823), was
actually not the first argument of isolationism. As a matter of fact, isolationism began from George
Washington's Farewell Address. (Washington, 1796) Meanwhile, President Woodrow Wilson tried to
change the America's isolationism and to realize his liberalism via his Fourteen Points and the
League of the Nations. (Wilson, 1918) However, his effort failed with the opposition of the
parliament and the interest of World War I's victorious countries.
In 1940s, the U.S. participated and took a significant role in the World War II, and could not hold
isolationism due to the threat of communism and Soviet in Europe.
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Israel Palestine Conflict, an International Relations...
NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY, JODHPUR Subject: International Relations Israel– Palestine
Conflict: History and Solution Submitted by: Mitali Agarwal and Pragati K. B Roll no. 924 Roll no.
929 IV semester IV semester BPSc LLB BPSc LLB Submitted to: Prof. Om Prakash National Law
University, Jodhpur Abstract After more than 50 years of war, terrorism, peace negotiation and
human suffering, Israel and Palestine remain as far from a peaceful settlement as ever. The entire
Middle Eastern region remains a cauldron waiting to reach the boiling point, a potent mixture of
religious extremism, (Jewish, Christian and Islamic), mixed with oil and munitions. Â This paper is
an attempt to trace the history of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The decision on the Mandate did not take into account the wishes of the people of Palestine, despite
the Covenant's requirements that "the wishes of these communities must be a principal consideration
in the selection of the Mandatory". This assumed special significance because, almost five years
before receiving the mandate from the League of Nations, the British Government had given
commitments to the Zionist Organization regarding the establishment of a Jewish national home in
Palestine, for which Zionist leaders had pressed a claim of "historical connection" since their
ancestors had lived in Palestine two thousand years earlier before dispersing in the "Diaspora".
During the period of the Mandate, the Zionist Organization worked to secure the establishment of a
Jewish national home in Palestine. The indigenous people of Palestine, whose forefathers had
inhabited the land for virtually the two preceding millennia, felt this design to be a violation of their
natural and inalienable rights. They also viewed it as an infringement of assurances of independence
given by the Allied Powers to Arab leaders in return for their support during the war. The result was
mounting
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Japanese And American Culture Essay
Japan and Our Similar Culture Japan and the United States have been allies for years. Our two
countries have overcome many obstacles to achieve the alliance we currently maintain. Even though
there has been some challenges and differences over the years, our two countries have some
similarities. There are differences between Japanese and American cultures as well. Japan is a
successful country, and continues to thrive, due to its operational environment and rich culture. The
operational environment categories we share common ground are politics, military, and economic.
The Japanese political system is like the United States political system. Even though there are
similarities, there are differences as well, which makes Japan ... Show more content on
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Currently, Japan uses its high technological products to sustain the economy in exchange for raw
materials. Due to the rugged terrain of the island of Japan, it is difficult to self–sustain with raw
materials such as petroleum. Years ago, Japan was producing raw materials from the volcanic stone,
such as copper, silver and gold, until trades were banned (Ew World Economy Team, 2013). Japan
has the third largest automobile manufacturer in the word. Industrialization and services is the
highest producing income for the Japanese economy. Financial services account for the bulk of
Japan's economy. Tokyo has the fourth largest stock market in the world, and Japan is the largest
creditor nation in the world. The country has rebounded from a recession much like the United
States. After World War II, it took Japan nearly two decades for it to recover. After one recession,
Japan suffered another in the 1990's and by the early 2000's began to see signs of sustained recovery
(Ew World Economy Team, 2013). There has been slow progress, but the Japanese are using their
resources and services wisely to continue to have economic growth and maintain the low
unemployment rates (Ew World Economy Team, 2013). Much like the United States, there was an
economic catastrophe, but using resources wisely has led to the success of the
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The Leahy Law
The United States has been a major supplier of arms to foreign buyers for the better part of the last
75 years. Major military exports beginning under the Lend–Lease Act, Robert M Gates reports in his
Foreign Policy piece "Helping Others Defend Themselves", led the United States to continue
supplying weapons to nations that would pay for them in lieu of retreating back into the isolationist
policies put forth on the heels of World War I (Gates). Today, America is the largest arms exporter
by a wide margin. Per Amnesty International, between 2010 and 2015 the United States facilitated
upwards of $55 billion worth of conventional arms sales ("Killer Facts: the scale of the global arms
trade"). While a significant portion of the United States's ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
Despite the fact that the F–16 aircrafts in question are more suited to the combatting of foreign
threats than for domestic enforcement, the sale of these planes indicates that the United States does
not take human rights issues seriously. An Amnesty International report on Bahrain indicates that a
group of individuals intending to travel to United Nations Human Rights Council meetings were
denied exit from the country, yet anothe testament to the kingdom's lack of commitment to
improving the human rights situation within its borders ("Bahrain 2016/17"). Bahrain is a key
United States ally in the region, however that does not exclude it from being held accountable to the
same standards than other American arms purchasers are. Its strategic importance pales in
comparison to that of enforcing uniform standards of justice by the United States. As a global leader
both politically and militarily, an American compromise on human rights–based weapons sanctions
are telling indicators of a lack of regard for the citizens of those
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Nuclear Weapons : India, Pakistan, And Democratic People...
The United States of America was the first country in the world to develop and test nuclear
weapons. The Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were bombed on 6 August 1945 and 9
August 1945. This was the first instance where nuclear weapons were used as warfare. U.S was the
sole possessor of nuclear weapons up until August 29, 1949, when the Soviet Union tested their first
nuclear weapon. This was followed by the UK in 1952, France in 1960 and China in 1964. During
the 1960s these five states negotiated and became parties to the Nuclear Non–Proliferation
Treaty(NPT), and were the only states meeting the Treaty's definition of a "Nuclear–Weapon State"
(NWS). This treaty was opened for signature on 1 July 1968 and entered into force on 5 March
1970. Since then, four Non–Nuclear Proliferation Treaty (NNPT) States are known to possess
nuclear weapons: India, Pakistan, Israel and Democratic People's Republic of Korea. According to
the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute as of January 2013, India has approximately
90–110 warheads in total Inventory. Following the nuclear explosive test conducted by China in
1964 then Indian Prime Minister, Lal Bahadur Shastri authorized limited movement towards a
nuclear weapons program. India conducted its first test in 1974. A plutonium fission device was
exploded and described as "peaceful nuclear explosion experiment". The nuclear Energy
Commission of India stated that India had no intention of producing nuclear weapons. By
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Should the United States Lift the Embargo on Cuba? Essay
American international relations with Cuba have almost always been tense. The cold war solidified
the growing negative relations, and the embargo embodied it. But now that the cold war is over, as is
the Cuban missile crisis, we're left to wonder if the embargo is really necessary. Should the United
States lift the embargo of Cuba? All of the evidence, be it economic, diplomatic, or social, points to
yes. We should lift the embargo. The United States embargo of Cuba has its roots planted in 1960,
53 years ago, when "the United States Congress authorized President Eisenhower to cut off the
yearly quota of sugar to be imported from Cuba under the Sugar act of 1948... by 95 percent" (Hass
1998, 37). This was done in response to a growing ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Goods or services of Cuban origin may not be imported into the United States either directly or
through third countries" (2001) . According to the Cuba Policy Foundation, the United States loses
up to $4.84 billion annually in trade and exports alone (Pepper 2009) . The amount of money being
disregarded because of now defunct reasons is radically lacking in logic. A simple repealing of the
embargo would bring both the United States and Cuba great economic success. The obvious
question presented by this information is, why is such an old idea, which severely limits the
necessary functions of international society, currently being continued? It's not like it's helping
anything. In fact, according to Joy Gordon, Professor of Political Philosophy at Fairfield University,
"the embargo is the single greatest barrier to Cuban economic development" (2010, 64). Gordon
continues by saying that "the United States measures against Cuba are far more extensive [than any
other embargo we have had], affecting every aspect of commerce, travel, economic development,
and even humanitarian contributions" (2010, 65). The embargo not only detracts from Cuba's access
to U.S. markets, but interferes in its trade with other countries. The embargo prohibits monetary
transactions with the United
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Ethical Implications of Chemical, Biological and Nuclear...
Ethical Implications of Chemical, Biological and Nuclear Warfare
Thesis
As current problems of terrorism and the war on Iraq, chemical, biological and nuclear warfare
(CBW) issues are important and relevant. CBW agents are dangerous, uncontrollable and
undifferentiating weapons of mass destructions. Chemical, biological and nuclear weapons are
capable of mass destruction aimed at killing masses of people. Using CBW agents comes with many
ethical dilemmas and consequential side–effects. Chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons are
designed to yield a great number of deaths. Regarding the ethical use of CBW, while looking at the
larger context of war, one must determine the value of life. As backed by Virtues Ethics, this mass ...
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These are just a few examples of many accounts of the use of chemical and biological agents in war.
Is the use of chemical, biological or nuclear weapons in war ethical? Is there an appropriate time to
use them? A dilemma will later be presented for consideration. Different ethical theories can either
support or oppose the use of CBW depending on the circumstances. However, chemical, biological
and nuclear agents are dangerous, uncontrollable and undifferentiating weapons of mass
destructions. Actions must be taken to see that there are no future instances of use during war.
However, before one discusses the legal and ethical issues involved with CBW, one must understand
what chemical, biological and nuclear weapons are and how they function.
Chemical Weapons
There are many types of chemical agents that can be used for a variety of effects. Most are not
meant to be lethal, but most chemicals at high concentrations can be lethal. Vomiting gases are used
for riot–control or harassing agents and are only meant to irritate. "The body attempts to counter the
irritation either by secreting fluids or by initiating reflex actions, for instance, vomiting," (Rose,
1968, p. 20). It is the incapacitating nature of these responses that gives vomiting gases their
harassing effects and name.
Choking gases irritate the lower branches of the lungs. The gases can destroy the sensitive lung
tissue leading
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Child Soldiers in Miliary Services
"CHILD SOLDIERS"
Guy Goodwin–Gill and Ilene Cohn, Child Soldiers, The Role of Children in Armed Conflicts, A
Study on Behalf of the Henry Dunant Institute, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1994, 228 pp.
Reviewed by
Styliani Antoniou
'Child soldiers' is an inside look at the widen existence of armed children who participate in
hostilities. In this study, Professor Goodwin–Gill and Dr Cohn emphasize the ways in which
international humanitarian law fails to provide effective protection, particularly in the internal
conflicts, examine the consequences of children participation in armed conflicts and provide factual
suggestions for preventing the recruitment.
More analytically, the authors examine all the aspects that lead children to bear arms by focusing on
conflicts in Guatemala, Israeli, El Salvador, Sri Lanka and Liberia. The book firstly responds to the
question of what the child is and secondly to what are the reasons for children participating in armed
conflicts. At the end, significant suggestions are given on how to prevent and halt the recruitment of
children into armed groups.
The authors, Professor Guy Goodwin–Gill and Dr Ilene Cohn, are two eminent lawyers whose work
on Child soldiers was commissioned by the Henry Dunant Institute, the research centre of the Red
Cross movement in Geneva. It is probably not coincidence that this book was launched in 1994,
three years after the Conference on Children of War, taken place in Stockholm and organized by the
Swedish Red
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Ikea Case Study on Marketing
University of Halmstad School of Business and Engineering Bachelor Degree A creation of
competitive advantage by using differentiation of company's strategy actions. The case study of
IKEA Sweden with experiences on Chinese and French markets. Dissertation in Marketing Credit
point level – 10 ( 15ECTS) Supervisor: Venilton Reinert Authors: Landry Capdevielle Min Li
Paulina Nogal Halmstad, 23rd of May 2007 The table of contents
Introduction..........................................................................4 Problem
.................................................................................................................................. 5 Purpose ... Show
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29 Furnishing and house building at the same time .............................................................. 30
Promotion ............................................................................................................................. 30
Price...................................................................................................................................... 32 Place
..................................................................................................................................... 34 Distribution
of products ................................................................................................... 35 PEST analysis about
France ............................................36 Political aspects
.................................................................................................................... 36
Generalities....................................................................................................................... 36 Business
politics in France............................................................................................... 36 Social pressure
groups...................................................................................................... 36 Economical aspects
.............................................................................................................. 37 Production sectors
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Arms Trade In The Arms War
being transported from the Middle East to the European market. With these two large investments
and the oppoortunity for Russia to expand its oil power. That is why Russia has invested it's self
economically in the current civil war that is ripping Syria apart.
Weapons of War The top Russian exported item is oil, but in the realm of diversity the next major
export is Arms or war. According to Stockholm International Peace Research Institute the chart
below show how big of a market the arms trade is for Russia. And according to President Putin in
2015 Russia's arms exports surged to around $56 billion dollars in revenue. The reason that Russia's
arms trade is so vast is because it is in competition to the United States which is the ... Show more
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Even though Russia is gaining revenue by a constant war it will prosper more in the reconstruction
phase. Once the civil end Russia will have the sole rights for future arms to fill the void caused by
the war. Russia will have the opportunity to send military advisors and trainers. Also, Russia will be
locked in with maintenance contract and parts to fix the military equipment that Syria has bought.
The Russians have taken the chance to grow it arms trade in the Syrian conflict by selling to the
both side increasing its income. The market in Syria does boost Russian arms exports but in the
global market the conflict in Syria is greatly advancing the arms trade in another way. Since the cold
war Russia and the United States haven't clashed in any major conflict. When Syria's civil war
erupted Assad forces bought Russia made arms and the opposition forces acquired U.S. made arms.
The "whole episode was a chance to see what happens when state–of–the–art hardware from two
major world powers violently collide in the Middle East" (Mirovalev 2016). An example that
Mirovalev uses in T–90, which is one of Russia's most advanced tanks was hit by a US –made
BGM–71 TOW missile. The after effect was the tank withstood the explosion without igniting
allowing the crew to exit without any injuries. This example is
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Military Drone Strikes
GPS, drones, spying, and nuclear war are all capabilities of the everyday items around us. These
"normal" devices such as an iPhone or computer are all part of an enormous web infrastructure
called the internet of things (IOT). The internet of things is a link between the online world and the
physical world through connected devices which can achieve physical accomplishments such as
taking a pulse. The Internet of things was said to have been discovered in 1999 during a presentation
at Procter and Gamble. When Business moguls were trying to find a way to make the internet
profitable, they manufactured the term internet of things. Ironically, IOT tracked its usage of term
online through "Google Trends". According to Google, since 2004 IOT was ... Show more content
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Further implication of the internet of things will destroy the American culture that was built upon an
innovative but cautious society. IOT is essentially creating an internet stock bubble full of subprime
security and the fallacy of a more connected world. Artificial intelligence (AI) is the next step in
IOT to complete a fully connected environment between conscious life and technological
advancement. "Stephen Hawking himself recently posted that when true artificial intelligence is
achieved, humankind is finished" (tripwire). The slippery slope of innovation is clearly shown when
IOT reaches artificial intelligence because where do humans draw the line when AI is building its
own race? The American society would inevitably be controlled by a dystopian nervous system of
IOT devices similar to that of the Borg from Star Trek: The Next Generation. Human–kind would
innovate itself out of the equation in order to satisfy the unending human urge for discovery. The
U.S would not conduct foreign affairs in the same way as it does currently because our country
would be more susceptible to hacking and large scale cyber attacks from enemy countries. The right
of people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects is covered by the U.S
constitution's fourth amendment. This amendment becomes virtually useless because of the
logistical nightmare that IOT
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Chemical Weapons : The Use Of Chemical Weapons In War
Chemical weapons have been used throughout history to gain tactical advantages over enemies in
armed conflicts. There is evidence that civilizations up to thousands of years ago engaged in the
poisoning of water supplies or the use of toxic smoke in sieges. More recently, with the rise of
industrialization and formalized scientific study, chemicals were developed with the intention of
using them in war. The development of chemical weapons was already of international concern in
1899, when a peace conference at The Hague resulted in a treaty prohibiting the use of
"asphyxiating and deleterious gases." The international ban on chemical weapons was disregarded in
World War 1, with various chloride containing compounds being attached to grenades and artillery
shells. While the immediate effects of exposure to many chemical weapons are severe, few chemical
weapons have been used that cause a lasting environmental impact. Nerve agents, for instance, have
the potential to leak into the environment, but low–dose exposure by civilians in areas isolated from
combat is rare. One of the most widely used classes of chemical weapons is a set of herbicides
nicknamed the "Rainbow Herbicides." These herbicides have been shown to have caused
widespread ecological damage, and the health effects of their use can still be measured today. The
US military engaged in Operation Ranch Hand between 1962 and 1971 in an attempt to deprive
Vietnamese fighters of foliage cover and reduce enemy
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Martin Puryar Research Paper Outline
William Caldwell Sondra E. Martin Contemporary Art 363–01 19 November 2015 Martin Puryear :
Artist Martin Puryear is an American Artist from Washington DC, who is known for his sculptures,
architecture, and craft. His idea was to have functions between fine art and craft that reflected ones
creativity. Martin Puryear graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1963 from Catholic
University which, he later joined the Peace Corps teaching for two years, and by 1966 Puryear
entered a printmaking program in Stockholm, Sweden, called the Swedish Royal Academy of Art,
where he came across his true passion in art, with the inspiration and influences of James Krenov.
Puryear later returned to the states in 1969 to study sculpture at Yale University ... Show more
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2004. "Puryear, Martin 1941–." Encyclopedia.com. High Beam Research, 2004. Web. 19 Nov. 2015.
"Guggenheim." Collection Online. Web. 19 Nov. 2015. Cotter, Holland. "Martin Puryear." The New
York Times. The New York Times, 11 Dec. 2014. Web. 19 Nov. 2015. Puryear, Martin, and Amada
Cruz. Martin Puryear. Washington, D.C.: [Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden], 1992. Print.
(Jonathan Goodman) wrote an art critic in 1995 (Quote) "It is Puryear's combination of enigma and
skill that makes him so strong an artist." Martin–puryear."
Http://biography.yourdictionary.com/martin–puryear. The Gale Group, Inc, 2010. Web. 18 Nov.
2015 ( Martin Puryear) quote " I want to make objects that somehow have their own history and
their own reason for being and their own sense of themselves, I'm not concerned just with the
object's formal meaning , although it should be an intelligible artifact , a thing of one's own culture
and time. It's equally crucial that there exist in the work a recognition of the make of who I am."
Manheim, James. "Puryear, Martin 1941–." Contemporary Black Biography. 2004.
Encyclopedia.com.19 Nov. 2015
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Persuasive Essay: The Folly Of Big Science Awards
Prizes are a big part of life, we all want to feel special and be given an award, but not all people feel
the same way as you do when you get a prize. It's no different with the Nobel Prize. "All the winners
of this year's Nobel Prizes deserve praise," (Prasad, 2015) but it is not always the fairest system of
awarding people. The biggest complaint by the author of The Folly of Big Science Awards was that
the awards were going to top notch scientists who already had fame, success, and funding for their
research; while thousands of other scientists along the road get little or no credit for helping the
"main" scientist out (Prasad, 2015). The author of the article made a persuasive argument because he
explained everything how it needs to be heard in an unfiltered way. For example, the "Nobel Prize
along with the Dickson Lasker–DeBakey, Canada Gairdner and other major awards, honors the
scientists who are usually in the least need of recognition and funding, which squeezes out
opportunities for other scientists" (Prasad, 2015). There are many scientists out ... Show more
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This makes it in turn not fair for all of the other scientists who helped that recipient receive the
prize. There has never been a single scientist or medical researcher in the history of time to create or
proceed with an experiment all by him or herself. For example, Sigmund Freud an Austrian
neurologist, world famous for psychoanalysis was nominated for the Nobel prize 32 times but never
received it (2015, Nobel Media B.) Also, stated in the article, it creates the misconception "that
science is all about discoveries, when the cornerstone of science is replication and corroboration of
results." Even the greatest scientist have to constantly support and re–support theories and
experiments over and over
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Syria Is The Heart Of The Middle East
Syria is located in Southwest Asia. According to National Geographic Syria is considered to be the
heart of the Middle East because of its borders. Syria borders Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Iraq, Turkey,
Cyprus, but most importantly the Mediterranean Sea. Even though, the relationship between Russia
and Syria wasn't the best throughout the years it has become important. Syria has become an
important ally to Russia. Russia and Syria's relationship can be best described as a strategic plan. It
can be viewed as a strategic plan due to Russia's main concerns or interests toward Syria's weapons,
trade, natural resources and the access to the Mediterranean Sea. The Syrian Civil War is a war
fought to bring an end to the Authoritarian practices performed from the Assad family (Sharwood,
pg. 1). From 1971 to 2000 Hafez al–Assad was President of Syria. Following the reign of Hafez al–
Assad his son Bashar al–Assad became President of Syria. Throughout the reign of his father
violence was used to suppress protests. This included the excessive use of police, military and
paramilitary forces. Therefore, these practices have served as a guide to solving problems. It is
stated, "The malign but tactically brilliant Hafez al–Assad blighted the Middle East with
disproportionate Syrian influence for decades. His son, the feckless Bashar, has continued this
pattern since 2000 by sending terrorists to Iraq, murdering Lebanon 's Prime Minister Rafiq al–
Hariri, overthrowing his son Saad, aiding the
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Essay on Homosexuality Throughout History
Homosexuality can be tracked throughout history. In ancient Rome, philosophers, such as Socrates,
were having sexual relations with their students. They believed it was a part of becoming a man. The
Bible, one of the oldest books in literature, discusses homosexual practices among the citizens of
Sodom and Gomorrah. Some of the most influential people throughout history were discovered to
be homosexual: Susan B. Anthony, William Shakespeare, Leonardo Da Vinci, and Tennessee
Williams. Homosexuality is worldwide and has a global impact on society; it transcends borders,
cultures, and governments. The homosexual society even bears its own international flag, a rainbow
which signifies the bond between different people all over the world. The ... Show more content on
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The research was conducted before the start of the Gay Rights movement which has contributed to
changes in data. In 1983, after the start of the Gay Rights movement, a study of 147 homosexuals
was taken where 35% of the tested said that their sexual orientation was hereditary (Cameron 2).
The inconsistency of data is predictable due to the change in thinking because of the Gay Rights
movement. The answers from volunteers became more about the political struggle than the need for
accurate scientific data. Although the elementary research did not prove that environmental
situations are an underlying factor in determining sexual orientation, it did open a path for future
research.
Clearly, research over sexual orientation has been fueled by the desire for answers to complex
questions. Researchers have tried to determine any physical factors that may alter sexual preference.
Past research was inconclusive and unsupported mainly because of elementary equipment. As
technology has advanced, so has the research. Between 1983 and 1991, postmortem brains were
taken from three hospitals in Southern California. A certain region of the brain known as the AC
(anterior commissure) was evaluated and 34 homosexual men, 75 heterosexual men, and 84
heterosexual women were studied (Allen 7199). The results showed that the homosexual males' AC
size was matched closer to
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Case Studies in IMF's Investment on the African Continent
Case Studies in IMF "Investment" on the African Continent Section I. Theoretical Background to
Apply to Case Studies During the height of World War II, leaders from 45 nations met in Bretton
Woods, New Hampshire, U.S. to "promote international monetary cooperation through a permanent
institution which provides the machinery for consultation and collaboration on international
monetary problems," promote and "facilitate the expansion and balanced growth of international
trade, and to contribute thereby to the promotion and maintenance of high levels of employment and
real income and to the development of the productive resources of all members" (International
Monetary Fund, Articles 2). Further mandates included orderly and stable exchange, avoiding
currency depreciation wars and to remove hindrance to international trade caused by the immediate–
term ('current') technical complexities of currency exchange between nations. This would help
recovery for European nations lying in ruins from war and prevent a return to the depression that
had emaciated the United States, and global demand for exports, over the decade preceding World
War II. Effectively, what happens is when countries want to import goods, they either have to
directly barter those for their own exports, or first buy currency from the exporting country with
which to purchase the exports. Exporting countries often want payment in their own currency, so if
the purchasing country has a reserve of the foreign
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The Thin Line Between Love And Hate Essay
The Thin Line Between Love and Hate "Only the dead have seen the end of war."– Plato. Plato was
a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of
higher learning in the Western world. War is nothing new, throughout history we have experienced
over hundreds of wars with more in the future. For every war requires soldiers to fight for what they
believe in. In most cases the soldiers are on a mission to fight the enemy for their country. Fighting
is common between individuals because conflict is inevitable. It can try to be avoided, but as a
nation, we can never eliminate it.The way to manage conflict and reduce the damage is less hate and
more love. The overall goal of the soldiers is to fight for the interest of the country which is not
peace but power. The power is sent to bring peace, once everyone is continent peace will appear.
Conflict exists because there is always someone to fight, whether that be in gang or drug wars, or
more importantly with politics and war between nations. There will always be a fight to win what
someone wants, which can flare war. Furthermore,war is a state of conflict between different groups
that potentially end with death. The action of fighting is used for many untold reasons, none of
which are worth fighting for. However, if people could learn how to use their words more
effectively, less fighting would take place. War is like a loop it never stops, it continues to go round
and round
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Product Analysis: Military Fighter Jets
Product Analysis Military Fighter Jets The Israeli Air Force started operating during 1948's war of
independence by a small group of people with a few aircrafts; it was standardized as a superior air
force in early 1950's in relation to its administration of operations and efficiency. The inclusion of
American and British aircrafts, timely up gradations, emphasis on technology and strategic alliances
made Israeli air force a force to reckon with. This superiority achieved by the Israeli Air Force kept
the regional enemy nations at bay and also enabled the Israeli's to initiate and execute various
military operations against these enemies. Israeli Air Force has always played a vital role in all the
wars between Israel and other nations, helping ground troops and destroying important targets in the
enemy nations. Throughout its existence a lot of emphasis has been given to upgrades, new
inclusions in the fleet and technological advancements in warfare, it was as early as 1970 that Israel
introduced UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle). Middle East is an unstable region, when not against
Israeli's or westerners most Muslim countries tend to fight each other and differences related to
ideology, race and sects rise. All these countries are against Israel and in one way or another want to
see Israel wiped out from the map of the world. The United States of America has been a strong
supporter and arms supplier to Israel; working with various Arab nations for guaranteeing security to
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The Influence of Human Capital on Company Performance: a...
106
The Influence of Human Capital on Company Performance: A Preliminary Study of Telekom
Malaysia
http://jis.uum.edu.my
Mohamad Hanapi Mohamad Universiti Utara Malaysia Mazlan Ismail Telekom Malaysia
Background
The telecommunication industry has entered a very competitive environment for the past few
decades and the industry has been deregulated. The Malaysian government has established a vision
to be a developed nation by year 2020 and the deregulation of telecommunication services is one of
the most important steps towards achieving that vision. To achieve the aspiration and realise the
vision of making Malaysia a developed nation, and to survive in this highly competitive and
challenging business environment, Telekom Malaysia ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Generally intellectual capital is considered to be the stored knowledge possessed by an organization,
which may be tacit knowledge, personal knowledge possessed by an employee and may be explicit
knowledge, codified and stored by the organization and available to individuals throughout the
structure (Non aka & Takeuchi, 1995). Various convincing justifications have been forwarded for
the need of measuring, reporting and managing intellectual capital (Brooking, 1996; Petty and
Guthrie, 2000; Sveiby, 1998; Edvinson, 1997; Edvinson and Malone,
Journal of International 51l1dies 2007 Vol. 312()07
108 1997; Mouritsen, 1998; Allee, 2000; Marr et al. , 2003) and various research projects have
been made to explore other related details of this subject such as ' Measuring and reporting
intangibles to understand and improve innovation management ' (Meritum) then E*KNOW–NET
(Petty and Guthrie, 2000), which are supported by the European Commission. The importance of
intellectual capital is emphasised in the revolution in information technology and the information
society, the rising importance of
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U.S Foreign Aid to Africa
U.S Foreign Aid to Africa Some people speak against U.S foreign aid being sent to Africa for
humanitarian reasons. Others speak out in favor of such actions. All of us have seen the news tickers
with vital headlines about "people being devastated by droughts in Zimbabwe and unhygienic water
in Sudan", but what is their government doing about it. Personally, I've asked myself several
founded inquiries about where is this foreign aid going to and what are some of the achievements
being made. I've acquired over time well–built knowledge in relation to the United Nations and the
work they perform globally to promote stability and development. I will be bringing in several valid
arguments to get to the bottom of this controversial subject of ... Show more content on
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Almost everything went wrong, but AID kept financing the program long after its failure was
evident. AID paid for the building of eighteen warehouses, but five were not built, three were not
finished, three collapsed, two had their roofs blown off, and three more quickly crumbled owing to
"serious structural deficiencies." Fifty–four open wells with contaminated water were to be
sanitized, but only nine were actually improved. A hundred mills for grinding grain were to be
constructed; the project managers built and tested one mill, then gave up. The road–improvement
project repaired less than one–quarter of the roads scheduled for upgrading. Isn't that marvelous?
The prospect outlook for U.S foreign Aid abroad according to 2010 Budget for the U.S Government
is as follow, there will be a 10 percent increase on U.S Foreign Aid and the State Department Budget
will get a hefty 51.75 billion dollars in the fiscal year 2010. What the U.S State Department Budget
goals are, an estimated $8 billion increase in the annual outlay to the International Monetary Fund,
full funding for scheduled payments to the World Bank, plus "a portion of the outstanding arrears to
reinforce the U.S. commitment to play a leadership in these institutions.", Increases non–military aid
to Afghanistan and Pakistan, to counter the resurgence of the Taliban, Increased funding, at an
unspecified amount, for global health programs, including AIDS
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Russia Essay
One country is comparable to the United States of America in terms of world power and
prominence. Russia makes their name known beginning in World War 2 (WW2), later in the Korean
War, Cold War, and today's proxy war in the Syria. Russia's culture, environment, politics, military,
and economy do not just make Russia a regional powerhouse, but slowly becoming a region of
influential power to surrounding countries with the end state of a global superpower. All the factors
that make Russia the powerhouse that it is slowly becoming, highlights the impressive trend that
supersedes the previous Soviet Union and past leaders. In the year 1019 a small region in Eastern
Europe (present day Moscow), would be settled by a local population and ... Show more content on
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It massive forests and frozen tundra's have picturesque views that would astound anyone. The
country has a land surface area of 6,592,735 square miles, making the largest country by land
comparably to the world. Since Russia is the biggest country in the world, it has every landscape
imaginable. From Lake Baikal, the biggest lake in Europe, to the Ryn desert, and the cold Siberian
forests. Russia has it all when it comes to land geography. The northern part of Russia concealed
with the Arctic Ocean, which is froze for the majority of the year. To the west the only way Russia
has access to the Atlantic Ocean is through the Black Sea, and then through the Mediterranean Sea.
Another way to access the Atlantic Ocean is through the Baltic Sea or through the Barents Sea,
which is only operable in the summer, since in the winter everything over the 60–degree latitude line
turns into ice. Even though Russia can access the Atlantic Ocean through the sea when you look at a
map, there is two more non–geographic obstacles. The first one is that countries that are around the
sea, for example, Turkey, and Denmark, which are part of North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(NATO), can deny or make it hard for Russia to use those routes. NATO's purpose is to pledge the
liberty and safety of its members through military and political methods. In other words, if one
NATO country takes a conflict with a non–member of NATO, then all
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Weaknesses Of America
'The US stands taller and sees further.' Assess.
The study of International Relations surrounds itself in theories such as Realism and Liberalism,
with actors and power structures defining the discipline. Actors are key to the study; however, in the
twentieth and twenty–first centuries there has been a key dominant hegemon which rules over the
international community. Hegemony as defined by the Encyclopaedia Britannica, refers to the
supremacy of one group over another, often supported by legitimate norms and ideas, and in modern
society describes the dominance of a certain set of actions that allows for supremacy in certain areas
and a unipolar world. The United States of America emerged from World War II as the overriding
economic, political, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
This economic control is central to a hegemon retaining control and power in a unipolar world.
Through its strong economic expansion and leading of the worlds trade with the US dollar (USD),
America's economic authority allows for continued control in the international community. A report
by Joseph Quinlan, Chief market Strategist for U.S. Trust details for international investors that the
domestic American market shows little signs of slowing down, even in the face of a growing
Chinese Economy. Quinlan explains that the U.S economy is the "largest and most productive in the
world", and this is further backed by the fact that America has just over 20% of global GDP whilst
only having 5% of the world's population as according to the World Bank. Continually, America's
economic dominance is displayed by the fact that America is one of the largest exporters of goods
and services with a totally of $2.2 trillion total exports in 2013. Although America has suffered with
the effects of the Global Economic Crisis (GFC) and a slump in the global economy, Foreign Direct
Investment in the US is 15% of the world's total, accumulating to $736 billion USD. Whilst the
American economy did suffer during the GFC, this doesn't dissuade from the fact that the American
dollar is the world's reserve currency, and
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Australian Politics And Its Impact On Social And Economic...
Australian and American politics are both polarised by clashing philosophies between two major
parties dominating the system, however, the United States is faced with a greater political
dichotomy stunting the growth of legislation on social and economic issues. In Australian politics,
these parties are the Australian Labor Party and the Liberal National Party and in the United States
the Democratic Party and the Republican Party clash. These parties lie on opposite ends of the
traditional political spectrum. The ALP and the Democratic Party both lie on the left, liberal end and
the LNP and the Republican Party and the right, conservative end. While other parties exist in these
states, the two most mainstream parties control legislation ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
The social problem of immigration has manifested through the treatment of asylum seekers and
refugees in Australia. In the United States immigration has divided citizens as Republican have
advocated tightening border control from Canada and Mexico. Both countries struggle to find a
policy that advocates positively for the citizens of their countries and these individuals coming to a
new country. Economic issues also divide parties and can range from taxation to setting budgets.
Parties must use economics both to protect their citizens and maintain their place in the global
world. Economic issues have the tendencies to stem from social issues. Defence spending is an
economic issue that is highly divisive between political parties in Australia and the United States.
No international definition of military expenditures exists; however, the Stockholm International
Peace Research Institute defines it as "all costs incurred as a result of current military activities"
(Monitoring Military Expenditures para 1). Australia and the United States both face polarisation
between their two major parties in setting the defence budget. Australia faces a polarisation based on
budget setting and parties ' perceptions of the essentialness of being prepared to handle being a
Western country in the
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Development and Further Enlargement of European Union
ACCESSION CRITERIA: HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT AND FURTHER ENLARGEMENT
OF THE EU: WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO TURKEY
Building of the European Union (EU) is a political project intended to eradicate returning wars and
to fortify autonomous values, prosperity, and constancy on the European continent 1. The plan of
European Union come out and developed in the course of history, and Turkey has been an element
of this common history and tradition. The Ottoman Empire, modern–day Turkey's governmental
ancestor, had its most expanded provinces in the Balkans started in 14th century. For almost five
centuries, the Ottoman Empire was a significant player in the region and a component of the
Concert of Europe1. Also to its profound historic line, Turkey's relationships with Europe have been
revived with current geopolitical growths. Turkey plays a moderating function in the European
border as a not religious and autonomous country. A lot of people argue that abiding change in
Turkey on its way to EU succession may fortify Turkey's stabilizing function with relationships to
its neighbors and in the EU, and therefore add to safety in Europe2. Moreover, Turkey is a regional
power and that adds to regional safety in the Middle East, and consequently, in the US. Turkey's
succession might as well lessen the cultural segregations in Europe, particularly those pertaining to
immigration and the assimilation of Muslims into European societies. The subsequent curriculum
will give a wide setting
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The Causal Effects Of Oil On Regional Conflict
Introduction
Oil, although a natural resource should be seen as a harmless, plentiful substance, in the modern
world it is now considered a symbol of wealth; which in my view is representative of political and
economic power. Countries that have oil reserves, or who can exploit oil ownership are often seen
and acknowledged of the most powerful nations in the world. China, Russia, and the United States
of America all have vast reserves of oil and are widely considered to be the top three Super Powers
as they are categorized as being .
I consider oil to be a primary cause of conflicts globally, for example the hostilities in the Niger
Delta.
It is a common thought that oil and conflict go hand in hand wherever found. The purpose of this ...
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Their leader, Alhaji Mujahid Dokubo–Asari, wanted greater control of the natural resources within
the Delta, and to have a national conference to renegotiate Nigeria's federal constitution. Many
activists have wanted these negotiations to be held for years, but Asari is willing to use force to get
these talks, and that is where he varies from many of these other political activists. Asari has links to
organised crime within the region. The protests in this region have been described as being "akin to
American gangland fighting for the control of drug trade". [4]
These attacks on the oil companies are serious enough for the government to 'reward' the violence
by holding discussions with these warlords. The reason for this is that the country is a petro–state.
This means that the country's economy relies heavily on oil revenue, about 50 per cent of the GDP,
95 per cent foreign exchange earnings and 80 per cent of its budgetary revenues. This came about
after the civil war, beforehand Nigeria was a relatively small producer of oil, but after it became a
global producer of oil, 5th biggest producer in the group OPEC. Because of this civil war, oil
companies such a Shell have had to form close partnerships with the Nigerian government, and
indeed military dictatorships in order to exploit the abundance of oil in the country. Very little
money from the oil production has gone into the communities where the oil is
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Bric Analysis Essay
Polity
. Volume 42, Number 1 . January 2010
r 2010 Northeastern Political Science Association 0032–3497/10 www.palgrave–
journals.com/polity/
Brazil, the Entrepreneurial and Democratic BRIC*
Leslie Elliott Armijo Portland State University Sean W. Burges University of Ottawa
By most objective metrics, Brazil is the least imposing of the ''BRICs countries''– less populous than
China and India, slower–growing in recent years than China, India, or Russia, and the only member
of the group lacking nuclear weapons. We argue that Brazil's material capabilities are more
significant than commonly supposed. Moreover, Brazil's democratic transition in the mid–1980s,
along with that of its neighbors, has for the first time enabled Brazil to ... Show more content on
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We are important because of our deportment and, above all, our objectives.''1 As a large democracy
determined to steer a course independent of the major advanced industrial states that have
dominated global politics since the mid–twentieth century, Brazil perhaps calls to mind the India of
Jawaharlal Nehru in the 1950s and early 1960s. Nehru sought through the Non–Aligned Movement
(NAM) to claim the moral high ground between what he viewed as two equally imperialist camps of
Soviet Communism and Western capitalism. But a more appropriate heuristic might be Brazil as the
new Canada, a close ally of the United States, with whom it shares liberal democracy and a
capitalist economy.2 Brazil's recent assertiveness around SouthSouth cooperation and rebalancing of
representation in international organizations constitutes a bid for greater global influence, implicitly
at the expense of
´ 1. Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, ''Discurso durante cerimonia em comemorac¸ao ao Dia do
Diplomata,'' ˆ ˜ ´ Palacio Itamaraty, Brasılia (7 May 2009), authors' translation. ´ 2. Andrew Cohen,
While Canada Slept: How We Lost Our Place in the World (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart,
2004).
16
POLITY FORUM: Brazil – Entrepreneurial & Democratic BRIC
the traditional Western European powers, but does not threaten the values underpinning the liberal
world political economy: Brazil is the quintessential ''responsible stakeholder.''3 Brazil pursues its
aims of greater voice in global
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International Relations During Cold War Era
"Title Needed" Conceptual Framework Nuclear Parity as a concept started prevailing in
International relations in Cold War era. According to the Dictionary of Military and Associated
Terms by US Department of Defense (2005): "Nuclear parity is a given condition at a given point in
time when opposing forces possess nuclear offensive and defensive systems approximately equal in
over all combat effectiveness". As a theoretical concept it is regarding keeping a equilibrium in
balance in power, weaponry and in context of this piece nuclear arsenals. Nuclear Deterrence cannot
be achieved without nuclear parity. A state can deterred an offense proficiently if it has equal power
to retaliate. This is the basic concept of Balance of Power in global ... Show more content on
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(Diakov & Podvig, 2000) This Policy of Nuclear parity for Deterrence not only sustained the global
balance of power but also to major extend, reason for a peaceful and stable world system for
decades (Waltz, 1990. Same is the case with South Asian region specifically in case of arch rivals
Pakistan and India. Both states have been is state of hostile since 1947. Both neighbors have
engaged in copious border clashes to fully fledged wars. The Nuclear capability and to get a strong
foot hold in power politics of the region, both states have engaged in the "Nuclear arms race" since
the 1970s. Both are not ready to halt the development process of these weapons. Hence forth the
nuclear parity for deterrence is fully functional in South Asia. India's Nuclear Program India's
nuclear program was initiated in pre–independence era in 1844. As per Indian sources it was a
program for civil and energy purposes. In 1964, India conducted its first nuclear test which changed
the power balance of South Asia altogether. Despite numerous international sanctions, India
continued its nuclear program. In 1995, the Indian governments again made preparations for a
nuclear test but its activeitis were detected by US. The test was postponed but in 1998, the radical
government of BJP conducted the
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The Impact Of Russia's Arms Trade In Russia
European market. With these two large investments and the opportunity for Russia to expand its oil
power. That is why Russia has invested it's self economically in the current civil war that is ripping
Syria apart.
Weapons of War The top Russian exported item is oil, but in the realm of diversity the next major
export is Arms or war. According to Stockholm International Peace Research Institute in appendix A
figure 3 shows how big of a market the arms trade is for Russia. And according to President Putin in
2015 Russia's arms exports surged to around 56 billion dollars in revenue. Russia's arms trade is so
enormous, because it is in competition with the United States, which is the world leader in the arms
trade. If a country is banned ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Even though Russia is gaining revenue by a constant war, it will prosper more in the reconstruction
phase. Once the civil war ends Russia will have the sole rights for future arms to fill the void caused
by the war. Russia will have the opportunity to send military advisors and trainers. Also, Russia will
be locked in with maintenance contract and parts to fix the military equipment that Syria has bought.
The Russians have taken the chance to grow its arms trade in the Syrian conflict by selling to both
sides increasing its income. Even though the market in Syria is boosting Russian arms exports, the
conflict in Syria is greatly advancing the arms trade in another way. Since the cold war Russia and
the United States haven't clashed in any major conflict. When Syria's civil war erupted Assad forces
bought Russian made arms and the opposition forces acquired U.S. made arms. The "whole episode
was a chance to see what happens when state–of–the–art hardware from two major world powers
violently collide in the Middle East" (Mirovalev 2016). An example that Mirovalev uses is a T–90,
which is one of Russia's most advanced tanks, it was hit by a US –made BGM–71 TOW missile.
The after effect was the tank withstood the explosion without igniting allowing the crew to exit
without any injuries. This example is important because it shows the effectiveness of both
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Nuclear Weapons And Nuclear Proliferation
Committee 9
Nuclear Proliferation
Vanuatu
(A) Brief Background of the Topic
1.) What is the historical background of this topic?
Nuclear Proliferation is defined as the rapid spread or increase of nuclear weapons. Nuclear
Proliferation has been a conflict worldwide for years. It all started during the Cold War, when the
Soviet Union and the United States competed to obtain more nuclear weapons. As the Cold War
continued, France, Britain, and China all began to develop their own nuclear technology. On July 1,
1968, the Treaty on the Non–Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons was signed and entered into force in
1970. Under this treaty, a total of 190 parties have agreed to help prevent the spread of nuclear
weapons. A few years later, the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks non–proliferation act (SALT 1) was
signed on May 26, 1972 and entered into force on October 3, 1972. After several years of struggle,
the Cold War ended in December 1991.
2.) What nations are directly involved in this issue?
The top "contributors" of nuclear proliferation include countries like the United States and Russia
(formerly Soviet Union). These two countries were the first to obtain and test nuclear weapons.
They are responsible for more than 93% of all operational nuclear warheads. United Kingdom,
France, China, India, Pakistan, Israel, and North Korea all created nuclear arsenals to attain these
weapons of mass destruction. The United States currently possesses approximately 7,650 warheads,
Russia has
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Rapid Modernisation Of Armed Forces
There are a variety of reasons for the rapid modernisation of armed forces in the Southeast Asia
region – interstate and regional tensions exist within Southeast Asia and interactive military
programmes have developed as a result, and there has been a rapid build–up of military capabilities.
Additionally, there has been advances in technology, creating a need for states to modernise their
armed forces to be able to compete and military advancement in the region has contributed to the
security dilemma in Southeast Asia, leading to further arms build–up. Most importantly, there is
evidence of the beginnings of an arms race in Southeast Asia, which also explains the modernisation
of armed forces. Thus, the reasons for the rapid modernisation of armed forces in the Southeast Asia
region are the consequences of interstate and regional tensions, technological advancement, the
growing security dilemma and the beginning of an arms race.
Interstate and Regional Tensions
Throughout Southeast Asia, there are a number of relationships between state actors that are marked
by mutual distrust, and these bilateral relationships fuel the arms race within Asia due to security
concerns. These distrustful relationships between nations have "their root causes in historical
animosities, racial and religious divisions or competition for influence and resources" (Richardson
1990: 24). Problematic relations in the region include, and are not limited to: North and South
Korea, Taiwan and China,
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The United States : The Greatest Nation Of The World
INTRODUCTION The United States of America, the self–proclaimed sole remaining superpower,
often touts that it is the greatest nation in the world. Yet, when the data is analyzed, this claim is
proven time and time again to be wrong, whether it is math or science, literacy or numbers,
household income or workforce. Time and time again, and the numbers continue to slip. Healthcare
is no exception. In 2012, the United States ranked thirty–second worldwide in life expectancy
(Avendano and Kawachi 2014). Of the thirty–four Organization for Economic Co–operation and
Development (OECD) nations in 2010, the United States ranked twenty–sixth in infant mortality
(MacDorman et al. 2010). In a 1998 study of thirteen developed nations (Australia, Belgium,
Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom,
and United States), the United States ranked, on average, twelfth. The rankings for the United States
on each of the sixteen health indicators was: thirteenth for low–birth–weight percentages; thirteenth
for neonatal mortality and infant mortality overall; eleventh for post neonatal mortality; thirteenth
for years of potential life lost (excluding external causes); eleventh for life expectancy at one year
for females and twelfth for males; tenth for life expectancy at fifteen years for females and twelfth
for males; tenth for life expectancy at forty years for females and ninth for males; seventh for life
expectancy at sixty–five years for
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Global Public Health And War
Global Public Health and War Surname Professor Date Global Public Health and War Public health
is essentially what the society does to assure its people of health and safety (Institute of Public
Health, 1988). War is a significant anathema to public health and directly accounts for almost
millions of deaths occurring annually throughout the world. Apart from bruising and injuring the
public health, it destroys the societal infrastructure as well food and water supplies, adequate
housing, access to good and adequate public health services and healthcare. It is therefore evident
that it accounts for more deaths when it is compared to other hazards and catastrophes. War usually
creates catastrophic long–term psychological ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
These include radiological, nuclear, biological as well as chemical weapons. They pose the greatest
threat to large populations of people. The nuclear bombs that were detonated in Hiroshima and
Nagasaki in 1945 for instance, were based on nuclear fission. Each of the bombs had an explosive
force that is equivalent to about 15, 000 tons of TNT. The explosion killed and fatally wounded
approximately 100,000 people. An additional number of people were also injured from the heat and
radiation causing different illnesses. In the 1950s, the Soviet Union and the United States developed
hydrogen bombs, also thermonuclear weapons that were similarly based on nuclear fission. These
had an explosive capability that is similar to twenty million tons and more of TNT. An analysis of
the medical consequences of these new weapons by medical organizations like the Physicians for
Social Responsibility demonstrated that using them would cause millions of catastrophic global
health problems similar to the worldwide radioactive fallout that caused numerous casualties from
cancer deaths, as well as respiratory tract infections from the massive clouds of smoke that hang in
the air. The debris also blocked and absorbed the sun's rays and hence causing a 'nuclear winter" that
led to a consequent loss of crops and hence starvation (Barry & Victor, 1988). There are numerous
nations that are known to have in their
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The Cold War: The Causes Of The Cold War
USA and USSR were ally back in World War Two, all of us are wandering about what happened
between them that could cause their harmony relationship turned into The Cold War. The Cold War
was a term that used to describe the relationship between USA and USSR after World War Two in
1945 until 1980. Their relationship called The Cold War because none of them had ever fought the
other side by using hard power such as weapons and army. The war between USA and USSR was in
their ideology. They competed to spread their ideology to other countries in the world. This cold war
started because of the power of these countries. Their unbeatable power led their harmony relations
into The Cold War and the difference in their ideology also one of the factors that caused the war
happened between them. The cold war resulted with more fear of communism which began with the
commencement of President Harry Truman's Loyalty Program in 1947, which called for allegiance
to the United States by federal employees under the penalty of immediate termination. Moreover, J.
Edgar Hoover, Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, was given free rein to covertly
investigate and detain anyone he suspected of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Security dilemma, arms race and balance of power are three different things but they have a
connection one to another. These three things happen in a same path. These three things happen
continuously and connectively. They happen because of a reason based on the issue that comes up in
the international system, and most of the reason is because of the power of the states. Actually, in
this case, the main cause of The Cold War was the unbeatable power that USA and USSR had at that
time. Because of that unbeatable power, security dilemma, arms race and balance of power
happened in the international system and as the result The Cold War happened between USA and
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The Real Challenge Of The Pacific
Hong Nguyen Professor Stephen Long Political Science 250 25 September 2015 A respond to "The
Real Challenge in the Pacific" In his recent work, Dr. Michael D. Swaine has offered harsh critiques
of Dr. Andrew F. Krepinevich for supporting the limitation of China 's pursue of territorial dispute
over neighboring regions. Swaine, however, underestimates China 's ambition for power; overlooks
its rapid increase of economical and militarily strength; and generalizes that China is willing to
stabilize and that this stabilization would not develop into further chaos. China's great ambition of
power has been demonstrated by its notorious territorial dispute with its neighboring countries over
the Nine Dashed line or the U–shaped line and the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
In the past, China seized both the Paracels and the Spratlys by force and with its growing military
strength, it is undoubtable that Beijing will finally takeover the Senkaku. China is also building
artificial islands on reefs and atolls near the Philippines, having airstrips ready to deal with the
hugest military planes. It's lack of respect over neighboring countries's territory and exclusive
economic zone and violent actions like ramming Vietnamese fishing ships could be a test for its
influence and power to prepare for further conflicts; and an assessment of other countries' reaction
and strength. Swaine stated that the U.S has also been building its military and therefore can deal
with China if necessary; but he failed to account that World Military Balance 2015 (for 2014)
illustrates that the United States spent 581.0 billions $ (3.3% GDP) and China spent 129.4 billion $
(1.2% GDP) while, the 2015 Fact Sheet (for 2014) shows a different fact. The United States spent
3.5% its GDP (610.0 billions dollars) while China spent 2.1% its GDP (216.0 billions dollars) on
military build up. Besides, mecatus.org states that the U.S. spent 95 billions of dollars on military
aid against terrorists. A constant support for the Middle East, along with its allies (Japan and the
Philippines) undeniably cost the U.S. a large amount of money while China only have to "defense"
itself against neighboring Asian countries that are generally
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Central America Case Study
Central America is a region where security threats are related to domestic issues rather than to state
actors. Its condition of bridge between the United States and the rest of Latin America makes it
particularly exposed to trafficking networks of drugs, weapons and human beings. In the last
century, a violent period of instability emerged due to the repression of communist insurgencies and
social unrest by military regimes associated with economic elites. After the end of this period, the
influence of the Armed Forces in the political life declined and the defense budgets were reduced,
under the perception that conventional wars were an unlikely scenario. Additionally, Costa Rica and
Panama had their military banned by law, to focus its resources in development and social needs.
However, the lack of conventional wars ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Timely arrival of rescue teams and medical supplies can affect significantly the casualties. Moving
relief goods and personnel between countries or within a country is the least politically sensitive and
controversial use of military assets, including aircraft. In the case of Central America, because of the
limited funding provided to the military, current airlift capability is composed in most of the cases
by scarce and limited platforms. The best aircraft is the C–130 of the Honduran Air Force, and
bigger aircraft are limited, additionally to their cost, by the capability of the airfields. A capability
congressional report evidenced the limitations in infrastructure to operate strategic airlift platforms
C–5 and C–17 in the region. Only Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador and Panama each one with
had five or less airfields available. Besides, the main security priority will also need airlift as part of
its
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Essay William Edward Burghardt Du Bois or W.E.B. Du Bois
William Edward Burghardt Du Bois or W.E.B. Du Bois
William Edward Burghardt Du Bois – known simply as "W.E.B." – was 83 when the government
indicted him as a foreign agent in 1951. The only crime he had committed, however, was circulating
the Stockholm Appeal, which said any government to use an atomic weapon against another country
"should be treated as a war criminal." After spending six months in disgrace and paying $35,150 for
his defense, the government dismissed its case against him. The old man was freed and declared
himself a communist 12 years later at age 93, dying in Ghana, a country that loved him. It was a sad
end for an intellectual giant whom Kim Pearson, a professor of journalism at The College of New
Jersey who teaches a ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
However, he met a student named Nina Gomer, who he would marry and take with him to the
University of Pennsylvania, where he accepted a job as an assistant instructor of sociology. He
finally found a place to roost in 1897, when he was given a job as a professor at the University of
Atlanta, where he remained until 1910. In his career as an educator, Du Bois taught history,
economics, sociology, Greek, Latin and English literature.
Du Bois overriding emphasis as a black activist was solidarity. As an intellectual, he believed he had
a special responsibility in promoting black unity, a belief that some people have interpreted as
arrogance. In an 1897 article, The Conservation of the Races, Du Bois wrote, "For the development
of Negro genius, only Negroes bound and welded together, Negroes inspired by one vast ideal, can
work out in its fullness the great message we have for humanity." Before the Russian Revolution, he
called blacks living in the United States, "the advanced guard of Negro people."
In 1899, Du Bois published The Philadelphia Negro, a pioneering work of sociology. Du Bois
interviewed as many as 5,000 people and sought to prove there were class distinctions within black
society. He urged whites not to focus on intermarriage, but to concentrate on cooperating with the
black aristocracy to provide
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...

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Iran-Iraq War Research Paper

  • 1. Iran-Iraq War Research Paper The findings of the Ottoman Empire date all the way back to 1299 under Osman I, the founder and leader of the Ottoman Turks in northwest Anatolia. By 1900, the Ottoman Empire was a large multinational, multilingual empire, consisting of Southeast Europe, Western Asia, Northern Africa and even the oil fields of Southern Iraq. Although being under Turkish rule, this large population of this geographic area was full of different nationalities containing multiple ethnic and religious groups, many of which disliked each other. Due to this aversion of one another, these groups identified themselves to their own distinct nationality rather than being part of the Ottoman Empire. The result of this internal conflict led to a fragile nation that struggled ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Iran has been the center of the Shiite branch of Islam, while Iraq, where Shiites are in a slight majority, has been led by political elites from the Sunni branch of Islam. On September 22, 1980, Iraq invaded Iran by air and land. Iraq maintains that Iran started the war on September 4 with artillery attacks on Iraqi towns. The aim of Iraq's attack, according to President Saddam Hussein, was to boost claims for Iraqi sovereignty over the Shatt al Arab, and for a shift of the boundary to the Iranian side. Hussein also demanded border adjustments in the north and the return to "Arab" sovereignty of three islands at the mouth of the Gulf that Iran occupied in 1971. Experts on the fighting say Hussein began the war to topple the Khomeini regime and to make Iraq the dominant Gulf power. The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute confirms that 95 per cent of military supplies to him came from France, the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe and China. Saddam fought the Iran–Iraq war with Soviet tanks and artillery, Soviet and French aircraft, and French electronic air defenses. Iraq used chemical weapons repeatedly against Iran during the Iran–Iraq war and against the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 2.
  • 3. The Cold War Given what we now think about how frequently the extremely modern order and control frameworks of the Cold War years were strained by mix–ups and false cautions, human mistake and human stupidity; given what we think about how substantially less complex are the charge and control frameworks of a percentage of the fresher atomic outfitted states; and given what we both know and can figure about the amount more refined and able digital offense will be of overcoming digital protection in the years ahead, it is not the nature of frameworks or statesmanship that drove us to maintain a strategic distance from an atomic weapons calamity for so long, however sheer blind luckiness – and it is absolutely unrealistic intuition to trust that our Cold War fortunes can proceed in ceaselessness. Whatever the gathered strategy utility of atomic prevention in keeping up stable peace – an inquiry which I 'll come to in a minute – in pragmatic operational terms it has dependably been an unbelievably delicate protection. For a begin, as the surely understood Australian global relations researcher Hedley Bull has put it, 'shared atomic prevention ... does not make atomic war inconceivable, but rather basically renders it silly '. Atomic discouragement relies on upon objective performers on both sides, every making sound judgments about the danger components included – and the assumption is by all accounts, as Bull wryly puts it, that a discerning vital man is one 'who on further colleague ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 4.
  • 5. U.s. Foreign Policy During The Cold War Essay The overview of The U.S. Foreign Policy The objective of 'the U.S. foreign policy' course is to develop personal ability for applying IR theories to the U.S. foreign policy. Then, students will be able to understand the direction as well as the grounds of the U.S. foreign policy. To achieve this objective, I will discuss major the theoretical issues through the brief history of the U.S. foreign policy until the Cold War. After that, I will examine the challenges which the U.S. confronts. One of the theoretical issues in the U.S. foreign policy is the concept of isolationism and internationalism(or interventionism). To comprehend this concept, we need to figure out the history of the U.S. foreign policy briefly to find consistency in the flow of the policies. The Monroe Doctrine, which is famous for the declaration against European Imperialism (Monroe, 1823), was actually not the first argument of isolationism. As a matter of fact, isolationism began from George Washington's Farewell Address. (Washington, 1796) Meanwhile, President Woodrow Wilson tried to change the America's isolationism and to realize his liberalism via his Fourteen Points and the League of the Nations. (Wilson, 1918) However, his effort failed with the opposition of the parliament and the interest of World War I's victorious countries. In 1940s, the U.S. participated and took a significant role in the World War II, and could not hold isolationism due to the threat of communism and Soviet in Europe. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 6.
  • 7. Israel Palestine Conflict, an International Relations... NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY, JODHPUR Subject: International Relations Israel– Palestine Conflict: History and Solution Submitted by: Mitali Agarwal and Pragati K. B Roll no. 924 Roll no. 929 IV semester IV semester BPSc LLB BPSc LLB Submitted to: Prof. Om Prakash National Law University, Jodhpur Abstract After more than 50 years of war, terrorism, peace negotiation and human suffering, Israel and Palestine remain as far from a peaceful settlement as ever. The entire Middle Eastern region remains a cauldron waiting to reach the boiling point, a potent mixture of religious extremism, (Jewish, Christian and Islamic), mixed with oil and munitions. Â This paper is an attempt to trace the history of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The decision on the Mandate did not take into account the wishes of the people of Palestine, despite the Covenant's requirements that "the wishes of these communities must be a principal consideration in the selection of the Mandatory". This assumed special significance because, almost five years before receiving the mandate from the League of Nations, the British Government had given commitments to the Zionist Organization regarding the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine, for which Zionist leaders had pressed a claim of "historical connection" since their ancestors had lived in Palestine two thousand years earlier before dispersing in the "Diaspora". During the period of the Mandate, the Zionist Organization worked to secure the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. The indigenous people of Palestine, whose forefathers had inhabited the land for virtually the two preceding millennia, felt this design to be a violation of their natural and inalienable rights. They also viewed it as an infringement of assurances of independence given by the Allied Powers to Arab leaders in return for their support during the war. The result was mounting ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 8.
  • 9. Japanese And American Culture Essay Japan and Our Similar Culture Japan and the United States have been allies for years. Our two countries have overcome many obstacles to achieve the alliance we currently maintain. Even though there has been some challenges and differences over the years, our two countries have some similarities. There are differences between Japanese and American cultures as well. Japan is a successful country, and continues to thrive, due to its operational environment and rich culture. The operational environment categories we share common ground are politics, military, and economic. The Japanese political system is like the United States political system. Even though there are similarities, there are differences as well, which makes Japan ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Currently, Japan uses its high technological products to sustain the economy in exchange for raw materials. Due to the rugged terrain of the island of Japan, it is difficult to self–sustain with raw materials such as petroleum. Years ago, Japan was producing raw materials from the volcanic stone, such as copper, silver and gold, until trades were banned (Ew World Economy Team, 2013). Japan has the third largest automobile manufacturer in the word. Industrialization and services is the highest producing income for the Japanese economy. Financial services account for the bulk of Japan's economy. Tokyo has the fourth largest stock market in the world, and Japan is the largest creditor nation in the world. The country has rebounded from a recession much like the United States. After World War II, it took Japan nearly two decades for it to recover. After one recession, Japan suffered another in the 1990's and by the early 2000's began to see signs of sustained recovery (Ew World Economy Team, 2013). There has been slow progress, but the Japanese are using their resources and services wisely to continue to have economic growth and maintain the low unemployment rates (Ew World Economy Team, 2013). Much like the United States, there was an economic catastrophe, but using resources wisely has led to the success of the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 10.
  • 11. The Leahy Law The United States has been a major supplier of arms to foreign buyers for the better part of the last 75 years. Major military exports beginning under the Lend–Lease Act, Robert M Gates reports in his Foreign Policy piece "Helping Others Defend Themselves", led the United States to continue supplying weapons to nations that would pay for them in lieu of retreating back into the isolationist policies put forth on the heels of World War I (Gates). Today, America is the largest arms exporter by a wide margin. Per Amnesty International, between 2010 and 2015 the United States facilitated upwards of $55 billion worth of conventional arms sales ("Killer Facts: the scale of the global arms trade"). While a significant portion of the United States's ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Despite the fact that the F–16 aircrafts in question are more suited to the combatting of foreign threats than for domestic enforcement, the sale of these planes indicates that the United States does not take human rights issues seriously. An Amnesty International report on Bahrain indicates that a group of individuals intending to travel to United Nations Human Rights Council meetings were denied exit from the country, yet anothe testament to the kingdom's lack of commitment to improving the human rights situation within its borders ("Bahrain 2016/17"). Bahrain is a key United States ally in the region, however that does not exclude it from being held accountable to the same standards than other American arms purchasers are. Its strategic importance pales in comparison to that of enforcing uniform standards of justice by the United States. As a global leader both politically and militarily, an American compromise on human rights–based weapons sanctions are telling indicators of a lack of regard for the citizens of those ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 12.
  • 13. Nuclear Weapons : India, Pakistan, And Democratic People... The United States of America was the first country in the world to develop and test nuclear weapons. The Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were bombed on 6 August 1945 and 9 August 1945. This was the first instance where nuclear weapons were used as warfare. U.S was the sole possessor of nuclear weapons up until August 29, 1949, when the Soviet Union tested their first nuclear weapon. This was followed by the UK in 1952, France in 1960 and China in 1964. During the 1960s these five states negotiated and became parties to the Nuclear Non–Proliferation Treaty(NPT), and were the only states meeting the Treaty's definition of a "Nuclear–Weapon State" (NWS). This treaty was opened for signature on 1 July 1968 and entered into force on 5 March 1970. Since then, four Non–Nuclear Proliferation Treaty (NNPT) States are known to possess nuclear weapons: India, Pakistan, Israel and Democratic People's Republic of Korea. According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute as of January 2013, India has approximately 90–110 warheads in total Inventory. Following the nuclear explosive test conducted by China in 1964 then Indian Prime Minister, Lal Bahadur Shastri authorized limited movement towards a nuclear weapons program. India conducted its first test in 1974. A plutonium fission device was exploded and described as "peaceful nuclear explosion experiment". The nuclear Energy Commission of India stated that India had no intention of producing nuclear weapons. By ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 14.
  • 15. Should the United States Lift the Embargo on Cuba? Essay American international relations with Cuba have almost always been tense. The cold war solidified the growing negative relations, and the embargo embodied it. But now that the cold war is over, as is the Cuban missile crisis, we're left to wonder if the embargo is really necessary. Should the United States lift the embargo of Cuba? All of the evidence, be it economic, diplomatic, or social, points to yes. We should lift the embargo. The United States embargo of Cuba has its roots planted in 1960, 53 years ago, when "the United States Congress authorized President Eisenhower to cut off the yearly quota of sugar to be imported from Cuba under the Sugar act of 1948... by 95 percent" (Hass 1998, 37). This was done in response to a growing ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Goods or services of Cuban origin may not be imported into the United States either directly or through third countries" (2001) . According to the Cuba Policy Foundation, the United States loses up to $4.84 billion annually in trade and exports alone (Pepper 2009) . The amount of money being disregarded because of now defunct reasons is radically lacking in logic. A simple repealing of the embargo would bring both the United States and Cuba great economic success. The obvious question presented by this information is, why is such an old idea, which severely limits the necessary functions of international society, currently being continued? It's not like it's helping anything. In fact, according to Joy Gordon, Professor of Political Philosophy at Fairfield University, "the embargo is the single greatest barrier to Cuban economic development" (2010, 64). Gordon continues by saying that "the United States measures against Cuba are far more extensive [than any other embargo we have had], affecting every aspect of commerce, travel, economic development, and even humanitarian contributions" (2010, 65). The embargo not only detracts from Cuba's access to U.S. markets, but interferes in its trade with other countries. The embargo prohibits monetary transactions with the United ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 16.
  • 17. Ethical Implications of Chemical, Biological and Nuclear... Ethical Implications of Chemical, Biological and Nuclear Warfare Thesis As current problems of terrorism and the war on Iraq, chemical, biological and nuclear warfare (CBW) issues are important and relevant. CBW agents are dangerous, uncontrollable and undifferentiating weapons of mass destructions. Chemical, biological and nuclear weapons are capable of mass destruction aimed at killing masses of people. Using CBW agents comes with many ethical dilemmas and consequential side–effects. Chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons are designed to yield a great number of deaths. Regarding the ethical use of CBW, while looking at the larger context of war, one must determine the value of life. As backed by Virtues Ethics, this mass ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... These are just a few examples of many accounts of the use of chemical and biological agents in war. Is the use of chemical, biological or nuclear weapons in war ethical? Is there an appropriate time to use them? A dilemma will later be presented for consideration. Different ethical theories can either support or oppose the use of CBW depending on the circumstances. However, chemical, biological and nuclear agents are dangerous, uncontrollable and undifferentiating weapons of mass destructions. Actions must be taken to see that there are no future instances of use during war. However, before one discusses the legal and ethical issues involved with CBW, one must understand what chemical, biological and nuclear weapons are and how they function. Chemical Weapons There are many types of chemical agents that can be used for a variety of effects. Most are not meant to be lethal, but most chemicals at high concentrations can be lethal. Vomiting gases are used for riot–control or harassing agents and are only meant to irritate. "The body attempts to counter the irritation either by secreting fluids or by initiating reflex actions, for instance, vomiting," (Rose, 1968, p. 20). It is the incapacitating nature of these responses that gives vomiting gases their harassing effects and name. Choking gases irritate the lower branches of the lungs. The gases can destroy the sensitive lung tissue leading ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 18.
  • 19. Child Soldiers in Miliary Services "CHILD SOLDIERS" Guy Goodwin–Gill and Ilene Cohn, Child Soldiers, The Role of Children in Armed Conflicts, A Study on Behalf of the Henry Dunant Institute, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1994, 228 pp. Reviewed by Styliani Antoniou 'Child soldiers' is an inside look at the widen existence of armed children who participate in hostilities. In this study, Professor Goodwin–Gill and Dr Cohn emphasize the ways in which international humanitarian law fails to provide effective protection, particularly in the internal conflicts, examine the consequences of children participation in armed conflicts and provide factual suggestions for preventing the recruitment. More analytically, the authors examine all the aspects that lead children to bear arms by focusing on conflicts in Guatemala, Israeli, El Salvador, Sri Lanka and Liberia. The book firstly responds to the question of what the child is and secondly to what are the reasons for children participating in armed conflicts. At the end, significant suggestions are given on how to prevent and halt the recruitment of children into armed groups. The authors, Professor Guy Goodwin–Gill and Dr Ilene Cohn, are two eminent lawyers whose work on Child soldiers was commissioned by the Henry Dunant Institute, the research centre of the Red Cross movement in Geneva. It is probably not coincidence that this book was launched in 1994, three years after the Conference on Children of War, taken place in Stockholm and organized by the Swedish Red ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 20.
  • 21. Ikea Case Study on Marketing University of Halmstad School of Business and Engineering Bachelor Degree A creation of competitive advantage by using differentiation of company's strategy actions. The case study of IKEA Sweden with experiences on Chinese and French markets. Dissertation in Marketing Credit point level – 10 ( 15ECTS) Supervisor: Venilton Reinert Authors: Landry Capdevielle Min Li Paulina Nogal Halmstad, 23rd of May 2007 The table of contents Introduction..........................................................................4 Problem .................................................................................................................................. 5 Purpose ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... 29 Furnishing and house building at the same time .............................................................. 30 Promotion ............................................................................................................................. 30 Price...................................................................................................................................... 32 Place ..................................................................................................................................... 34 Distribution of products ................................................................................................... 35 PEST analysis about France ............................................36 Political aspects .................................................................................................................... 36 Generalities....................................................................................................................... 36 Business politics in France............................................................................................... 36 Social pressure groups...................................................................................................... 36 Economical aspects .............................................................................................................. 37 Production sectors ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 22.
  • 23. Arms Trade In The Arms War being transported from the Middle East to the European market. With these two large investments and the oppoortunity for Russia to expand its oil power. That is why Russia has invested it's self economically in the current civil war that is ripping Syria apart. Weapons of War The top Russian exported item is oil, but in the realm of diversity the next major export is Arms or war. According to Stockholm International Peace Research Institute the chart below show how big of a market the arms trade is for Russia. And according to President Putin in 2015 Russia's arms exports surged to around $56 billion dollars in revenue. The reason that Russia's arms trade is so vast is because it is in competition to the United States which is the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Even though Russia is gaining revenue by a constant war it will prosper more in the reconstruction phase. Once the civil end Russia will have the sole rights for future arms to fill the void caused by the war. Russia will have the opportunity to send military advisors and trainers. Also, Russia will be locked in with maintenance contract and parts to fix the military equipment that Syria has bought. The Russians have taken the chance to grow it arms trade in the Syrian conflict by selling to the both side increasing its income. The market in Syria does boost Russian arms exports but in the global market the conflict in Syria is greatly advancing the arms trade in another way. Since the cold war Russia and the United States haven't clashed in any major conflict. When Syria's civil war erupted Assad forces bought Russia made arms and the opposition forces acquired U.S. made arms. The "whole episode was a chance to see what happens when state–of–the–art hardware from two major world powers violently collide in the Middle East" (Mirovalev 2016). An example that Mirovalev uses in T–90, which is one of Russia's most advanced tanks was hit by a US –made BGM–71 TOW missile. The after effect was the tank withstood the explosion without igniting allowing the crew to exit without any injuries. This example is ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 24.
  • 25. Military Drone Strikes GPS, drones, spying, and nuclear war are all capabilities of the everyday items around us. These "normal" devices such as an iPhone or computer are all part of an enormous web infrastructure called the internet of things (IOT). The internet of things is a link between the online world and the physical world through connected devices which can achieve physical accomplishments such as taking a pulse. The Internet of things was said to have been discovered in 1999 during a presentation at Procter and Gamble. When Business moguls were trying to find a way to make the internet profitable, they manufactured the term internet of things. Ironically, IOT tracked its usage of term online through "Google Trends". According to Google, since 2004 IOT was ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Further implication of the internet of things will destroy the American culture that was built upon an innovative but cautious society. IOT is essentially creating an internet stock bubble full of subprime security and the fallacy of a more connected world. Artificial intelligence (AI) is the next step in IOT to complete a fully connected environment between conscious life and technological advancement. "Stephen Hawking himself recently posted that when true artificial intelligence is achieved, humankind is finished" (tripwire). The slippery slope of innovation is clearly shown when IOT reaches artificial intelligence because where do humans draw the line when AI is building its own race? The American society would inevitably be controlled by a dystopian nervous system of IOT devices similar to that of the Borg from Star Trek: The Next Generation. Human–kind would innovate itself out of the equation in order to satisfy the unending human urge for discovery. The U.S would not conduct foreign affairs in the same way as it does currently because our country would be more susceptible to hacking and large scale cyber attacks from enemy countries. The right of people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects is covered by the U.S constitution's fourth amendment. This amendment becomes virtually useless because of the logistical nightmare that IOT ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 26.
  • 27. Chemical Weapons : The Use Of Chemical Weapons In War Chemical weapons have been used throughout history to gain tactical advantages over enemies in armed conflicts. There is evidence that civilizations up to thousands of years ago engaged in the poisoning of water supplies or the use of toxic smoke in sieges. More recently, with the rise of industrialization and formalized scientific study, chemicals were developed with the intention of using them in war. The development of chemical weapons was already of international concern in 1899, when a peace conference at The Hague resulted in a treaty prohibiting the use of "asphyxiating and deleterious gases." The international ban on chemical weapons was disregarded in World War 1, with various chloride containing compounds being attached to grenades and artillery shells. While the immediate effects of exposure to many chemical weapons are severe, few chemical weapons have been used that cause a lasting environmental impact. Nerve agents, for instance, have the potential to leak into the environment, but low–dose exposure by civilians in areas isolated from combat is rare. One of the most widely used classes of chemical weapons is a set of herbicides nicknamed the "Rainbow Herbicides." These herbicides have been shown to have caused widespread ecological damage, and the health effects of their use can still be measured today. The US military engaged in Operation Ranch Hand between 1962 and 1971 in an attempt to deprive Vietnamese fighters of foliage cover and reduce enemy ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 28.
  • 29. Martin Puryar Research Paper Outline William Caldwell Sondra E. Martin Contemporary Art 363–01 19 November 2015 Martin Puryear : Artist Martin Puryear is an American Artist from Washington DC, who is known for his sculptures, architecture, and craft. His idea was to have functions between fine art and craft that reflected ones creativity. Martin Puryear graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1963 from Catholic University which, he later joined the Peace Corps teaching for two years, and by 1966 Puryear entered a printmaking program in Stockholm, Sweden, called the Swedish Royal Academy of Art, where he came across his true passion in art, with the inspiration and influences of James Krenov. Puryear later returned to the states in 1969 to study sculpture at Yale University ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... 2004. "Puryear, Martin 1941–." Encyclopedia.com. High Beam Research, 2004. Web. 19 Nov. 2015. "Guggenheim." Collection Online. Web. 19 Nov. 2015. Cotter, Holland. "Martin Puryear." The New York Times. The New York Times, 11 Dec. 2014. Web. 19 Nov. 2015. Puryear, Martin, and Amada Cruz. Martin Puryear. Washington, D.C.: [Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden], 1992. Print. (Jonathan Goodman) wrote an art critic in 1995 (Quote) "It is Puryear's combination of enigma and skill that makes him so strong an artist." Martin–puryear." Http://biography.yourdictionary.com/martin–puryear. The Gale Group, Inc, 2010. Web. 18 Nov. 2015 ( Martin Puryear) quote " I want to make objects that somehow have their own history and their own reason for being and their own sense of themselves, I'm not concerned just with the object's formal meaning , although it should be an intelligible artifact , a thing of one's own culture and time. It's equally crucial that there exist in the work a recognition of the make of who I am." Manheim, James. "Puryear, Martin 1941–." Contemporary Black Biography. 2004. Encyclopedia.com.19 Nov. 2015 ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 30.
  • 31. Persuasive Essay: The Folly Of Big Science Awards Prizes are a big part of life, we all want to feel special and be given an award, but not all people feel the same way as you do when you get a prize. It's no different with the Nobel Prize. "All the winners of this year's Nobel Prizes deserve praise," (Prasad, 2015) but it is not always the fairest system of awarding people. The biggest complaint by the author of The Folly of Big Science Awards was that the awards were going to top notch scientists who already had fame, success, and funding for their research; while thousands of other scientists along the road get little or no credit for helping the "main" scientist out (Prasad, 2015). The author of the article made a persuasive argument because he explained everything how it needs to be heard in an unfiltered way. For example, the "Nobel Prize along with the Dickson Lasker–DeBakey, Canada Gairdner and other major awards, honors the scientists who are usually in the least need of recognition and funding, which squeezes out opportunities for other scientists" (Prasad, 2015). There are many scientists out ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This makes it in turn not fair for all of the other scientists who helped that recipient receive the prize. There has never been a single scientist or medical researcher in the history of time to create or proceed with an experiment all by him or herself. For example, Sigmund Freud an Austrian neurologist, world famous for psychoanalysis was nominated for the Nobel prize 32 times but never received it (2015, Nobel Media B.) Also, stated in the article, it creates the misconception "that science is all about discoveries, when the cornerstone of science is replication and corroboration of results." Even the greatest scientist have to constantly support and re–support theories and experiments over and over ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 32.
  • 33. Syria Is The Heart Of The Middle East Syria is located in Southwest Asia. According to National Geographic Syria is considered to be the heart of the Middle East because of its borders. Syria borders Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Iraq, Turkey, Cyprus, but most importantly the Mediterranean Sea. Even though, the relationship between Russia and Syria wasn't the best throughout the years it has become important. Syria has become an important ally to Russia. Russia and Syria's relationship can be best described as a strategic plan. It can be viewed as a strategic plan due to Russia's main concerns or interests toward Syria's weapons, trade, natural resources and the access to the Mediterranean Sea. The Syrian Civil War is a war fought to bring an end to the Authoritarian practices performed from the Assad family (Sharwood, pg. 1). From 1971 to 2000 Hafez al–Assad was President of Syria. Following the reign of Hafez al– Assad his son Bashar al–Assad became President of Syria. Throughout the reign of his father violence was used to suppress protests. This included the excessive use of police, military and paramilitary forces. Therefore, these practices have served as a guide to solving problems. It is stated, "The malign but tactically brilliant Hafez al–Assad blighted the Middle East with disproportionate Syrian influence for decades. His son, the feckless Bashar, has continued this pattern since 2000 by sending terrorists to Iraq, murdering Lebanon 's Prime Minister Rafiq al– Hariri, overthrowing his son Saad, aiding the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 34.
  • 35. Essay on Homosexuality Throughout History Homosexuality can be tracked throughout history. In ancient Rome, philosophers, such as Socrates, were having sexual relations with their students. They believed it was a part of becoming a man. The Bible, one of the oldest books in literature, discusses homosexual practices among the citizens of Sodom and Gomorrah. Some of the most influential people throughout history were discovered to be homosexual: Susan B. Anthony, William Shakespeare, Leonardo Da Vinci, and Tennessee Williams. Homosexuality is worldwide and has a global impact on society; it transcends borders, cultures, and governments. The homosexual society even bears its own international flag, a rainbow which signifies the bond between different people all over the world. The ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The research was conducted before the start of the Gay Rights movement which has contributed to changes in data. In 1983, after the start of the Gay Rights movement, a study of 147 homosexuals was taken where 35% of the tested said that their sexual orientation was hereditary (Cameron 2). The inconsistency of data is predictable due to the change in thinking because of the Gay Rights movement. The answers from volunteers became more about the political struggle than the need for accurate scientific data. Although the elementary research did not prove that environmental situations are an underlying factor in determining sexual orientation, it did open a path for future research. Clearly, research over sexual orientation has been fueled by the desire for answers to complex questions. Researchers have tried to determine any physical factors that may alter sexual preference. Past research was inconclusive and unsupported mainly because of elementary equipment. As technology has advanced, so has the research. Between 1983 and 1991, postmortem brains were taken from three hospitals in Southern California. A certain region of the brain known as the AC (anterior commissure) was evaluated and 34 homosexual men, 75 heterosexual men, and 84 heterosexual women were studied (Allen 7199). The results showed that the homosexual males' AC size was matched closer to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 36.
  • 37. Case Studies in IMF's Investment on the African Continent Case Studies in IMF "Investment" on the African Continent Section I. Theoretical Background to Apply to Case Studies During the height of World War II, leaders from 45 nations met in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, U.S. to "promote international monetary cooperation through a permanent institution which provides the machinery for consultation and collaboration on international monetary problems," promote and "facilitate the expansion and balanced growth of international trade, and to contribute thereby to the promotion and maintenance of high levels of employment and real income and to the development of the productive resources of all members" (International Monetary Fund, Articles 2). Further mandates included orderly and stable exchange, avoiding currency depreciation wars and to remove hindrance to international trade caused by the immediate– term ('current') technical complexities of currency exchange between nations. This would help recovery for European nations lying in ruins from war and prevent a return to the depression that had emaciated the United States, and global demand for exports, over the decade preceding World War II. Effectively, what happens is when countries want to import goods, they either have to directly barter those for their own exports, or first buy currency from the exporting country with which to purchase the exports. Exporting countries often want payment in their own currency, so if the purchasing country has a reserve of the foreign ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 38.
  • 39. The Thin Line Between Love And Hate Essay The Thin Line Between Love and Hate "Only the dead have seen the end of war."– Plato. Plato was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. War is nothing new, throughout history we have experienced over hundreds of wars with more in the future. For every war requires soldiers to fight for what they believe in. In most cases the soldiers are on a mission to fight the enemy for their country. Fighting is common between individuals because conflict is inevitable. It can try to be avoided, but as a nation, we can never eliminate it.The way to manage conflict and reduce the damage is less hate and more love. The overall goal of the soldiers is to fight for the interest of the country which is not peace but power. The power is sent to bring peace, once everyone is continent peace will appear. Conflict exists because there is always someone to fight, whether that be in gang or drug wars, or more importantly with politics and war between nations. There will always be a fight to win what someone wants, which can flare war. Furthermore,war is a state of conflict between different groups that potentially end with death. The action of fighting is used for many untold reasons, none of which are worth fighting for. However, if people could learn how to use their words more effectively, less fighting would take place. War is like a loop it never stops, it continues to go round and round ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 40.
  • 41. Product Analysis: Military Fighter Jets Product Analysis Military Fighter Jets The Israeli Air Force started operating during 1948's war of independence by a small group of people with a few aircrafts; it was standardized as a superior air force in early 1950's in relation to its administration of operations and efficiency. The inclusion of American and British aircrafts, timely up gradations, emphasis on technology and strategic alliances made Israeli air force a force to reckon with. This superiority achieved by the Israeli Air Force kept the regional enemy nations at bay and also enabled the Israeli's to initiate and execute various military operations against these enemies. Israeli Air Force has always played a vital role in all the wars between Israel and other nations, helping ground troops and destroying important targets in the enemy nations. Throughout its existence a lot of emphasis has been given to upgrades, new inclusions in the fleet and technological advancements in warfare, it was as early as 1970 that Israel introduced UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle). Middle East is an unstable region, when not against Israeli's or westerners most Muslim countries tend to fight each other and differences related to ideology, race and sects rise. All these countries are against Israel and in one way or another want to see Israel wiped out from the map of the world. The United States of America has been a strong supporter and arms supplier to Israel; working with various Arab nations for guaranteeing security to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 42.
  • 43. The Influence of Human Capital on Company Performance: a... 106 The Influence of Human Capital on Company Performance: A Preliminary Study of Telekom Malaysia http://jis.uum.edu.my Mohamad Hanapi Mohamad Universiti Utara Malaysia Mazlan Ismail Telekom Malaysia Background The telecommunication industry has entered a very competitive environment for the past few decades and the industry has been deregulated. The Malaysian government has established a vision to be a developed nation by year 2020 and the deregulation of telecommunication services is one of the most important steps towards achieving that vision. To achieve the aspiration and realise the vision of making Malaysia a developed nation, and to survive in this highly competitive and challenging business environment, Telekom Malaysia ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Generally intellectual capital is considered to be the stored knowledge possessed by an organization, which may be tacit knowledge, personal knowledge possessed by an employee and may be explicit knowledge, codified and stored by the organization and available to individuals throughout the structure (Non aka & Takeuchi, 1995). Various convincing justifications have been forwarded for the need of measuring, reporting and managing intellectual capital (Brooking, 1996; Petty and Guthrie, 2000; Sveiby, 1998; Edvinson, 1997; Edvinson and Malone, Journal of International 51l1dies 2007 Vol. 312()07 108 1997; Mouritsen, 1998; Allee, 2000; Marr et al. , 2003) and various research projects have been made to explore other related details of this subject such as ' Measuring and reporting intangibles to understand and improve innovation management ' (Meritum) then E*KNOW–NET (Petty and Guthrie, 2000), which are supported by the European Commission. The importance of intellectual capital is emphasised in the revolution in information technology and the information society, the rising importance of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 44.
  • 45. U.S Foreign Aid to Africa U.S Foreign Aid to Africa Some people speak against U.S foreign aid being sent to Africa for humanitarian reasons. Others speak out in favor of such actions. All of us have seen the news tickers with vital headlines about "people being devastated by droughts in Zimbabwe and unhygienic water in Sudan", but what is their government doing about it. Personally, I've asked myself several founded inquiries about where is this foreign aid going to and what are some of the achievements being made. I've acquired over time well–built knowledge in relation to the United Nations and the work they perform globally to promote stability and development. I will be bringing in several valid arguments to get to the bottom of this controversial subject of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Almost everything went wrong, but AID kept financing the program long after its failure was evident. AID paid for the building of eighteen warehouses, but five were not built, three were not finished, three collapsed, two had their roofs blown off, and three more quickly crumbled owing to "serious structural deficiencies." Fifty–four open wells with contaminated water were to be sanitized, but only nine were actually improved. A hundred mills for grinding grain were to be constructed; the project managers built and tested one mill, then gave up. The road–improvement project repaired less than one–quarter of the roads scheduled for upgrading. Isn't that marvelous? The prospect outlook for U.S foreign Aid abroad according to 2010 Budget for the U.S Government is as follow, there will be a 10 percent increase on U.S Foreign Aid and the State Department Budget will get a hefty 51.75 billion dollars in the fiscal year 2010. What the U.S State Department Budget goals are, an estimated $8 billion increase in the annual outlay to the International Monetary Fund, full funding for scheduled payments to the World Bank, plus "a portion of the outstanding arrears to reinforce the U.S. commitment to play a leadership in these institutions.", Increases non–military aid to Afghanistan and Pakistan, to counter the resurgence of the Taliban, Increased funding, at an unspecified amount, for global health programs, including AIDS ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 46.
  • 47. Russia Essay One country is comparable to the United States of America in terms of world power and prominence. Russia makes their name known beginning in World War 2 (WW2), later in the Korean War, Cold War, and today's proxy war in the Syria. Russia's culture, environment, politics, military, and economy do not just make Russia a regional powerhouse, but slowly becoming a region of influential power to surrounding countries with the end state of a global superpower. All the factors that make Russia the powerhouse that it is slowly becoming, highlights the impressive trend that supersedes the previous Soviet Union and past leaders. In the year 1019 a small region in Eastern Europe (present day Moscow), would be settled by a local population and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... It massive forests and frozen tundra's have picturesque views that would astound anyone. The country has a land surface area of 6,592,735 square miles, making the largest country by land comparably to the world. Since Russia is the biggest country in the world, it has every landscape imaginable. From Lake Baikal, the biggest lake in Europe, to the Ryn desert, and the cold Siberian forests. Russia has it all when it comes to land geography. The northern part of Russia concealed with the Arctic Ocean, which is froze for the majority of the year. To the west the only way Russia has access to the Atlantic Ocean is through the Black Sea, and then through the Mediterranean Sea. Another way to access the Atlantic Ocean is through the Baltic Sea or through the Barents Sea, which is only operable in the summer, since in the winter everything over the 60–degree latitude line turns into ice. Even though Russia can access the Atlantic Ocean through the sea when you look at a map, there is two more non–geographic obstacles. The first one is that countries that are around the sea, for example, Turkey, and Denmark, which are part of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), can deny or make it hard for Russia to use those routes. NATO's purpose is to pledge the liberty and safety of its members through military and political methods. In other words, if one NATO country takes a conflict with a non–member of NATO, then all ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 48.
  • 49. Weaknesses Of America 'The US stands taller and sees further.' Assess. The study of International Relations surrounds itself in theories such as Realism and Liberalism, with actors and power structures defining the discipline. Actors are key to the study; however, in the twentieth and twenty–first centuries there has been a key dominant hegemon which rules over the international community. Hegemony as defined by the Encyclopaedia Britannica, refers to the supremacy of one group over another, often supported by legitimate norms and ideas, and in modern society describes the dominance of a certain set of actions that allows for supremacy in certain areas and a unipolar world. The United States of America emerged from World War II as the overriding economic, political, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This economic control is central to a hegemon retaining control and power in a unipolar world. Through its strong economic expansion and leading of the worlds trade with the US dollar (USD), America's economic authority allows for continued control in the international community. A report by Joseph Quinlan, Chief market Strategist for U.S. Trust details for international investors that the domestic American market shows little signs of slowing down, even in the face of a growing Chinese Economy. Quinlan explains that the U.S economy is the "largest and most productive in the world", and this is further backed by the fact that America has just over 20% of global GDP whilst only having 5% of the world's population as according to the World Bank. Continually, America's economic dominance is displayed by the fact that America is one of the largest exporters of goods and services with a totally of $2.2 trillion total exports in 2013. Although America has suffered with the effects of the Global Economic Crisis (GFC) and a slump in the global economy, Foreign Direct Investment in the US is 15% of the world's total, accumulating to $736 billion USD. Whilst the American economy did suffer during the GFC, this doesn't dissuade from the fact that the American dollar is the world's reserve currency, and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 50.
  • 51. Australian Politics And Its Impact On Social And Economic... Australian and American politics are both polarised by clashing philosophies between two major parties dominating the system, however, the United States is faced with a greater political dichotomy stunting the growth of legislation on social and economic issues. In Australian politics, these parties are the Australian Labor Party and the Liberal National Party and in the United States the Democratic Party and the Republican Party clash. These parties lie on opposite ends of the traditional political spectrum. The ALP and the Democratic Party both lie on the left, liberal end and the LNP and the Republican Party and the right, conservative end. While other parties exist in these states, the two most mainstream parties control legislation ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The social problem of immigration has manifested through the treatment of asylum seekers and refugees in Australia. In the United States immigration has divided citizens as Republican have advocated tightening border control from Canada and Mexico. Both countries struggle to find a policy that advocates positively for the citizens of their countries and these individuals coming to a new country. Economic issues also divide parties and can range from taxation to setting budgets. Parties must use economics both to protect their citizens and maintain their place in the global world. Economic issues have the tendencies to stem from social issues. Defence spending is an economic issue that is highly divisive between political parties in Australia and the United States. No international definition of military expenditures exists; however, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute defines it as "all costs incurred as a result of current military activities" (Monitoring Military Expenditures para 1). Australia and the United States both face polarisation between their two major parties in setting the defence budget. Australia faces a polarisation based on budget setting and parties ' perceptions of the essentialness of being prepared to handle being a Western country in the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 52.
  • 53. Development and Further Enlargement of European Union ACCESSION CRITERIA: HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT AND FURTHER ENLARGEMENT OF THE EU: WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO TURKEY Building of the European Union (EU) is a political project intended to eradicate returning wars and to fortify autonomous values, prosperity, and constancy on the European continent 1. The plan of European Union come out and developed in the course of history, and Turkey has been an element of this common history and tradition. The Ottoman Empire, modern–day Turkey's governmental ancestor, had its most expanded provinces in the Balkans started in 14th century. For almost five centuries, the Ottoman Empire was a significant player in the region and a component of the Concert of Europe1. Also to its profound historic line, Turkey's relationships with Europe have been revived with current geopolitical growths. Turkey plays a moderating function in the European border as a not religious and autonomous country. A lot of people argue that abiding change in Turkey on its way to EU succession may fortify Turkey's stabilizing function with relationships to its neighbors and in the EU, and therefore add to safety in Europe2. Moreover, Turkey is a regional power and that adds to regional safety in the Middle East, and consequently, in the US. Turkey's succession might as well lessen the cultural segregations in Europe, particularly those pertaining to immigration and the assimilation of Muslims into European societies. The subsequent curriculum will give a wide setting ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 54.
  • 55. The Causal Effects Of Oil On Regional Conflict Introduction Oil, although a natural resource should be seen as a harmless, plentiful substance, in the modern world it is now considered a symbol of wealth; which in my view is representative of political and economic power. Countries that have oil reserves, or who can exploit oil ownership are often seen and acknowledged of the most powerful nations in the world. China, Russia, and the United States of America all have vast reserves of oil and are widely considered to be the top three Super Powers as they are categorized as being . I consider oil to be a primary cause of conflicts globally, for example the hostilities in the Niger Delta. It is a common thought that oil and conflict go hand in hand wherever found. The purpose of this ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Their leader, Alhaji Mujahid Dokubo–Asari, wanted greater control of the natural resources within the Delta, and to have a national conference to renegotiate Nigeria's federal constitution. Many activists have wanted these negotiations to be held for years, but Asari is willing to use force to get these talks, and that is where he varies from many of these other political activists. Asari has links to organised crime within the region. The protests in this region have been described as being "akin to American gangland fighting for the control of drug trade". [4] These attacks on the oil companies are serious enough for the government to 'reward' the violence by holding discussions with these warlords. The reason for this is that the country is a petro–state. This means that the country's economy relies heavily on oil revenue, about 50 per cent of the GDP, 95 per cent foreign exchange earnings and 80 per cent of its budgetary revenues. This came about after the civil war, beforehand Nigeria was a relatively small producer of oil, but after it became a global producer of oil, 5th biggest producer in the group OPEC. Because of this civil war, oil companies such a Shell have had to form close partnerships with the Nigerian government, and indeed military dictatorships in order to exploit the abundance of oil in the country. Very little money from the oil production has gone into the communities where the oil is ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 56.
  • 57. Bric Analysis Essay Polity . Volume 42, Number 1 . January 2010 r 2010 Northeastern Political Science Association 0032–3497/10 www.palgrave– journals.com/polity/ Brazil, the Entrepreneurial and Democratic BRIC* Leslie Elliott Armijo Portland State University Sean W. Burges University of Ottawa By most objective metrics, Brazil is the least imposing of the ''BRICs countries''– less populous than China and India, slower–growing in recent years than China, India, or Russia, and the only member of the group lacking nuclear weapons. We argue that Brazil's material capabilities are more significant than commonly supposed. Moreover, Brazil's democratic transition in the mid–1980s, along with that of its neighbors, has for the first time enabled Brazil to ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... We are important because of our deportment and, above all, our objectives.''1 As a large democracy determined to steer a course independent of the major advanced industrial states that have dominated global politics since the mid–twentieth century, Brazil perhaps calls to mind the India of Jawaharlal Nehru in the 1950s and early 1960s. Nehru sought through the Non–Aligned Movement (NAM) to claim the moral high ground between what he viewed as two equally imperialist camps of Soviet Communism and Western capitalism. But a more appropriate heuristic might be Brazil as the new Canada, a close ally of the United States, with whom it shares liberal democracy and a capitalist economy.2 Brazil's recent assertiveness around SouthSouth cooperation and rebalancing of representation in international organizations constitutes a bid for greater global influence, implicitly at the expense of ´ 1. Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, ''Discurso durante cerimonia em comemorac¸ao ao Dia do Diplomata,'' ˆ ˜ ´ Palacio Itamaraty, Brasılia (7 May 2009), authors' translation. ´ 2. Andrew Cohen, While Canada Slept: How We Lost Our Place in the World (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 2004). 16 POLITY FORUM: Brazil – Entrepreneurial & Democratic BRIC the traditional Western European powers, but does not threaten the values underpinning the liberal
  • 58. world political economy: Brazil is the quintessential ''responsible stakeholder.''3 Brazil pursues its aims of greater voice in global ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 59.
  • 60. International Relations During Cold War Era "Title Needed" Conceptual Framework Nuclear Parity as a concept started prevailing in International relations in Cold War era. According to the Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms by US Department of Defense (2005): "Nuclear parity is a given condition at a given point in time when opposing forces possess nuclear offensive and defensive systems approximately equal in over all combat effectiveness". As a theoretical concept it is regarding keeping a equilibrium in balance in power, weaponry and in context of this piece nuclear arsenals. Nuclear Deterrence cannot be achieved without nuclear parity. A state can deterred an offense proficiently if it has equal power to retaliate. This is the basic concept of Balance of Power in global ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... (Diakov & Podvig, 2000) This Policy of Nuclear parity for Deterrence not only sustained the global balance of power but also to major extend, reason for a peaceful and stable world system for decades (Waltz, 1990. Same is the case with South Asian region specifically in case of arch rivals Pakistan and India. Both states have been is state of hostile since 1947. Both neighbors have engaged in copious border clashes to fully fledged wars. The Nuclear capability and to get a strong foot hold in power politics of the region, both states have engaged in the "Nuclear arms race" since the 1970s. Both are not ready to halt the development process of these weapons. Hence forth the nuclear parity for deterrence is fully functional in South Asia. India's Nuclear Program India's nuclear program was initiated in pre–independence era in 1844. As per Indian sources it was a program for civil and energy purposes. In 1964, India conducted its first nuclear test which changed the power balance of South Asia altogether. Despite numerous international sanctions, India continued its nuclear program. In 1995, the Indian governments again made preparations for a nuclear test but its activeitis were detected by US. The test was postponed but in 1998, the radical government of BJP conducted the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 61.
  • 62. The Impact Of Russia's Arms Trade In Russia European market. With these two large investments and the opportunity for Russia to expand its oil power. That is why Russia has invested it's self economically in the current civil war that is ripping Syria apart. Weapons of War The top Russian exported item is oil, but in the realm of diversity the next major export is Arms or war. According to Stockholm International Peace Research Institute in appendix A figure 3 shows how big of a market the arms trade is for Russia. And according to President Putin in 2015 Russia's arms exports surged to around 56 billion dollars in revenue. Russia's arms trade is so enormous, because it is in competition with the United States, which is the world leader in the arms trade. If a country is banned ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Even though Russia is gaining revenue by a constant war, it will prosper more in the reconstruction phase. Once the civil war ends Russia will have the sole rights for future arms to fill the void caused by the war. Russia will have the opportunity to send military advisors and trainers. Also, Russia will be locked in with maintenance contract and parts to fix the military equipment that Syria has bought. The Russians have taken the chance to grow its arms trade in the Syrian conflict by selling to both sides increasing its income. Even though the market in Syria is boosting Russian arms exports, the conflict in Syria is greatly advancing the arms trade in another way. Since the cold war Russia and the United States haven't clashed in any major conflict. When Syria's civil war erupted Assad forces bought Russian made arms and the opposition forces acquired U.S. made arms. The "whole episode was a chance to see what happens when state–of–the–art hardware from two major world powers violently collide in the Middle East" (Mirovalev 2016). An example that Mirovalev uses is a T–90, which is one of Russia's most advanced tanks, it was hit by a US –made BGM–71 TOW missile. The after effect was the tank withstood the explosion without igniting allowing the crew to exit without any injuries. This example is important because it shows the effectiveness of both ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 63.
  • 64. Nuclear Weapons And Nuclear Proliferation Committee 9 Nuclear Proliferation Vanuatu (A) Brief Background of the Topic 1.) What is the historical background of this topic? Nuclear Proliferation is defined as the rapid spread or increase of nuclear weapons. Nuclear Proliferation has been a conflict worldwide for years. It all started during the Cold War, when the Soviet Union and the United States competed to obtain more nuclear weapons. As the Cold War continued, France, Britain, and China all began to develop their own nuclear technology. On July 1, 1968, the Treaty on the Non–Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons was signed and entered into force in 1970. Under this treaty, a total of 190 parties have agreed to help prevent the spread of nuclear weapons. A few years later, the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks non–proliferation act (SALT 1) was signed on May 26, 1972 and entered into force on October 3, 1972. After several years of struggle, the Cold War ended in December 1991. 2.) What nations are directly involved in this issue? The top "contributors" of nuclear proliferation include countries like the United States and Russia (formerly Soviet Union). These two countries were the first to obtain and test nuclear weapons. They are responsible for more than 93% of all operational nuclear warheads. United Kingdom, France, China, India, Pakistan, Israel, and North Korea all created nuclear arsenals to attain these weapons of mass destruction. The United States currently possesses approximately 7,650 warheads, Russia has ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 65.
  • 66. Rapid Modernisation Of Armed Forces There are a variety of reasons for the rapid modernisation of armed forces in the Southeast Asia region – interstate and regional tensions exist within Southeast Asia and interactive military programmes have developed as a result, and there has been a rapid build–up of military capabilities. Additionally, there has been advances in technology, creating a need for states to modernise their armed forces to be able to compete and military advancement in the region has contributed to the security dilemma in Southeast Asia, leading to further arms build–up. Most importantly, there is evidence of the beginnings of an arms race in Southeast Asia, which also explains the modernisation of armed forces. Thus, the reasons for the rapid modernisation of armed forces in the Southeast Asia region are the consequences of interstate and regional tensions, technological advancement, the growing security dilemma and the beginning of an arms race. Interstate and Regional Tensions Throughout Southeast Asia, there are a number of relationships between state actors that are marked by mutual distrust, and these bilateral relationships fuel the arms race within Asia due to security concerns. These distrustful relationships between nations have "their root causes in historical animosities, racial and religious divisions or competition for influence and resources" (Richardson 1990: 24). Problematic relations in the region include, and are not limited to: North and South Korea, Taiwan and China, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 67.
  • 68. The United States : The Greatest Nation Of The World INTRODUCTION The United States of America, the self–proclaimed sole remaining superpower, often touts that it is the greatest nation in the world. Yet, when the data is analyzed, this claim is proven time and time again to be wrong, whether it is math or science, literacy or numbers, household income or workforce. Time and time again, and the numbers continue to slip. Healthcare is no exception. In 2012, the United States ranked thirty–second worldwide in life expectancy (Avendano and Kawachi 2014). Of the thirty–four Organization for Economic Co–operation and Development (OECD) nations in 2010, the United States ranked twenty–sixth in infant mortality (MacDorman et al. 2010). In a 1998 study of thirteen developed nations (Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, and United States), the United States ranked, on average, twelfth. The rankings for the United States on each of the sixteen health indicators was: thirteenth for low–birth–weight percentages; thirteenth for neonatal mortality and infant mortality overall; eleventh for post neonatal mortality; thirteenth for years of potential life lost (excluding external causes); eleventh for life expectancy at one year for females and twelfth for males; tenth for life expectancy at fifteen years for females and twelfth for males; tenth for life expectancy at forty years for females and ninth for males; seventh for life expectancy at sixty–five years for ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 69.
  • 70. Global Public Health And War Global Public Health and War Surname Professor Date Global Public Health and War Public health is essentially what the society does to assure its people of health and safety (Institute of Public Health, 1988). War is a significant anathema to public health and directly accounts for almost millions of deaths occurring annually throughout the world. Apart from bruising and injuring the public health, it destroys the societal infrastructure as well food and water supplies, adequate housing, access to good and adequate public health services and healthcare. It is therefore evident that it accounts for more deaths when it is compared to other hazards and catastrophes. War usually creates catastrophic long–term psychological ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... These include radiological, nuclear, biological as well as chemical weapons. They pose the greatest threat to large populations of people. The nuclear bombs that were detonated in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 for instance, were based on nuclear fission. Each of the bombs had an explosive force that is equivalent to about 15, 000 tons of TNT. The explosion killed and fatally wounded approximately 100,000 people. An additional number of people were also injured from the heat and radiation causing different illnesses. In the 1950s, the Soviet Union and the United States developed hydrogen bombs, also thermonuclear weapons that were similarly based on nuclear fission. These had an explosive capability that is similar to twenty million tons and more of TNT. An analysis of the medical consequences of these new weapons by medical organizations like the Physicians for Social Responsibility demonstrated that using them would cause millions of catastrophic global health problems similar to the worldwide radioactive fallout that caused numerous casualties from cancer deaths, as well as respiratory tract infections from the massive clouds of smoke that hang in the air. The debris also blocked and absorbed the sun's rays and hence causing a 'nuclear winter" that led to a consequent loss of crops and hence starvation (Barry & Victor, 1988). There are numerous nations that are known to have in their ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 72. The Cold War: The Causes Of The Cold War USA and USSR were ally back in World War Two, all of us are wandering about what happened between them that could cause their harmony relationship turned into The Cold War. The Cold War was a term that used to describe the relationship between USA and USSR after World War Two in 1945 until 1980. Their relationship called The Cold War because none of them had ever fought the other side by using hard power such as weapons and army. The war between USA and USSR was in their ideology. They competed to spread their ideology to other countries in the world. This cold war started because of the power of these countries. Their unbeatable power led their harmony relations into The Cold War and the difference in their ideology also one of the factors that caused the war happened between them. The cold war resulted with more fear of communism which began with the commencement of President Harry Truman's Loyalty Program in 1947, which called for allegiance to the United States by federal employees under the penalty of immediate termination. Moreover, J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, was given free rein to covertly investigate and detain anyone he suspected of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Security dilemma, arms race and balance of power are three different things but they have a connection one to another. These three things happen in a same path. These three things happen continuously and connectively. They happen because of a reason based on the issue that comes up in the international system, and most of the reason is because of the power of the states. Actually, in this case, the main cause of The Cold War was the unbeatable power that USA and USSR had at that time. Because of that unbeatable power, security dilemma, arms race and balance of power happened in the international system and as the result The Cold War happened between USA and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 73.
  • 74. The Real Challenge Of The Pacific Hong Nguyen Professor Stephen Long Political Science 250 25 September 2015 A respond to "The Real Challenge in the Pacific" In his recent work, Dr. Michael D. Swaine has offered harsh critiques of Dr. Andrew F. Krepinevich for supporting the limitation of China 's pursue of territorial dispute over neighboring regions. Swaine, however, underestimates China 's ambition for power; overlooks its rapid increase of economical and militarily strength; and generalizes that China is willing to stabilize and that this stabilization would not develop into further chaos. China's great ambition of power has been demonstrated by its notorious territorial dispute with its neighboring countries over the Nine Dashed line or the U–shaped line and the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In the past, China seized both the Paracels and the Spratlys by force and with its growing military strength, it is undoubtable that Beijing will finally takeover the Senkaku. China is also building artificial islands on reefs and atolls near the Philippines, having airstrips ready to deal with the hugest military planes. It's lack of respect over neighboring countries's territory and exclusive economic zone and violent actions like ramming Vietnamese fishing ships could be a test for its influence and power to prepare for further conflicts; and an assessment of other countries' reaction and strength. Swaine stated that the U.S has also been building its military and therefore can deal with China if necessary; but he failed to account that World Military Balance 2015 (for 2014) illustrates that the United States spent 581.0 billions $ (3.3% GDP) and China spent 129.4 billion $ (1.2% GDP) while, the 2015 Fact Sheet (for 2014) shows a different fact. The United States spent 3.5% its GDP (610.0 billions dollars) while China spent 2.1% its GDP (216.0 billions dollars) on military build up. Besides, mecatus.org states that the U.S. spent 95 billions of dollars on military aid against terrorists. A constant support for the Middle East, along with its allies (Japan and the Philippines) undeniably cost the U.S. a large amount of money while China only have to "defense" itself against neighboring Asian countries that are generally ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 75.
  • 76. Central America Case Study Central America is a region where security threats are related to domestic issues rather than to state actors. Its condition of bridge between the United States and the rest of Latin America makes it particularly exposed to trafficking networks of drugs, weapons and human beings. In the last century, a violent period of instability emerged due to the repression of communist insurgencies and social unrest by military regimes associated with economic elites. After the end of this period, the influence of the Armed Forces in the political life declined and the defense budgets were reduced, under the perception that conventional wars were an unlikely scenario. Additionally, Costa Rica and Panama had their military banned by law, to focus its resources in development and social needs. However, the lack of conventional wars ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Timely arrival of rescue teams and medical supplies can affect significantly the casualties. Moving relief goods and personnel between countries or within a country is the least politically sensitive and controversial use of military assets, including aircraft. In the case of Central America, because of the limited funding provided to the military, current airlift capability is composed in most of the cases by scarce and limited platforms. The best aircraft is the C–130 of the Honduran Air Force, and bigger aircraft are limited, additionally to their cost, by the capability of the airfields. A capability congressional report evidenced the limitations in infrastructure to operate strategic airlift platforms C–5 and C–17 in the region. Only Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador and Panama each one with had five or less airfields available. Besides, the main security priority will also need airlift as part of its ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 77.
  • 78. Essay William Edward Burghardt Du Bois or W.E.B. Du Bois William Edward Burghardt Du Bois or W.E.B. Du Bois William Edward Burghardt Du Bois – known simply as "W.E.B." – was 83 when the government indicted him as a foreign agent in 1951. The only crime he had committed, however, was circulating the Stockholm Appeal, which said any government to use an atomic weapon against another country "should be treated as a war criminal." After spending six months in disgrace and paying $35,150 for his defense, the government dismissed its case against him. The old man was freed and declared himself a communist 12 years later at age 93, dying in Ghana, a country that loved him. It was a sad end for an intellectual giant whom Kim Pearson, a professor of journalism at The College of New Jersey who teaches a ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... However, he met a student named Nina Gomer, who he would marry and take with him to the University of Pennsylvania, where he accepted a job as an assistant instructor of sociology. He finally found a place to roost in 1897, when he was given a job as a professor at the University of Atlanta, where he remained until 1910. In his career as an educator, Du Bois taught history, economics, sociology, Greek, Latin and English literature. Du Bois overriding emphasis as a black activist was solidarity. As an intellectual, he believed he had a special responsibility in promoting black unity, a belief that some people have interpreted as arrogance. In an 1897 article, The Conservation of the Races, Du Bois wrote, "For the development of Negro genius, only Negroes bound and welded together, Negroes inspired by one vast ideal, can work out in its fullness the great message we have for humanity." Before the Russian Revolution, he called blacks living in the United States, "the advanced guard of Negro people." In 1899, Du Bois published The Philadelphia Negro, a pioneering work of sociology. Du Bois interviewed as many as 5,000 people and sought to prove there were class distinctions within black society. He urged whites not to focus on intermarriage, but to concentrate on cooperating with the black aristocracy to provide ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...