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Chapter:
Lecturer: Mr. Ahmed Mohamed
Hassan
 Definition of Power
 Power potential and power in use
 Sources of power
 Power and Influence
 Power and Corruption
 Authority
 Sources and types of Authority
Fundamental Concepts: Power,
Influence, Authority
Chapter: 3
Lecturer: Mr. Ahmed
Mohamed Hassan
INTRODUCTION
The concept of power is crucial to politics.
Without power, it would be impossible for government to maintain law and order
and to pursue policies for social, economic and political development of the
country.
 In society, the idea of power gives great emotions, both positive and negative.
This is because power can be exercised for the good of one person, just as it can be
used to deprive another.
Contrary to popular view, power is not necessarily negative in its effect, nor it is
synonymous with physical force, but power can be also be exercised in other
forms. Then What is power?
DEFINITION OF POWER
Although the concept of power is central to politics, its often poorly defined.
 In fact, sometimes power, influence, and authority are interchangeably, to mean
the same thing. Sometimes also imprecise and incorrect distinctions are made
among these three concepts.
Power is “ the capacity of an individuals, or group of individuals, to modify the
conduct of other individual or groups in the manner in which he the power
holder desires”(R. H. Tawney).
The capacity of a person or a group to influence other people or groups is
power.
CHARACTERISTICS OF
POWER
1. Power in social context is not something we can touch or smell but is a form
of social relationship between individuals and groups. It is essentially an
ability of a person to make someone else do (or think) something which he or
she otherwise would not do.
2. Power is transitive in nature, especially when exercised. This means that it has
subject ( someone applying it) and an object (someone to whom it is applied).
3. There must necessarily be two view of power: one seen from the viewpoint of
the power holders or authorities, and another from the perspective of those to
whom power is applied.
4. Power is situational. It depends upon situation, circumstance and position.
POWER POTENTIAL AND
POWER IN USE
 When power in use, it is being exercised, when not in use but capable of being
used, it is a potential. In politics, power in use assumes three forms:
1. Coercion is the use of threat of severe sanctions by some people against others
whose will the power-holders seek to control. The object must obey or else
something bad will happen to him or her.
Coercion includes both psychological (brainwashing techniques used by
government against prisoners to break their morale or credible threat of physical
force).
2. Inducements are rewards either given or promised for acting as the power
holder desires. Rewards may be psychological, material, economic or political.
 For instance, Medals for heroism, grants of lands to military supporters,
lucrative contracts for active members of the organization include inducements at
individual level.
 Similarly, rewards can also be in the shape of military aid, weapons, loans or
gifts. Thus, Pakistan was rewarded handsomely by the United States government
for help in invading Afghanistan in 2002.
3. Persuasion as power involves using arguments and information to get people to
act as the persuader desires.
 Persuasion may be in the shape of advice, providing information or using lies
and deception to influence its targets.
SOURCE OF POWER
 In their analysis of power, J.R.P. French, Jr., and B. Raven identify five sources of
power that give rise to five types of power.
1. Force: The coercive Power
The governments enjoy monopoly of physical force. For example, no individual or
organization can carry arms or ammunition without the permission of the government.
2. Wealth: The Reward Power
Political patronage is common example. Once in office, many politicians are able to
place their loyal supporters in government jobs, give them government contracts, and
the like.
3. Expertise: The Expert Power
This is clear in the saying: ‘knowledge is power’. For instance, professor goes to
the technician when his computer malfunctions or breaks down.
4. Position: The Legitimate Power
When holding a particular office, therefore, the occupant of that role has a set of
functions or issues about which he makes decisions. known as legitimate power, it
is based on the follower’s belief that the power holder has a right to influence him
and he has an obligation to follow.
5. Popular Support: The Referent Power
Popular support influences the appointments or promotion of a politician from, say,
a member of parliament to that of minister.
POWER AND
INFLUENCE
Harold D. Lasswell and Abraham Kaplan,
 Power is control baked up by the actual use or the threat of force.
 Influence involves a kind of prediction in the form of advice, encouragement,
warning, and so on.
 Kids are greatly influenced by their parents and their early teachers.
 So, there is no much difference between power and influence. The differences
between the concepts of power and influence is largely linguistic.
POWER AND
CORRUPTION
 Lord john Acton of England remarked that “power tends to corrupt and absolute
power corrupt absolutely.”
 Most people do not want to give power to any individual, fearing that the power
will be abused.
 Power is a means, a tool, with which its possessor can do good or bad. The
ancient Greeks believed that a person of reason ,who knew what was good, would
never abuse power and that irrational person should never be given power.
 The principle of separation of powers and checks and balances practiced in the
United States of America, for example, were based upon the assumption that every
man invested with power is apt to abuse it.
 Those with limited power may find it to achieve their desired goals and
hence may, through corruption, try to increase it.
Muslim scholars, however, argue that power is bound corrupt if it is sough
for personal gains.
Islam puts power in an active moral framework. it is not an end but means
to serve Allah, to earn blissful everlasting life and thus a source of mercy
and justice for humanity.
AUTHORITY
Authority is closely associated with power.
 Is formal or legal as distinguished from personal power .
Authority - power that people perceive as legitimate rather than coercive
 Authority can be defined as the legitimate exercise of power.
The authority is derived from the odd roman action of “Auctor” or
“Auctoristos” which generally meant counsel or advice.
Two things should involve in the concept of Authority:
1. A position, or role, in an institution, and
2. An individual occupying that position.
SOURCES AND TYPES OF
AUTHORITY
 According to Max Weber, there are three types or sources of authority:
1. Traditional authority is based on ancient customs, traditions or conventions.
2. Charismatic authority refers to people’s following a leader because they
believe that he or she has extraordinary personal qualities that command their
obedience, such as magic gift. For example, Ayatollah Khomeini.
3. Legal-rational Authority is based upon acceptance of publicly expressed
society-wide rules and regulations issued by correctly authorized public
officials. Modern governmental bureaucracy is an example of legal-rational
authority.
IPS 03.pptx

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IPS 03.pptx

  • 1. Chapter: Lecturer: Mr. Ahmed Mohamed Hassan  Definition of Power  Power potential and power in use  Sources of power  Power and Influence  Power and Corruption  Authority  Sources and types of Authority Fundamental Concepts: Power, Influence, Authority Chapter: 3 Lecturer: Mr. Ahmed Mohamed Hassan
  • 2. INTRODUCTION The concept of power is crucial to politics. Without power, it would be impossible for government to maintain law and order and to pursue policies for social, economic and political development of the country.  In society, the idea of power gives great emotions, both positive and negative. This is because power can be exercised for the good of one person, just as it can be used to deprive another. Contrary to popular view, power is not necessarily negative in its effect, nor it is synonymous with physical force, but power can be also be exercised in other forms. Then What is power?
  • 3. DEFINITION OF POWER Although the concept of power is central to politics, its often poorly defined.  In fact, sometimes power, influence, and authority are interchangeably, to mean the same thing. Sometimes also imprecise and incorrect distinctions are made among these three concepts. Power is “ the capacity of an individuals, or group of individuals, to modify the conduct of other individual or groups in the manner in which he the power holder desires”(R. H. Tawney). The capacity of a person or a group to influence other people or groups is power.
  • 4. CHARACTERISTICS OF POWER 1. Power in social context is not something we can touch or smell but is a form of social relationship between individuals and groups. It is essentially an ability of a person to make someone else do (or think) something which he or she otherwise would not do. 2. Power is transitive in nature, especially when exercised. This means that it has subject ( someone applying it) and an object (someone to whom it is applied). 3. There must necessarily be two view of power: one seen from the viewpoint of the power holders or authorities, and another from the perspective of those to whom power is applied. 4. Power is situational. It depends upon situation, circumstance and position.
  • 5. POWER POTENTIAL AND POWER IN USE  When power in use, it is being exercised, when not in use but capable of being used, it is a potential. In politics, power in use assumes three forms: 1. Coercion is the use of threat of severe sanctions by some people against others whose will the power-holders seek to control. The object must obey or else something bad will happen to him or her. Coercion includes both psychological (brainwashing techniques used by government against prisoners to break their morale or credible threat of physical force). 2. Inducements are rewards either given or promised for acting as the power holder desires. Rewards may be psychological, material, economic or political.
  • 6.  For instance, Medals for heroism, grants of lands to military supporters, lucrative contracts for active members of the organization include inducements at individual level.  Similarly, rewards can also be in the shape of military aid, weapons, loans or gifts. Thus, Pakistan was rewarded handsomely by the United States government for help in invading Afghanistan in 2002. 3. Persuasion as power involves using arguments and information to get people to act as the persuader desires.  Persuasion may be in the shape of advice, providing information or using lies and deception to influence its targets.
  • 7. SOURCE OF POWER  In their analysis of power, J.R.P. French, Jr., and B. Raven identify five sources of power that give rise to five types of power. 1. Force: The coercive Power The governments enjoy monopoly of physical force. For example, no individual or organization can carry arms or ammunition without the permission of the government. 2. Wealth: The Reward Power Political patronage is common example. Once in office, many politicians are able to place their loyal supporters in government jobs, give them government contracts, and the like.
  • 8. 3. Expertise: The Expert Power This is clear in the saying: ‘knowledge is power’. For instance, professor goes to the technician when his computer malfunctions or breaks down. 4. Position: The Legitimate Power When holding a particular office, therefore, the occupant of that role has a set of functions or issues about which he makes decisions. known as legitimate power, it is based on the follower’s belief that the power holder has a right to influence him and he has an obligation to follow. 5. Popular Support: The Referent Power Popular support influences the appointments or promotion of a politician from, say, a member of parliament to that of minister.
  • 9. POWER AND INFLUENCE Harold D. Lasswell and Abraham Kaplan,  Power is control baked up by the actual use or the threat of force.  Influence involves a kind of prediction in the form of advice, encouragement, warning, and so on.  Kids are greatly influenced by their parents and their early teachers.  So, there is no much difference between power and influence. The differences between the concepts of power and influence is largely linguistic.
  • 10. POWER AND CORRUPTION  Lord john Acton of England remarked that “power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupt absolutely.”  Most people do not want to give power to any individual, fearing that the power will be abused.  Power is a means, a tool, with which its possessor can do good or bad. The ancient Greeks believed that a person of reason ,who knew what was good, would never abuse power and that irrational person should never be given power.  The principle of separation of powers and checks and balances practiced in the United States of America, for example, were based upon the assumption that every man invested with power is apt to abuse it.
  • 11.  Those with limited power may find it to achieve their desired goals and hence may, through corruption, try to increase it. Muslim scholars, however, argue that power is bound corrupt if it is sough for personal gains. Islam puts power in an active moral framework. it is not an end but means to serve Allah, to earn blissful everlasting life and thus a source of mercy and justice for humanity.
  • 12. AUTHORITY Authority is closely associated with power.  Is formal or legal as distinguished from personal power . Authority - power that people perceive as legitimate rather than coercive  Authority can be defined as the legitimate exercise of power. The authority is derived from the odd roman action of “Auctor” or “Auctoristos” which generally meant counsel or advice. Two things should involve in the concept of Authority: 1. A position, or role, in an institution, and 2. An individual occupying that position.
  • 13. SOURCES AND TYPES OF AUTHORITY  According to Max Weber, there are three types or sources of authority: 1. Traditional authority is based on ancient customs, traditions or conventions. 2. Charismatic authority refers to people’s following a leader because they believe that he or she has extraordinary personal qualities that command their obedience, such as magic gift. For example, Ayatollah Khomeini. 3. Legal-rational Authority is based upon acceptance of publicly expressed society-wide rules and regulations issued by correctly authorized public officials. Modern governmental bureaucracy is an example of legal-rational authority.