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Director,	
  Architecture	
  
A"ham	
  Azeez	
  
A	
  Reference	
  
Architecture	
  for	
  IoT	
  
2	
  
About	
  the	
  Presenter	
  
๏  	
  PMC	
  member	
  Apache	
  Axis,	
  Commi=er	
  
Apache	
  Synapse,	
  Web	
  Services	
  &	
  
Apache	
  Stratos	
  
๏  	
  Member,	
  Apache	
  SoCware	
  FoundaGon	
  
๏  	
  Co-­‐author,	
  Axis2	
  Web	
  Services	
  
๏  	
  Director	
  of	
  Architecture,	
  WSO2	
  Inc.	
  
๏  Hobbyist	
  (Arduino/RPi/Electronics/4x4)	
  
๏  Blog:	
  h=p://blog.a"ham.org	
  
3	
  
About	
  WSO2	
  
๏  Global	
  enterprise,	
  founded	
  in	
  2005	
  
by	
  acknowledged	
  leaders	
  in	
  XML,	
  
web	
  services	
  	
  technologies,	
  
standards	
  	
  and	
  open	
  source	
  
๏  Provides	
  only	
  open	
  source	
  
pla]orm-­‐as-­‐a-­‐service	
  for	
  private,	
  
public	
  and	
  hybrid	
  cloud	
  
deployments	
  
๏  All	
  WSO2	
  products	
  are	
  100%	
  open	
  
source	
  and	
  released	
  under	
  the	
  
Apache	
  License	
  Version	
  2.0.	
  
๏  Is	
  an	
  AcGve	
  Member	
  of	
  OASIS,	
  
Cloud	
  Security	
  Alliance,	
  OSGi	
  
Alliance,	
  AMQP	
  Working	
  Group,	
  
OpenID	
  FoundaGon	
  and	
  W3C.	
  
๏  Driven	
  by	
  InnovaGon	
  
๏  Launched	
  first	
  open	
  source	
  API	
  
Management	
  soluGon	
  in	
  2012	
  
๏  Launched	
  App	
  Factory	
  in	
  2Q	
  2013	
  
๏  Launched	
  Enterprise	
  Store	
  and	
  
first	
  open	
  source	
  Mobile	
  soluGon	
  
in	
  4Q	
  2013	
  
4	
  
What	
  WSO2	
  delivers	
  
A Reference Architecture for IoT
A Reference Architecture for IoT
Physical	
  CompuGng	
  
	
  
building	
  interacGve	
  physical	
  systems	
  by	
  the	
  use	
  of	
  
soCware	
  and	
  hardware	
  that	
  can	
  sense	
  and	
  respond	
  
to	
  the	
  analog	
  world	
  
Internet	
  of	
  Things?	
  
๏  A term coined in 1999 by Kevin Ashton
๏  Refers to uniquely identifiable objects & their virtual
representations in an Internet-like structure
Internet	
  of	
  Things?	
  
๏  Wireless Sensor Networks
๏  Internet-connected wearables
๏  Low power embedded systems
๏  RFID enabled tracking
๏  Use of mobile phones to interact with the real world
๏  Devices that connect via Bluetooth enabled mobile phones to the
Internet
๏  Smart Homes
๏  Connected Cars
๏  etc.
History	
  of	
  IoT	
  
๏  The	
  term	
  was	
  coined	
  in	
  1999	
  by	
  Kevin	
  Ashton	
  from	
  MIT	
  
๏  Concept	
  has	
  been	
  discussed	
  since	
  1991	
  
๏  “What	
  if	
  the	
  Internet	
  was	
  allowed	
  to	
  go	
  beyond	
  
connecGng	
  desktops	
  and	
  laptops	
  and	
  could	
  somehow	
  be	
  
Ged	
  to	
  the	
  devices	
  around	
  us?”	
  
Core	
  Concerns	
  
๏  Security
๏  Power consumption/Battery life
๏  Software updates
๏  Recovering from network failures & other failures
๏  Connectivity and communications
๏  Device Management
๏  Data collection, analysis, and actuation
๏  Scalability
Device	
  Types	
  
๏  8-­‐bit	
  SOC	
  controllers	
  
•  Arduino	
  
•  No	
  OperaGng	
  System	
  
๏  Systems	
  based	
  on	
  Atheros	
  or	
  ARM	
  processors	
  
•  Arduino	
  Yun	
  
๏  32/64	
  bit	
  compuGng	
  pla]orms	
  
•  Raspberry	
  Pi/BeagleBone	
  
	
  
Arduino	
  
13	
  
Arduino	
  IDE	
  
14	
  
Arduino	
  Shields	
  
15	
  
Mini	
  weather	
  staGon	
  
16	
  
17	
  
Raspberry	
  Pi	
  
18	
  
Arduino	
  Yún	
  
19	
  
Arduino	
  Yún	
  
20	
  
CommunicaGon	
  
๏  Direct	
  Ethernet/Wi-­‐Fi/3G	
  –	
  Long	
  range	
  
๏  Bluetooth	
  Low	
  Energy	
  (BLE)	
  )	
  –	
  low	
  range	
  
๏  RFID/Near	
  Field	
  CommunicaGon	
  (NFC)	
  –	
  low	
  range	
  
๏  Zigbee	
  or	
  other	
  mesh	
  radio	
  networks	
  –	
  medium	
  range	
  
21	
  
22	
  
CommunicaGon	
  Protocols	
  
๏  HTTP	
  
๏  MQTT	
  (MQ	
  Telemetry	
  Transport)	
  
๏  CoAP	
  (Constrained	
  ApplicaGon	
  Protocol)	
  
23	
  
MQTT	
  
๏  M2M/IoT connectivity protocol
๏  Extremely lightweight pub/sub messaging transport
๏  Useful for connections with remote locations where a small
code footprint is required and/or network bandwidth is at a
premium
๏  Low latency, assured messaging over fragile networks and
efficient distribution to one or many receivers.
๏  Focuses on
•  minimising the amount of bytes flowing over the wire
•  low power usage
๏  Better at a high volume of low size messages
๏  Provides a two-way communication channel
MQTT	
  vs	
  HTTP	
  
Source https://www.ibm.com/developerworks/community/blogs/c565c720-fe84-4f63-873f-607d87787327/entry/tc_overview?lang=en
Zigbee	
  
XBee	
  Shield	
  
Motes	
  
See: Waspmote
Core	
  Concerns	
  
๏  Connectivity and communications
๏  Device Management
๏  Data collection, analysis, and actuation
๏  Scalability
๏  Security
Why	
  do	
  we	
  need	
  a	
  Ref.	
  Architecture?	
  
๏  IoT devices are inherently connected. We need a way to
interact with them.
๏  There are billions of these devices. We need a scalable
architecture that is highly available and allows Disaster
recovery
๏  Management of devices - automatic updates, remote
management
๏  Security is a concern since these devices collect
sensitive data
๏  Provides a starting point for architects looking to
create IoT solutions as well as a strong basis for further
development
A Reference Architecture for IoT
A Reference Architecture for IoT
Example	
  ImplementaAon	
  
DHT11
Example	
  ImplementaAon	
  
Example	
  ImplementaAon	
  
A Reference Architecture for IoT
A Reference Architecture for IoT
RFID	
  ADendance	
  Tracker	
  
GSpread	

Device Manager	

Mobile App	

UserReg App	

Conference App
RFID	
  	
  
Reade
r	
  
Agent	
  
Summary	
  
๏  Fundamentals	
  of	
  IoT	
  	
  
๏  Why	
  a	
  reference	
  architecture	
  is	
  valuable	
  	
  
๏  The	
  requirements	
  on	
  the 	
  RA 	
  	
  
๏  The	
  instanGaGon	
  of	
  the	
  RA	
  and	
  how	
  it	
  meets	
  those	
  
requirements 	
  	
  
๏  A	
  mapping	
  of	
  that	
  RA	
  into	
  the	
  WSO2	
  pla]orm	
  	
  
References	
  
๏  A reference architecture for the Internet of Things
http://wso2.com/whitepapers/a-reference-architecture-for-the-internet-of-
things/
๏  MQTT
https://www.ibm.com/developerworks/community/blogs/c565c720-
fe84-4f63-873f-607d87787327/entry/tc_overview?lang=en
42	
  
Business	
  Model	
  
Contact	
  us	
  !	
  

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A Reference Architecture for IoT

  • 1. Director,  Architecture   A"ham  Azeez   A  Reference   Architecture  for  IoT  
  • 2. 2   About  the  Presenter   ๏   PMC  member  Apache  Axis,  Commi=er   Apache  Synapse,  Web  Services  &   Apache  Stratos   ๏   Member,  Apache  SoCware  FoundaGon   ๏   Co-­‐author,  Axis2  Web  Services   ๏   Director  of  Architecture,  WSO2  Inc.   ๏  Hobbyist  (Arduino/RPi/Electronics/4x4)   ๏  Blog:  h=p://blog.a"ham.org  
  • 3. 3   About  WSO2   ๏  Global  enterprise,  founded  in  2005   by  acknowledged  leaders  in  XML,   web  services    technologies,   standards    and  open  source   ๏  Provides  only  open  source   pla]orm-­‐as-­‐a-­‐service  for  private,   public  and  hybrid  cloud   deployments   ๏  All  WSO2  products  are  100%  open   source  and  released  under  the   Apache  License  Version  2.0.   ๏  Is  an  AcGve  Member  of  OASIS,   Cloud  Security  Alliance,  OSGi   Alliance,  AMQP  Working  Group,   OpenID  FoundaGon  and  W3C.   ๏  Driven  by  InnovaGon   ๏  Launched  first  open  source  API   Management  soluGon  in  2012   ๏  Launched  App  Factory  in  2Q  2013   ๏  Launched  Enterprise  Store  and   first  open  source  Mobile  soluGon   in  4Q  2013  
  • 4. 4   What  WSO2  delivers  
  • 7. Physical  CompuGng     building  interacGve  physical  systems  by  the  use  of   soCware  and  hardware  that  can  sense  and  respond   to  the  analog  world  
  • 8. Internet  of  Things?   ๏  A term coined in 1999 by Kevin Ashton ๏  Refers to uniquely identifiable objects & their virtual representations in an Internet-like structure
  • 9. Internet  of  Things?   ๏  Wireless Sensor Networks ๏  Internet-connected wearables ๏  Low power embedded systems ๏  RFID enabled tracking ๏  Use of mobile phones to interact with the real world ๏  Devices that connect via Bluetooth enabled mobile phones to the Internet ๏  Smart Homes ๏  Connected Cars ๏  etc.
  • 10. History  of  IoT   ๏  The  term  was  coined  in  1999  by  Kevin  Ashton  from  MIT   ๏  Concept  has  been  discussed  since  1991   ๏  “What  if  the  Internet  was  allowed  to  go  beyond   connecGng  desktops  and  laptops  and  could  somehow  be   Ged  to  the  devices  around  us?”  
  • 11. Core  Concerns   ๏  Security ๏  Power consumption/Battery life ๏  Software updates ๏  Recovering from network failures & other failures ๏  Connectivity and communications ๏  Device Management ๏  Data collection, analysis, and actuation ๏  Scalability
  • 12. Device  Types   ๏  8-­‐bit  SOC  controllers   •  Arduino   •  No  OperaGng  System   ๏  Systems  based  on  Atheros  or  ARM  processors   •  Arduino  Yun   ๏  32/64  bit  compuGng  pla]orms   •  Raspberry  Pi/BeagleBone    
  • 17. 17  
  • 21. CommunicaGon   ๏  Direct  Ethernet/Wi-­‐Fi/3G  –  Long  range   ๏  Bluetooth  Low  Energy  (BLE)  )  –  low  range   ๏  RFID/Near  Field  CommunicaGon  (NFC)  –  low  range   ๏  Zigbee  or  other  mesh  radio  networks  –  medium  range   21  
  • 22. 22  
  • 23. CommunicaGon  Protocols   ๏  HTTP   ๏  MQTT  (MQ  Telemetry  Transport)   ๏  CoAP  (Constrained  ApplicaGon  Protocol)   23  
  • 24. MQTT   ๏  M2M/IoT connectivity protocol ๏  Extremely lightweight pub/sub messaging transport ๏  Useful for connections with remote locations where a small code footprint is required and/or network bandwidth is at a premium ๏  Low latency, assured messaging over fragile networks and efficient distribution to one or many receivers. ๏  Focuses on •  minimising the amount of bytes flowing over the wire •  low power usage ๏  Better at a high volume of low size messages ๏  Provides a two-way communication channel
  • 25. MQTT  vs  HTTP   Source https://www.ibm.com/developerworks/community/blogs/c565c720-fe84-4f63-873f-607d87787327/entry/tc_overview?lang=en
  • 29. Core  Concerns   ๏  Connectivity and communications ๏  Device Management ๏  Data collection, analysis, and actuation ๏  Scalability ๏  Security
  • 30. Why  do  we  need  a  Ref.  Architecture?   ๏  IoT devices are inherently connected. We need a way to interact with them. ๏  There are billions of these devices. We need a scalable architecture that is highly available and allows Disaster recovery ๏  Management of devices - automatic updates, remote management ๏  Security is a concern since these devices collect sensitive data ๏  Provides a starting point for architects looking to create IoT solutions as well as a strong basis for further development
  • 38. RFID  ADendance  Tracker   GSpread Device Manager Mobile App UserReg App Conference App
  • 39. RFID     Reade r   Agent  
  • 40. Summary   ๏  Fundamentals  of  IoT     ๏  Why  a  reference  architecture  is  valuable     ๏  The  requirements  on  the  RA     ๏  The  instanGaGon  of  the  RA  and  how  it  meets  those   requirements     ๏  A  mapping  of  that  RA  into  the  WSO2  pla]orm    
  • 41. References   ๏  A reference architecture for the Internet of Things http://wso2.com/whitepapers/a-reference-architecture-for-the-internet-of- things/ ๏  MQTT https://www.ibm.com/developerworks/community/blogs/c565c720- fe84-4f63-873f-607d87787327/entry/tc_overview?lang=en