SlideShare a Scribd company logo
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 09 Issue: 05 | May 2022 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2022, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 963
Investigation On The Utilization Of Laterite As Replacement Of Fine
Aggregate To Develop Ecofriendly Concrete
Mohammed Zaheer1, Mohd Zabiullah Jaseer2, Sahil Noushi Sheikh3, K. Sri Charan4
1, 2, 3 UG Students, Department of Civil Engineering
4 Asst Professor of Civil Engineering
ISL Engineering College, Hyderabad, Telangana
---------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------
Abstract - Availability of river sand is becoming scarce, due
to rapid increase in infrastructure projects in India. Acute
shortage of river sand, has led to indiscriminate sand mining.
Adverse effect of sand mining includesriver bankerosion, river
bed degradation, loss of biodiversity and deteriorationofriver
water quality and ground water availability. To address the
above issues, research efforts are on, to find substitutes for
river sand to be used as fine aggregate in mortars and
concretes. One among the locally available resources is
laterite. Laterite is a product of tropical or sub-tropical
weathering, which is an abundant soil material in many parts
of India. An attempt has been made to characterize the
processing technique to obtain good quality lateritic fine
aggregates (lateritic FA). Experiments were designed and
conducted to study the performance of lateritic FA as
replacement to river sand, in cement mortars and concretes.
The river deposits are the most common source of fine
aggregate. So there are great demands within the
construction industries for riversandasfineaggregateusedin
the production of concrete. This has created a very difficult
situation, also there is great fear from environmentalist and
the ecology will be distorted. Hence, the need to find the
materials which are affordable and available partially or
totally replaced river sand in the production of concrete.
Hence we are forced to think the alternative materials.
This report aims to present the study done to establish
scientific data regarding the compressive strength, tensile
strength and flexural strength of concrete on partial
replacement of fine aggregate with laterite soil in concrete
mix of M-30 grade. The sand shall be replaced gradually inthe
mentioned grade of concrete by 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% with
laterite soil and the specimen shall be tested at curing
intervals of 3days, 7days, and 28days. For compressive
strength and at curing interval of 3 days, 7 days, and 28 days
for tensile strength as well as for flexural strength.
Key Words: Laterite soil, steel fibers, super plasticizer
(conplast Sp-430)
1. INTRODUCTION
Visual observation of the laterite material showsthatthe
variation of sand is much sharper than those considered in
previous works. This is confirmed by the preliminary
assessment of its particle size distributions. There is,
therefore, every reason to believe that this lateritic sand can
be used in structural concrete production. The particle sizes
of aggregates are known to affect the strength properties of
concrete greatly. In related developments, substantial
quantities of lateritic soil are found in heaps around the low
as a replacement material in concreting operations. The
focus of a good national development is to look inward with
the intent to mobilize all-natural resources for economics
purposes. One of the policy thrusts of the present
government is to provide affordable housing for the people.
Compressive strength is arguably the most widely used
strength parameter for concrete. This may be due to the
nature of concrete, being strong in compression andweak in
tension. The use of lateritic as a partial sand replacer can
help achieve this purpose and impact positively in reducing
the cost of building materials. This study aims to proper
documentation of the material to support their specification
in design and construction.
2. OBJECTIVES
 The objective of this study is to determine the
strength of concrete by partially replacing river
sand with laterite sand at 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%
and curing they concrete for 3days, 7days, and 28
days for compressive strength, tensile strength as
well as for flexural strength.
 Preparing the normal concrete by utilizing normal
quality river bedded sand of Krishan river and
ascertaining its strength via methods prescribed by
applicable IS Codes of testing
 Comparing the strength development of concrete
and ascertaining the feasibility of using laterite soil
concerning practically and economy of the study.
 To conclude the effect of lateralized concrete
concerning its adaption to normal mixes for
equivalent gain of strength and economy of the mix
so created.
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 09 Issue: 05 | May 2022 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2022, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 964
3. LITERATURE REVIEW
J. Santhiyaa Jenifer & S. Ramasundarm (2015) Studied the
physical properties of laterite namely specific gravity,
particle size distribution and density. An attempt was made
to use of laterite as a fine aggregate in concrete. Thequantity
of laterite varies from 0% to 100% at interval of 25% in this
study. The 1:1.5:3 mix of concrete is used for determining
the mechanical strength and durability characteristics. The
density of laterite mixed concrete increases when
percentage of laterite increases. The results of laterite sand
mixed concrete are comparedwithconventional concrete.At
50 percentage replacementofsandbylateritesandproduces
high compressive strength. The tensile and flexural strength
increases when the percentage of laterite sand increases.
Biju Mathew, Benny Joseph & C Freeda Christy The natural
M- Sand was replaced with laterite at the rate of 10%, 20%
and 30 % by weight for design mix of M25 controlled
concrete. A total of 36 specimens prepared to determine the
cube compressive strength, and flexural strength. From the
studies, addition of laterite reduces workability in concrete.
Compressive strength decrees with increasesin%oflaterite
replacement with sand. The flexural strength has only slight
variation with controlled concrete. Laterite of 20 % by
weight of sand content has shown the best results, thus
indicating possibility of using laterite as a partial
replacement.
Prof. Vishal S. & Pranita S.Bhandari (2013) Here an attempt
is made to partially replace Portland cement by silica fume.
The main objective of this research work was to determine
the optimum replacement percentages of silica fume. To
fulfill the objective variouspropertiesofconcreteusingsilica
fume have been evaluated. Further to determine the
optimum replacement percentage comparison between the
regular concrete and concrete containing silica fume isdone
.It has been seen that when cement is replaced bysilica fume
compressive strength increases up to certain percentage
(10% replacement of cement by silica fume).But higher
replacement of cement by silica fume gives lower strength
Debabrata Pradhan & D. Dutta (2013) The main objective of
this paper has been made to investigate the different
mechanical properties like compressive strength,
compacting factor, slump of concrete incorporating silica
fume. The experimentswere carriedoutbyreplacingcement
with different percentages of silica fume at a single constant
water-cementitious materialsratiokeepingothermixdesign
variables constant. The silica fume was replaced by 0%, 5%,
10%, 15% and 20%forwatercementitiousmaterials(w/cm)
ratio for 0.40. For all mixes compressive strengths were
determined at 24 hours, 7 and 28 days for 100 mm and 150
mm cubes. Other properties like compacting factor and
slump were also determined for five mixes of concrete. The
optimum percentage of replacement of silica fume is
obtained was 10%.
Concrete is so closely related with every construction
activity that it touches every human being in his day to day
living. It is an artificial compound generally made by mixing
of binding material (cement), fine aggregates, coarse
aggregates, water and admixtures in suitable proportions.
Concrete does not solidify from drying after mixing and
placement; the water reacts with the cement in a chemical
process known as hydration. In India the annual
consumption of cement is in the order of approximately 22
million tons. Concrete is a site-made material unlike other
materials of construction and as such can vary to a very
great extent in is quality, properties and performancedue to
the use of natural materials except cement. From materials
of varying properties, to make concrete of stipulated
qualities, an intimate knowledgeoftheinteractionofvarious
ingredients that go into the making of concreteisrequiredto
be known, both in the fresh and hardened conditions. This
knowledge is necessary for concrete technologistsaswell as
for site engineers. The increased demandfortheusageofthe
huge quantity of concrete leads to increase in costofbinding
material (cement) and depletion of natural sources of fine
aggregate which in turn increase s cost of concrete. Due to
above cause alternative materialsarerequired topartiallyor
fully replacements for Portland cement or fine aggregate or
coarse aggregate in the concrete mixture to continue the
constructionwork,withoutchangingthepreviousproperties
of the concrete like strength, workability and durability. It
has been observed that based on the availability of laterite,a
fine aggregate, and laterite could either partially or fully
replace sand as fine aggregate. The criterion for concrete
strength requirement is always based on the characteristics
compressive strength obtained after 28- day curing.
There are large number of investigation was carried out
throughout the world for replacing natural sand with
alternative material such as manufactured sand. The study
on replacement of natural sand with laterite is negligibly
small. Olubisi A. Ige(2013) describes the compressive
strength of laterizedmortarwithlaterite-fineaggregateratio
variation decreases when subjected to alternatewetting and
drying and increaseswhensubjectedto magnesiumsulphate
(Mg2SO4). It was also discovered that a laterized cement
motar with a laterite-fineaggregateratioof20%conditioned
to a temperature range of 1000C attained optimum
compressive strength
4. MATERIALS AND MIX PROPORTION
4.1 MATERIALS
Cement: In this research work, 53 grades Ordinary
Portland Cement is used for all concreting purposes. Free
from lumps. That was good in color. The tests on cement
were done as per standard codal provisions. The physical
properties are shown below.
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 09 Issue: 05 | May 2022 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2022, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 965
Table -1: Physical properties of cement
Properties Results of Conducted Tests
Fineness 8%
Specific Gravity 3.03
Normal consistency 33%
Initial setting time 46min
Final setting time 400min
Fine aggregates (FA): For this investigation, fine
aggregates are locally available good quality Shahpur sand.
Passing through 4.75mm sieve, it is found under zone II.The
physical properties are as shown below.
Table -2: Physical property of fine aggregate
Properties Results of test conducted
Sp. Gravity 2.65
Fineness Modulus 3.27
Water absorption 0.9
Coarse aggregates (CA): The aggregate size more than
4.75mm they are called as coarse aggregates. In this
exploration work, 20mm down size aggregates are utilized.
Table -3: Physical properties of Coarse aggregate
Properties Results of test conducted
Specific Gravity 2.68
B.density(kg/m3) 2086
Water absorption 0.5
Water: The water is used in concrete plays an important
part in the mixing, laying compaction setting and hardening
of concrete. The strength of concretedirectlydependsonthe
quality and quantity of water is used in the mix.
Laterite soil: Chemical composition of laterite soil/gravel
varies widely based on genesis, climate conditions, and age
of laterization. Lateritic soil contains more than 60% Fe2O3
and little of Al2O3. The chemical analysis of Indian soils
shows that soils rich in iron and aluminum but poor in
nitrogen, potassium, lime and organic matter. The specific
gravity of laterite soil is done according to Is codes. Is found
to be 2.44
Fig -1: Laterite soil
Fibers: Double-end hooked steel fibers with anaspectratio
of 50, length 5cm and diameter 1mm were used in this
research work Methodology
Fig -2: Steel fibers used in the project
Super plasticizer: In this research work conplastSP-430
is used as a super plasticizer. 1% of cementitious material
will be the dosage of super plasticizer.
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 09 Issue: 05 | May 2022 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2022, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 966
Fig -3: Super Plasticizer used in the project
4.2 MIX DESIGN
According to IS: 10262-2009 mix design was done for the
purpose of concrete casting of various mixes with the help of
all the above preliminary investigation test outcomes. The
mix design was done for M30 grade. From the mixdesign,the
conventional trial mix was preparedandithavingmixratiois
1:1.92:2.76 and the w/c of 0.40.
Table -4: Mix Proportion of concrete
Material Quantity(kg/m3) Proportion
Cement 425.5 1
F.A 664.92 1.56
C.A 1130.6 2.66
Water 191.5 0.45
Chemical admixture 4.5 1%
5. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM
5.1 GENERAL
In this research work total 84 cubes, 63 cylinders, 63 prisms
are cast and tested at 3, 7 & 28 days respectively. For finding
out the mechanical properties as well as permanence
properties of the concrete.
Table -5: Mix Proportion were involved in this project
5.2 MIXING AND CASTING
The mixture of all materials was hand-made by mixing on a
steel plate. Cement, Laterite soil, F.A, C.A, and fibers are
thoroughly mixed beforeaddingwater.Afterdrymixingthen
the water, curing agent and super plasticizer are added and
then mixed until a treatable concrete mixture is obtained.
Then oil the internal surface of molds, they are filled by
concrete and compaction is done by stuffing rod.
Fig -4: Mixing and casting
6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
6.1 COMPACTION FACTOR TESt
Workability gives an idea of the capability of being
workability. That workability of concrete can be found out
by the compaction factor test.
6.2 SLUMP CONE TEST
Slump test was conducted to determine the workability
Cement
kg/m3
%
Laterite
Fine Aggregate Coarse
Aggregate
sand Laterite
425.5 0% 664.92 0 1130.6
425.5 10% 597.6 66.4 1130.6
425.5 20% 532.12 132.8 1130.6
425.5 30% 464.8 199.2 1130.6
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 09 Issue: 05 | May 2022 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2022, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 967
Table -6: Results of compaction factor and slump cone
test
MIX Compaction
factor
Slump
(mm)
M0 0.85 75
M10 0.90 60
M20 0.92 55
M30 0.95 52
6.3 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH
This is one of the essential properties of the concrete.
Alternate properties of concrete have an unmistakable
association with compressive strength. On the off chance
that the compressive strengthofconcreteisenhancedatthat
point there is change in different properties of concrete, in
this manner compressive strength of the concrete is basic
test. Cube of size 150X150X150mm is cast according to
different mix proportions of this research work. after curing
for the number of days these cubes are tested in a
compressive machine, to get a desired compressivestrength
for different days of curing.
Table -7: Results of Compressive strength test
Mix
Compressive Strength in N/mm2
7days 28 days
CC 21.96 34.50
Mix1 22.37 34.73
Mix2 24.51 36.81
Mix3 22.33 35.70
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
CC Mix1 Mix2 Mix3
7days
28 days
Chart-1 Compressive strength graph
6.4 SPLIT TENSILE STRENGTH
It is the standard test to determine the tensile strength of
concrete indirectly. stand. Size of cylinder of concrete
specimen of dia 150mm and length 300mm is placed
horizontally between the loading surfaces of compression
testing machine.
Table -8: Results of Split tensile strength test
Mix Split tensile Strength in N/mm2
7days 28 days
CC 2.06 3.08
Mix1 2.03 2.96
Mix2 2.28 3.34
Mix3 2.09 3.17
Chart 2 - Split tensile strength graph
6.5 FLEXURAL STRENGTH TEST
This test is performed by the center point loading method to
determine the flexural strength of concrete. The size of the
specimen is 100x100x500 mm was utilized.
Table -9: Results of Flexural strength test
Mix
Flexural Strength in N/mm2
7 days 28 days
CC 3.08 4.06
Mix1 3.14 4.13
Mix2 3.45 4.27
Mix3 3.32 4.17
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 09 Issue: 05 | May 2022 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2022, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 968
0
1
2
3
4
5
CC Mix1 Mix2 Mix3
7 days
28 days
Chart 3- Flexural strength graph
7. CONCLUSIONS
 In this research, the fresh property of M30 Grade
concrete that is workability is goneonincreasing by
increase in the curing period.
 From the results, it can be seen that the maximum
compressive strength is obtained at 20%
replacement of laterite soil.
 Addition to laterite to any particular concretemixis
found to reduce its compressive strength. This is
due to fineness of laterite which ultimatelyincrease
the air voids as fine particle at bottom, side and air
voids at the top level do not fill properly.
 In porosity, in red soil mixed concrete, porosity is
higher than plain concrete but the permeability is
low in red soil compared to the plain concrete. Due
to tiny pores in fine soil, it can hold water tighter in
small pores so that it is low in permeability, It
resists the fluid passage. Hence it is impervious.
 Red soil can be used in RCC as well as prestressed
concrete.
 Compressive strength decreaseswithanincreasein
the replacement level of sand.
 Specific gravity of laterite soil and sand is nearly
equal. Hence density remains the same.
 From the results, it can be seen that the maximum
tensile strength is obtained at 20% replacement of
laterite soil.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors can acknowledge any person/authoritiesinthis
section. This is not mandatory.
REFERENCES
[1] Prakash.S, Rajeshkumar.K, Sakthi. S&Shembiang
Marthong, Kumutha &Vijai k., “Feasibility study on
utilization of laterite soil for stabilized earth blocks”,
Research Desk 2013, Jul-Sep (2)3.229-236.
[2] TarhReema, Ajanta Kalita, “Strength characteristics of
red soils blended with fly ash and lime”, International
Journal of Innovative Research in science,Engineering
and Technology, Vol. 4(3), March 2014.
[3] T. Subramani and K.S.Ramesh “Experimental Study on
Partial Replacement of Cement and Fly ash And
Complete Replacement Of sand With M Sand”,
InternationalJournal
[4] M.S. Shetty, Concrete Technology: Theory and Practice
fifth edition
[5] Amar R Dongapura and Shivaraj S Mangalgi “Strengthof
Concrete Using Laterite Sand and Quarry Dust as Fine
Aggregates” International Journal of Engineering
Research and Technology- Volume 3 Issue 12,
December-2014.
[6] L O Ettu, O M Ibearugbulem, “Suitability Of Using
Laterite As Sole Fine Aggregates In Concrete”,
International Journal of Scientific And Engineering
Research, Volume 4, Issue 5, May- 2013.
[7] Joshua, Amusan, “Effects of Partial Replacement of Sand
with Lateritic Soil inSandcreteBlocks”.CovenantJournal
of research in the built environment - Volume 1 No 2
March 2014.
BIOGRAPHIES
Mohammed Zaheer
(UG Student, Department of Civil
Engineering,
ISL Engineering College,
Hyderabad, Telangana)
Mohd Zabiullah Jaseer
(UG Student, Department of Civil
Engineering,
ISL Engineering College,
Hyderabad, Telangana)
Sahil Noushi Sheikh
(UG Student, Department of Civil
Engineering,
ISL Engineering College,
Hyderabad, Telangana)

More Related Content

Similar to Investigation On The Utilization Of Laterite As Replacement Of Fine Aggregate To Develop Ecofriendly Concrete

IRJET- Effect of Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate by Waste Glass Powder ...
IRJET- Effect of Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate by Waste Glass Powder ...IRJET- Effect of Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate by Waste Glass Powder ...
IRJET- Effect of Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate by Waste Glass Powder ...
IRJET Journal
 
A Review Paper of Prepared Mix Design of M25 and M20 Grade of Concrete
A Review Paper of Prepared Mix Design of M25 and M20 Grade of ConcreteA Review Paper of Prepared Mix Design of M25 and M20 Grade of Concrete
A Review Paper of Prepared Mix Design of M25 and M20 Grade of Concrete
IRJET Journal
 
IRJET- Experimental Study on Strength Properties of Laterite Concrete
IRJET- Experimental Study on Strength Properties of Laterite ConcreteIRJET- Experimental Study on Strength Properties of Laterite Concrete
IRJET- Experimental Study on Strength Properties of Laterite Concrete
IRJET Journal
 
TO INVESTIGATE THE STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE MIX HAVING REPLACEMENT OF ...
TO INVESTIGATE THE STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE MIX HAVING REPLACEMENT OF ...TO INVESTIGATE THE STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE MIX HAVING REPLACEMENT OF ...
TO INVESTIGATE THE STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE MIX HAVING REPLACEMENT OF ...
IRJET Journal
 
IRJET - A Review on Influence of Quarry Dust and Metakaolin in Self Compa...
IRJET -  	  A Review on Influence of Quarry Dust and Metakaolin in Self Compa...IRJET -  	  A Review on Influence of Quarry Dust and Metakaolin in Self Compa...
IRJET - A Review on Influence of Quarry Dust and Metakaolin in Self Compa...
IRJET Journal
 
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE BEHAVIOR OF CONCRETE BY PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEME...
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE BEHAVIOR OF CONCRETE BY PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEME...EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE BEHAVIOR OF CONCRETE BY PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEME...
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE BEHAVIOR OF CONCRETE BY PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEME...
IRJET Journal
 
An Experimental Investigation on Partial Replacement of Cement by GGBS & Full...
An Experimental Investigation on Partial Replacement of Cement by GGBS & Full...An Experimental Investigation on Partial Replacement of Cement by GGBS & Full...
An Experimental Investigation on Partial Replacement of Cement by GGBS & Full...
IRJET Journal
 
Iron Ore Slag Dust and Cement Block
Iron Ore Slag Dust and Cement BlockIron Ore Slag Dust and Cement Block
Iron Ore Slag Dust and Cement Block
IRJET Journal
 
IRJET- Experimental Investigation on Concrete with different Waste Stone Aggr...
IRJET- Experimental Investigation on Concrete with different Waste Stone Aggr...IRJET- Experimental Investigation on Concrete with different Waste Stone Aggr...
IRJET- Experimental Investigation on Concrete with different Waste Stone Aggr...
IRJET Journal
 
IRJET- A Review on “Partial Replacement of Cement and Fine Aggregate by Al...
IRJET- 	  A Review on “Partial Replacement of Cement and Fine Aggregate by Al...IRJET- 	  A Review on “Partial Replacement of Cement and Fine Aggregate by Al...
IRJET- A Review on “Partial Replacement of Cement and Fine Aggregate by Al...
IRJET Journal
 
IRJET- Experimental Study on Partial Replacement of Cement with Fly Ash & Fin...
IRJET- Experimental Study on Partial Replacement of Cement with Fly Ash & Fin...IRJET- Experimental Study on Partial Replacement of Cement with Fly Ash & Fin...
IRJET- Experimental Study on Partial Replacement of Cement with Fly Ash & Fin...
IRJET Journal
 
An Experimental Investigation on Self Compacting Concrete with Artificial Fin...
An Experimental Investigation on Self Compacting Concrete with Artificial Fin...An Experimental Investigation on Self Compacting Concrete with Artificial Fin...
An Experimental Investigation on Self Compacting Concrete with Artificial Fin...
IRJET Journal
 
IRJET- Use of Ruby Mica Dust as a Replacing Material in Design Mix Concrete -...
IRJET- Use of Ruby Mica Dust as a Replacing Material in Design Mix Concrete -...IRJET- Use of Ruby Mica Dust as a Replacing Material in Design Mix Concrete -...
IRJET- Use of Ruby Mica Dust as a Replacing Material in Design Mix Concrete -...
IRJET Journal
 
Enhancement in the Physical Properties of Concrete by Partial Replacement of ...
Enhancement in the Physical Properties of Concrete by Partial Replacement of ...Enhancement in the Physical Properties of Concrete by Partial Replacement of ...
Enhancement in the Physical Properties of Concrete by Partial Replacement of ...
IRJET Journal
 
Partial replacement of cement with rejected lime from industry
Partial replacement of cement with rejected lime from industryPartial replacement of cement with rejected lime from industry
Partial replacement of cement with rejected lime from industry
IRJET Journal
 
IRJET- A Review Paper on Experimental Investigation of Crumb Rubber Concrete
IRJET- A Review Paper on Experimental Investigation of Crumb Rubber ConcreteIRJET- A Review Paper on Experimental Investigation of Crumb Rubber Concrete
IRJET- A Review Paper on Experimental Investigation of Crumb Rubber Concrete
IRJET Journal
 
IMPROVEMENT IN PROPERTIES OF POROUS CONCRETE USING FIBER
IMPROVEMENT IN PROPERTIES OF POROUS CONCRETE USING FIBERIMPROVEMENT IN PROPERTIES OF POROUS CONCRETE USING FIBER
IMPROVEMENT IN PROPERTIES OF POROUS CONCRETE USING FIBER
IRJET Journal
 
A STUDY ON ECONOMIC POSSIBILITY OF COCONUT SHELL AGGREGATE CONCRETE
A STUDY ON ECONOMIC POSSIBILITY OF COCONUT SHELL AGGREGATE CONCRETEA STUDY ON ECONOMIC POSSIBILITY OF COCONUT SHELL AGGREGATE CONCRETE
A STUDY ON ECONOMIC POSSIBILITY OF COCONUT SHELL AGGREGATE CONCRETE
IRJET Journal
 
IRJET-Comparative Study of Replacement of Natural Sand to Waste Tiles Sand in...
IRJET-Comparative Study of Replacement of Natural Sand to Waste Tiles Sand in...IRJET-Comparative Study of Replacement of Natural Sand to Waste Tiles Sand in...
IRJET-Comparative Study of Replacement of Natural Sand to Waste Tiles Sand in...
IRJET Journal
 
IRJET- Comparative Study of Replacement of Natural Sand to Waste Tiles Sand i...
IRJET- Comparative Study of Replacement of Natural Sand to Waste Tiles Sand i...IRJET- Comparative Study of Replacement of Natural Sand to Waste Tiles Sand i...
IRJET- Comparative Study of Replacement of Natural Sand to Waste Tiles Sand i...
IRJET Journal
 

Similar to Investigation On The Utilization Of Laterite As Replacement Of Fine Aggregate To Develop Ecofriendly Concrete (20)

IRJET- Effect of Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate by Waste Glass Powder ...
IRJET- Effect of Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate by Waste Glass Powder ...IRJET- Effect of Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate by Waste Glass Powder ...
IRJET- Effect of Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate by Waste Glass Powder ...
 
A Review Paper of Prepared Mix Design of M25 and M20 Grade of Concrete
A Review Paper of Prepared Mix Design of M25 and M20 Grade of ConcreteA Review Paper of Prepared Mix Design of M25 and M20 Grade of Concrete
A Review Paper of Prepared Mix Design of M25 and M20 Grade of Concrete
 
IRJET- Experimental Study on Strength Properties of Laterite Concrete
IRJET- Experimental Study on Strength Properties of Laterite ConcreteIRJET- Experimental Study on Strength Properties of Laterite Concrete
IRJET- Experimental Study on Strength Properties of Laterite Concrete
 
TO INVESTIGATE THE STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE MIX HAVING REPLACEMENT OF ...
TO INVESTIGATE THE STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE MIX HAVING REPLACEMENT OF ...TO INVESTIGATE THE STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE MIX HAVING REPLACEMENT OF ...
TO INVESTIGATE THE STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE MIX HAVING REPLACEMENT OF ...
 
IRJET - A Review on Influence of Quarry Dust and Metakaolin in Self Compa...
IRJET -  	  A Review on Influence of Quarry Dust and Metakaolin in Self Compa...IRJET -  	  A Review on Influence of Quarry Dust and Metakaolin in Self Compa...
IRJET - A Review on Influence of Quarry Dust and Metakaolin in Self Compa...
 
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE BEHAVIOR OF CONCRETE BY PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEME...
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE BEHAVIOR OF CONCRETE BY PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEME...EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE BEHAVIOR OF CONCRETE BY PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEME...
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE BEHAVIOR OF CONCRETE BY PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEME...
 
An Experimental Investigation on Partial Replacement of Cement by GGBS & Full...
An Experimental Investigation on Partial Replacement of Cement by GGBS & Full...An Experimental Investigation on Partial Replacement of Cement by GGBS & Full...
An Experimental Investigation on Partial Replacement of Cement by GGBS & Full...
 
Iron Ore Slag Dust and Cement Block
Iron Ore Slag Dust and Cement BlockIron Ore Slag Dust and Cement Block
Iron Ore Slag Dust and Cement Block
 
IRJET- Experimental Investigation on Concrete with different Waste Stone Aggr...
IRJET- Experimental Investigation on Concrete with different Waste Stone Aggr...IRJET- Experimental Investigation on Concrete with different Waste Stone Aggr...
IRJET- Experimental Investigation on Concrete with different Waste Stone Aggr...
 
IRJET- A Review on “Partial Replacement of Cement and Fine Aggregate by Al...
IRJET- 	  A Review on “Partial Replacement of Cement and Fine Aggregate by Al...IRJET- 	  A Review on “Partial Replacement of Cement and Fine Aggregate by Al...
IRJET- A Review on “Partial Replacement of Cement and Fine Aggregate by Al...
 
IRJET- Experimental Study on Partial Replacement of Cement with Fly Ash & Fin...
IRJET- Experimental Study on Partial Replacement of Cement with Fly Ash & Fin...IRJET- Experimental Study on Partial Replacement of Cement with Fly Ash & Fin...
IRJET- Experimental Study on Partial Replacement of Cement with Fly Ash & Fin...
 
An Experimental Investigation on Self Compacting Concrete with Artificial Fin...
An Experimental Investigation on Self Compacting Concrete with Artificial Fin...An Experimental Investigation on Self Compacting Concrete with Artificial Fin...
An Experimental Investigation on Self Compacting Concrete with Artificial Fin...
 
IRJET- Use of Ruby Mica Dust as a Replacing Material in Design Mix Concrete -...
IRJET- Use of Ruby Mica Dust as a Replacing Material in Design Mix Concrete -...IRJET- Use of Ruby Mica Dust as a Replacing Material in Design Mix Concrete -...
IRJET- Use of Ruby Mica Dust as a Replacing Material in Design Mix Concrete -...
 
Enhancement in the Physical Properties of Concrete by Partial Replacement of ...
Enhancement in the Physical Properties of Concrete by Partial Replacement of ...Enhancement in the Physical Properties of Concrete by Partial Replacement of ...
Enhancement in the Physical Properties of Concrete by Partial Replacement of ...
 
Partial replacement of cement with rejected lime from industry
Partial replacement of cement with rejected lime from industryPartial replacement of cement with rejected lime from industry
Partial replacement of cement with rejected lime from industry
 
IRJET- A Review Paper on Experimental Investigation of Crumb Rubber Concrete
IRJET- A Review Paper on Experimental Investigation of Crumb Rubber ConcreteIRJET- A Review Paper on Experimental Investigation of Crumb Rubber Concrete
IRJET- A Review Paper on Experimental Investigation of Crumb Rubber Concrete
 
IMPROVEMENT IN PROPERTIES OF POROUS CONCRETE USING FIBER
IMPROVEMENT IN PROPERTIES OF POROUS CONCRETE USING FIBERIMPROVEMENT IN PROPERTIES OF POROUS CONCRETE USING FIBER
IMPROVEMENT IN PROPERTIES OF POROUS CONCRETE USING FIBER
 
A STUDY ON ECONOMIC POSSIBILITY OF COCONUT SHELL AGGREGATE CONCRETE
A STUDY ON ECONOMIC POSSIBILITY OF COCONUT SHELL AGGREGATE CONCRETEA STUDY ON ECONOMIC POSSIBILITY OF COCONUT SHELL AGGREGATE CONCRETE
A STUDY ON ECONOMIC POSSIBILITY OF COCONUT SHELL AGGREGATE CONCRETE
 
IRJET-Comparative Study of Replacement of Natural Sand to Waste Tiles Sand in...
IRJET-Comparative Study of Replacement of Natural Sand to Waste Tiles Sand in...IRJET-Comparative Study of Replacement of Natural Sand to Waste Tiles Sand in...
IRJET-Comparative Study of Replacement of Natural Sand to Waste Tiles Sand in...
 
IRJET- Comparative Study of Replacement of Natural Sand to Waste Tiles Sand i...
IRJET- Comparative Study of Replacement of Natural Sand to Waste Tiles Sand i...IRJET- Comparative Study of Replacement of Natural Sand to Waste Tiles Sand i...
IRJET- Comparative Study of Replacement of Natural Sand to Waste Tiles Sand i...
 

More from IRJET Journal

TUNNELING IN HIMALAYAS WITH NATM METHOD: A SPECIAL REFERENCES TO SUNGAL TUNNE...
TUNNELING IN HIMALAYAS WITH NATM METHOD: A SPECIAL REFERENCES TO SUNGAL TUNNE...TUNNELING IN HIMALAYAS WITH NATM METHOD: A SPECIAL REFERENCES TO SUNGAL TUNNE...
TUNNELING IN HIMALAYAS WITH NATM METHOD: A SPECIAL REFERENCES TO SUNGAL TUNNE...
IRJET Journal
 
STUDY THE EFFECT OF RESPONSE REDUCTION FACTOR ON RC FRAMED STRUCTURE
STUDY THE EFFECT OF RESPONSE REDUCTION FACTOR ON RC FRAMED STRUCTURESTUDY THE EFFECT OF RESPONSE REDUCTION FACTOR ON RC FRAMED STRUCTURE
STUDY THE EFFECT OF RESPONSE REDUCTION FACTOR ON RC FRAMED STRUCTURE
IRJET Journal
 
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RCC ELEMENT OF SLAB WITH STARK STEEL (HYSD STEEL) A...
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RCC ELEMENT OF SLAB WITH STARK STEEL (HYSD STEEL) A...A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RCC ELEMENT OF SLAB WITH STARK STEEL (HYSD STEEL) A...
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RCC ELEMENT OF SLAB WITH STARK STEEL (HYSD STEEL) A...
IRJET Journal
 
Effect of Camber and Angles of Attack on Airfoil Characteristics
Effect of Camber and Angles of Attack on Airfoil CharacteristicsEffect of Camber and Angles of Attack on Airfoil Characteristics
Effect of Camber and Angles of Attack on Airfoil Characteristics
IRJET Journal
 
A Review on the Progress and Challenges of Aluminum-Based Metal Matrix Compos...
A Review on the Progress and Challenges of Aluminum-Based Metal Matrix Compos...A Review on the Progress and Challenges of Aluminum-Based Metal Matrix Compos...
A Review on the Progress and Challenges of Aluminum-Based Metal Matrix Compos...
IRJET Journal
 
Dynamic Urban Transit Optimization: A Graph Neural Network Approach for Real-...
Dynamic Urban Transit Optimization: A Graph Neural Network Approach for Real-...Dynamic Urban Transit Optimization: A Graph Neural Network Approach for Real-...
Dynamic Urban Transit Optimization: A Graph Neural Network Approach for Real-...
IRJET Journal
 
Structural Analysis and Design of Multi-Storey Symmetric and Asymmetric Shape...
Structural Analysis and Design of Multi-Storey Symmetric and Asymmetric Shape...Structural Analysis and Design of Multi-Storey Symmetric and Asymmetric Shape...
Structural Analysis and Design of Multi-Storey Symmetric and Asymmetric Shape...
IRJET Journal
 
A Review of “Seismic Response of RC Structures Having Plan and Vertical Irreg...
A Review of “Seismic Response of RC Structures Having Plan and Vertical Irreg...A Review of “Seismic Response of RC Structures Having Plan and Vertical Irreg...
A Review of “Seismic Response of RC Structures Having Plan and Vertical Irreg...
IRJET Journal
 
A REVIEW ON MACHINE LEARNING IN ADAS
A REVIEW ON MACHINE LEARNING IN ADASA REVIEW ON MACHINE LEARNING IN ADAS
A REVIEW ON MACHINE LEARNING IN ADAS
IRJET Journal
 
Long Term Trend Analysis of Precipitation and Temperature for Asosa district,...
Long Term Trend Analysis of Precipitation and Temperature for Asosa district,...Long Term Trend Analysis of Precipitation and Temperature for Asosa district,...
Long Term Trend Analysis of Precipitation and Temperature for Asosa district,...
IRJET Journal
 
P.E.B. Framed Structure Design and Analysis Using STAAD Pro
P.E.B. Framed Structure Design and Analysis Using STAAD ProP.E.B. Framed Structure Design and Analysis Using STAAD Pro
P.E.B. Framed Structure Design and Analysis Using STAAD Pro
IRJET Journal
 
A Review on Innovative Fiber Integration for Enhanced Reinforcement of Concre...
A Review on Innovative Fiber Integration for Enhanced Reinforcement of Concre...A Review on Innovative Fiber Integration for Enhanced Reinforcement of Concre...
A Review on Innovative Fiber Integration for Enhanced Reinforcement of Concre...
IRJET Journal
 
Survey Paper on Cloud-Based Secured Healthcare System
Survey Paper on Cloud-Based Secured Healthcare SystemSurvey Paper on Cloud-Based Secured Healthcare System
Survey Paper on Cloud-Based Secured Healthcare System
IRJET Journal
 
Review on studies and research on widening of existing concrete bridges
Review on studies and research on widening of existing concrete bridgesReview on studies and research on widening of existing concrete bridges
Review on studies and research on widening of existing concrete bridges
IRJET Journal
 
React based fullstack edtech web application
React based fullstack edtech web applicationReact based fullstack edtech web application
React based fullstack edtech web application
IRJET Journal
 
A Comprehensive Review of Integrating IoT and Blockchain Technologies in the ...
A Comprehensive Review of Integrating IoT and Blockchain Technologies in the ...A Comprehensive Review of Integrating IoT and Blockchain Technologies in the ...
A Comprehensive Review of Integrating IoT and Blockchain Technologies in the ...
IRJET Journal
 
A REVIEW ON THE PERFORMANCE OF COCONUT FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE.
A REVIEW ON THE PERFORMANCE OF COCONUT FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE.A REVIEW ON THE PERFORMANCE OF COCONUT FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE.
A REVIEW ON THE PERFORMANCE OF COCONUT FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE.
IRJET Journal
 
Optimizing Business Management Process Workflows: The Dynamic Influence of Mi...
Optimizing Business Management Process Workflows: The Dynamic Influence of Mi...Optimizing Business Management Process Workflows: The Dynamic Influence of Mi...
Optimizing Business Management Process Workflows: The Dynamic Influence of Mi...
IRJET Journal
 
Multistoried and Multi Bay Steel Building Frame by using Seismic Design
Multistoried and Multi Bay Steel Building Frame by using Seismic DesignMultistoried and Multi Bay Steel Building Frame by using Seismic Design
Multistoried and Multi Bay Steel Building Frame by using Seismic Design
IRJET Journal
 
Cost Optimization of Construction Using Plastic Waste as a Sustainable Constr...
Cost Optimization of Construction Using Plastic Waste as a Sustainable Constr...Cost Optimization of Construction Using Plastic Waste as a Sustainable Constr...
Cost Optimization of Construction Using Plastic Waste as a Sustainable Constr...
IRJET Journal
 

More from IRJET Journal (20)

TUNNELING IN HIMALAYAS WITH NATM METHOD: A SPECIAL REFERENCES TO SUNGAL TUNNE...
TUNNELING IN HIMALAYAS WITH NATM METHOD: A SPECIAL REFERENCES TO SUNGAL TUNNE...TUNNELING IN HIMALAYAS WITH NATM METHOD: A SPECIAL REFERENCES TO SUNGAL TUNNE...
TUNNELING IN HIMALAYAS WITH NATM METHOD: A SPECIAL REFERENCES TO SUNGAL TUNNE...
 
STUDY THE EFFECT OF RESPONSE REDUCTION FACTOR ON RC FRAMED STRUCTURE
STUDY THE EFFECT OF RESPONSE REDUCTION FACTOR ON RC FRAMED STRUCTURESTUDY THE EFFECT OF RESPONSE REDUCTION FACTOR ON RC FRAMED STRUCTURE
STUDY THE EFFECT OF RESPONSE REDUCTION FACTOR ON RC FRAMED STRUCTURE
 
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RCC ELEMENT OF SLAB WITH STARK STEEL (HYSD STEEL) A...
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RCC ELEMENT OF SLAB WITH STARK STEEL (HYSD STEEL) A...A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RCC ELEMENT OF SLAB WITH STARK STEEL (HYSD STEEL) A...
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RCC ELEMENT OF SLAB WITH STARK STEEL (HYSD STEEL) A...
 
Effect of Camber and Angles of Attack on Airfoil Characteristics
Effect of Camber and Angles of Attack on Airfoil CharacteristicsEffect of Camber and Angles of Attack on Airfoil Characteristics
Effect of Camber and Angles of Attack on Airfoil Characteristics
 
A Review on the Progress and Challenges of Aluminum-Based Metal Matrix Compos...
A Review on the Progress and Challenges of Aluminum-Based Metal Matrix Compos...A Review on the Progress and Challenges of Aluminum-Based Metal Matrix Compos...
A Review on the Progress and Challenges of Aluminum-Based Metal Matrix Compos...
 
Dynamic Urban Transit Optimization: A Graph Neural Network Approach for Real-...
Dynamic Urban Transit Optimization: A Graph Neural Network Approach for Real-...Dynamic Urban Transit Optimization: A Graph Neural Network Approach for Real-...
Dynamic Urban Transit Optimization: A Graph Neural Network Approach for Real-...
 
Structural Analysis and Design of Multi-Storey Symmetric and Asymmetric Shape...
Structural Analysis and Design of Multi-Storey Symmetric and Asymmetric Shape...Structural Analysis and Design of Multi-Storey Symmetric and Asymmetric Shape...
Structural Analysis and Design of Multi-Storey Symmetric and Asymmetric Shape...
 
A Review of “Seismic Response of RC Structures Having Plan and Vertical Irreg...
A Review of “Seismic Response of RC Structures Having Plan and Vertical Irreg...A Review of “Seismic Response of RC Structures Having Plan and Vertical Irreg...
A Review of “Seismic Response of RC Structures Having Plan and Vertical Irreg...
 
A REVIEW ON MACHINE LEARNING IN ADAS
A REVIEW ON MACHINE LEARNING IN ADASA REVIEW ON MACHINE LEARNING IN ADAS
A REVIEW ON MACHINE LEARNING IN ADAS
 
Long Term Trend Analysis of Precipitation and Temperature for Asosa district,...
Long Term Trend Analysis of Precipitation and Temperature for Asosa district,...Long Term Trend Analysis of Precipitation and Temperature for Asosa district,...
Long Term Trend Analysis of Precipitation and Temperature for Asosa district,...
 
P.E.B. Framed Structure Design and Analysis Using STAAD Pro
P.E.B. Framed Structure Design and Analysis Using STAAD ProP.E.B. Framed Structure Design and Analysis Using STAAD Pro
P.E.B. Framed Structure Design and Analysis Using STAAD Pro
 
A Review on Innovative Fiber Integration for Enhanced Reinforcement of Concre...
A Review on Innovative Fiber Integration for Enhanced Reinforcement of Concre...A Review on Innovative Fiber Integration for Enhanced Reinforcement of Concre...
A Review on Innovative Fiber Integration for Enhanced Reinforcement of Concre...
 
Survey Paper on Cloud-Based Secured Healthcare System
Survey Paper on Cloud-Based Secured Healthcare SystemSurvey Paper on Cloud-Based Secured Healthcare System
Survey Paper on Cloud-Based Secured Healthcare System
 
Review on studies and research on widening of existing concrete bridges
Review on studies and research on widening of existing concrete bridgesReview on studies and research on widening of existing concrete bridges
Review on studies and research on widening of existing concrete bridges
 
React based fullstack edtech web application
React based fullstack edtech web applicationReact based fullstack edtech web application
React based fullstack edtech web application
 
A Comprehensive Review of Integrating IoT and Blockchain Technologies in the ...
A Comprehensive Review of Integrating IoT and Blockchain Technologies in the ...A Comprehensive Review of Integrating IoT and Blockchain Technologies in the ...
A Comprehensive Review of Integrating IoT and Blockchain Technologies in the ...
 
A REVIEW ON THE PERFORMANCE OF COCONUT FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE.
A REVIEW ON THE PERFORMANCE OF COCONUT FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE.A REVIEW ON THE PERFORMANCE OF COCONUT FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE.
A REVIEW ON THE PERFORMANCE OF COCONUT FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE.
 
Optimizing Business Management Process Workflows: The Dynamic Influence of Mi...
Optimizing Business Management Process Workflows: The Dynamic Influence of Mi...Optimizing Business Management Process Workflows: The Dynamic Influence of Mi...
Optimizing Business Management Process Workflows: The Dynamic Influence of Mi...
 
Multistoried and Multi Bay Steel Building Frame by using Seismic Design
Multistoried and Multi Bay Steel Building Frame by using Seismic DesignMultistoried and Multi Bay Steel Building Frame by using Seismic Design
Multistoried and Multi Bay Steel Building Frame by using Seismic Design
 
Cost Optimization of Construction Using Plastic Waste as a Sustainable Constr...
Cost Optimization of Construction Using Plastic Waste as a Sustainable Constr...Cost Optimization of Construction Using Plastic Waste as a Sustainable Constr...
Cost Optimization of Construction Using Plastic Waste as a Sustainable Constr...
 

Recently uploaded

Traffic Engineering-MODULE-1 vtu syllabus.pptx
Traffic Engineering-MODULE-1 vtu syllabus.pptxTraffic Engineering-MODULE-1 vtu syllabus.pptx
Traffic Engineering-MODULE-1 vtu syllabus.pptx
mailmad391
 
CGR-Unit-1 Basics of Computer Graphics.pdf
CGR-Unit-1 Basics of Computer Graphics.pdfCGR-Unit-1 Basics of Computer Graphics.pdf
CGR-Unit-1 Basics of Computer Graphics.pdf
Rugved Collection
 
Online fraud prediction and prevention.pptx
Online fraud prediction and prevention.pptxOnline fraud prediction and prevention.pptx
Online fraud prediction and prevention.pptx
madihasultana209
 
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN RING SPINNING.pptx
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN RING SPINNING.pptxRECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN RING SPINNING.pptx
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN RING SPINNING.pptx
peacesoul123
 
Concepts Basic/ Technical Electronic Material.pdf
Concepts Basic/ Technical Electronic Material.pdfConcepts Basic/ Technical Electronic Material.pdf
Concepts Basic/ Technical Electronic Material.pdf
OBD II
 
Natural Is The Best: Model-Agnostic Code Simplification for Pre-trained Large...
Natural Is The Best: Model-Agnostic Code Simplification for Pre-trained Large...Natural Is The Best: Model-Agnostic Code Simplification for Pre-trained Large...
Natural Is The Best: Model-Agnostic Code Simplification for Pre-trained Large...
YanKing2
 
Vernier Caliper and How to use Vernier Caliper.ppsx
Vernier Caliper and How to use Vernier Caliper.ppsxVernier Caliper and How to use Vernier Caliper.ppsx
Vernier Caliper and How to use Vernier Caliper.ppsx
Tool and Die Tech
 
ARITMETICO.pdf xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
ARITMETICO.pdf  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxARITMETICO.pdf  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
ARITMETICO.pdf xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
alemaro1123
 
printing of ic circuits.pdf
printing       of        ic     circuits.pdfprinting       of        ic     circuits.pdf
printing of ic circuits.pdf
chidambaramnatarajar
 
Quadcopter Dynamics, Stability and Control
Quadcopter Dynamics, Stability and ControlQuadcopter Dynamics, Stability and Control
Quadcopter Dynamics, Stability and Control
Blesson Easo Varghese
 
Top EPC companies in India - Best EPC Contractor
Top EPC companies in India - Best EPC  ContractorTop EPC companies in India - Best EPC  Contractor
Top EPC companies in India - Best EPC Contractor
MangeshK6
 
Adv. Digital Signal Processing LAB MANUAL.pdf
Adv. Digital Signal Processing LAB MANUAL.pdfAdv. Digital Signal Processing LAB MANUAL.pdf
Adv. Digital Signal Processing LAB MANUAL.pdf
T.D. Shashikala
 
21EC63_Module1B.pptx VLSI design 21ec63 MOS TRANSISTOR THEORY
21EC63_Module1B.pptx VLSI design 21ec63 MOS TRANSISTOR THEORY21EC63_Module1B.pptx VLSI design 21ec63 MOS TRANSISTOR THEORY
21EC63_Module1B.pptx VLSI design 21ec63 MOS TRANSISTOR THEORY
PradeepKumarSK3
 
DBMS Commands DDL DML DCL ENTITY RELATIONSHIP.pptx
DBMS Commands  DDL DML DCL ENTITY RELATIONSHIP.pptxDBMS Commands  DDL DML DCL ENTITY RELATIONSHIP.pptx
DBMS Commands DDL DML DCL ENTITY RELATIONSHIP.pptx
Tulasi72
 
SCADAmetrics Instrumentation for Sensus Water Meters - Core and Main Training...
SCADAmetrics Instrumentation for Sensus Water Meters - Core and Main Training...SCADAmetrics Instrumentation for Sensus Water Meters - Core and Main Training...
SCADAmetrics Instrumentation for Sensus Water Meters - Core and Main Training...
Jim Mimlitz, P.E.
 
Thermodynamics Digital Material basics subject
Thermodynamics Digital Material basics subjectThermodynamics Digital Material basics subject
Thermodynamics Digital Material basics subject
JigneshChhatbar1
 
Disaster Management and Mitigation presentation
Disaster Management and Mitigation presentationDisaster Management and Mitigation presentation
Disaster Management and Mitigation presentation
RajaRamannaTarigoppu
 
IE-469-Lecture-Notes-3IE-469-Lecture-Notes-3.pptx
IE-469-Lecture-Notes-3IE-469-Lecture-Notes-3.pptxIE-469-Lecture-Notes-3IE-469-Lecture-Notes-3.pptx
IE-469-Lecture-Notes-3IE-469-Lecture-Notes-3.pptx
BehairyAhmed2
 
EAAP2023 : Durabilité et services écosystémiques de l'élevage ovin de montagne
EAAP2023 : Durabilité et services écosystémiques de l'élevage ovin de montagneEAAP2023 : Durabilité et services écosystémiques de l'élevage ovin de montagne
EAAP2023 : Durabilité et services écosystémiques de l'élevage ovin de montagne
idelewebmestre
 
Ludo system project report management .pdf
Ludo  system project report management .pdfLudo  system project report management .pdf
Ludo system project report management .pdf
Kamal Acharya
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Traffic Engineering-MODULE-1 vtu syllabus.pptx
Traffic Engineering-MODULE-1 vtu syllabus.pptxTraffic Engineering-MODULE-1 vtu syllabus.pptx
Traffic Engineering-MODULE-1 vtu syllabus.pptx
 
CGR-Unit-1 Basics of Computer Graphics.pdf
CGR-Unit-1 Basics of Computer Graphics.pdfCGR-Unit-1 Basics of Computer Graphics.pdf
CGR-Unit-1 Basics of Computer Graphics.pdf
 
Online fraud prediction and prevention.pptx
Online fraud prediction and prevention.pptxOnline fraud prediction and prevention.pptx
Online fraud prediction and prevention.pptx
 
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN RING SPINNING.pptx
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN RING SPINNING.pptxRECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN RING SPINNING.pptx
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN RING SPINNING.pptx
 
Concepts Basic/ Technical Electronic Material.pdf
Concepts Basic/ Technical Electronic Material.pdfConcepts Basic/ Technical Electronic Material.pdf
Concepts Basic/ Technical Electronic Material.pdf
 
Natural Is The Best: Model-Agnostic Code Simplification for Pre-trained Large...
Natural Is The Best: Model-Agnostic Code Simplification for Pre-trained Large...Natural Is The Best: Model-Agnostic Code Simplification for Pre-trained Large...
Natural Is The Best: Model-Agnostic Code Simplification for Pre-trained Large...
 
Vernier Caliper and How to use Vernier Caliper.ppsx
Vernier Caliper and How to use Vernier Caliper.ppsxVernier Caliper and How to use Vernier Caliper.ppsx
Vernier Caliper and How to use Vernier Caliper.ppsx
 
ARITMETICO.pdf xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
ARITMETICO.pdf  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxARITMETICO.pdf  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
ARITMETICO.pdf xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
 
printing of ic circuits.pdf
printing       of        ic     circuits.pdfprinting       of        ic     circuits.pdf
printing of ic circuits.pdf
 
Quadcopter Dynamics, Stability and Control
Quadcopter Dynamics, Stability and ControlQuadcopter Dynamics, Stability and Control
Quadcopter Dynamics, Stability and Control
 
Top EPC companies in India - Best EPC Contractor
Top EPC companies in India - Best EPC  ContractorTop EPC companies in India - Best EPC  Contractor
Top EPC companies in India - Best EPC Contractor
 
Adv. Digital Signal Processing LAB MANUAL.pdf
Adv. Digital Signal Processing LAB MANUAL.pdfAdv. Digital Signal Processing LAB MANUAL.pdf
Adv. Digital Signal Processing LAB MANUAL.pdf
 
21EC63_Module1B.pptx VLSI design 21ec63 MOS TRANSISTOR THEORY
21EC63_Module1B.pptx VLSI design 21ec63 MOS TRANSISTOR THEORY21EC63_Module1B.pptx VLSI design 21ec63 MOS TRANSISTOR THEORY
21EC63_Module1B.pptx VLSI design 21ec63 MOS TRANSISTOR THEORY
 
DBMS Commands DDL DML DCL ENTITY RELATIONSHIP.pptx
DBMS Commands  DDL DML DCL ENTITY RELATIONSHIP.pptxDBMS Commands  DDL DML DCL ENTITY RELATIONSHIP.pptx
DBMS Commands DDL DML DCL ENTITY RELATIONSHIP.pptx
 
SCADAmetrics Instrumentation for Sensus Water Meters - Core and Main Training...
SCADAmetrics Instrumentation for Sensus Water Meters - Core and Main Training...SCADAmetrics Instrumentation for Sensus Water Meters - Core and Main Training...
SCADAmetrics Instrumentation for Sensus Water Meters - Core and Main Training...
 
Thermodynamics Digital Material basics subject
Thermodynamics Digital Material basics subjectThermodynamics Digital Material basics subject
Thermodynamics Digital Material basics subject
 
Disaster Management and Mitigation presentation
Disaster Management and Mitigation presentationDisaster Management and Mitigation presentation
Disaster Management and Mitigation presentation
 
IE-469-Lecture-Notes-3IE-469-Lecture-Notes-3.pptx
IE-469-Lecture-Notes-3IE-469-Lecture-Notes-3.pptxIE-469-Lecture-Notes-3IE-469-Lecture-Notes-3.pptx
IE-469-Lecture-Notes-3IE-469-Lecture-Notes-3.pptx
 
EAAP2023 : Durabilité et services écosystémiques de l'élevage ovin de montagne
EAAP2023 : Durabilité et services écosystémiques de l'élevage ovin de montagneEAAP2023 : Durabilité et services écosystémiques de l'élevage ovin de montagne
EAAP2023 : Durabilité et services écosystémiques de l'élevage ovin de montagne
 
Ludo system project report management .pdf
Ludo  system project report management .pdfLudo  system project report management .pdf
Ludo system project report management .pdf
 

Investigation On The Utilization Of Laterite As Replacement Of Fine Aggregate To Develop Ecofriendly Concrete

  • 1. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 09 Issue: 05 | May 2022 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2022, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 963 Investigation On The Utilization Of Laterite As Replacement Of Fine Aggregate To Develop Ecofriendly Concrete Mohammed Zaheer1, Mohd Zabiullah Jaseer2, Sahil Noushi Sheikh3, K. Sri Charan4 1, 2, 3 UG Students, Department of Civil Engineering 4 Asst Professor of Civil Engineering ISL Engineering College, Hyderabad, Telangana ---------------------------------------------------------------------***--------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract - Availability of river sand is becoming scarce, due to rapid increase in infrastructure projects in India. Acute shortage of river sand, has led to indiscriminate sand mining. Adverse effect of sand mining includesriver bankerosion, river bed degradation, loss of biodiversity and deteriorationofriver water quality and ground water availability. To address the above issues, research efforts are on, to find substitutes for river sand to be used as fine aggregate in mortars and concretes. One among the locally available resources is laterite. Laterite is a product of tropical or sub-tropical weathering, which is an abundant soil material in many parts of India. An attempt has been made to characterize the processing technique to obtain good quality lateritic fine aggregates (lateritic FA). Experiments were designed and conducted to study the performance of lateritic FA as replacement to river sand, in cement mortars and concretes. The river deposits are the most common source of fine aggregate. So there are great demands within the construction industries for riversandasfineaggregateusedin the production of concrete. This has created a very difficult situation, also there is great fear from environmentalist and the ecology will be distorted. Hence, the need to find the materials which are affordable and available partially or totally replaced river sand in the production of concrete. Hence we are forced to think the alternative materials. This report aims to present the study done to establish scientific data regarding the compressive strength, tensile strength and flexural strength of concrete on partial replacement of fine aggregate with laterite soil in concrete mix of M-30 grade. The sand shall be replaced gradually inthe mentioned grade of concrete by 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% with laterite soil and the specimen shall be tested at curing intervals of 3days, 7days, and 28days. For compressive strength and at curing interval of 3 days, 7 days, and 28 days for tensile strength as well as for flexural strength. Key Words: Laterite soil, steel fibers, super plasticizer (conplast Sp-430) 1. INTRODUCTION Visual observation of the laterite material showsthatthe variation of sand is much sharper than those considered in previous works. This is confirmed by the preliminary assessment of its particle size distributions. There is, therefore, every reason to believe that this lateritic sand can be used in structural concrete production. The particle sizes of aggregates are known to affect the strength properties of concrete greatly. In related developments, substantial quantities of lateritic soil are found in heaps around the low as a replacement material in concreting operations. The focus of a good national development is to look inward with the intent to mobilize all-natural resources for economics purposes. One of the policy thrusts of the present government is to provide affordable housing for the people. Compressive strength is arguably the most widely used strength parameter for concrete. This may be due to the nature of concrete, being strong in compression andweak in tension. The use of lateritic as a partial sand replacer can help achieve this purpose and impact positively in reducing the cost of building materials. This study aims to proper documentation of the material to support their specification in design and construction. 2. OBJECTIVES  The objective of this study is to determine the strength of concrete by partially replacing river sand with laterite sand at 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% and curing they concrete for 3days, 7days, and 28 days for compressive strength, tensile strength as well as for flexural strength.  Preparing the normal concrete by utilizing normal quality river bedded sand of Krishan river and ascertaining its strength via methods prescribed by applicable IS Codes of testing  Comparing the strength development of concrete and ascertaining the feasibility of using laterite soil concerning practically and economy of the study.  To conclude the effect of lateralized concrete concerning its adaption to normal mixes for equivalent gain of strength and economy of the mix so created.
  • 2. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 09 Issue: 05 | May 2022 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2022, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 964 3. LITERATURE REVIEW J. Santhiyaa Jenifer & S. Ramasundarm (2015) Studied the physical properties of laterite namely specific gravity, particle size distribution and density. An attempt was made to use of laterite as a fine aggregate in concrete. Thequantity of laterite varies from 0% to 100% at interval of 25% in this study. The 1:1.5:3 mix of concrete is used for determining the mechanical strength and durability characteristics. The density of laterite mixed concrete increases when percentage of laterite increases. The results of laterite sand mixed concrete are comparedwithconventional concrete.At 50 percentage replacementofsandbylateritesandproduces high compressive strength. The tensile and flexural strength increases when the percentage of laterite sand increases. Biju Mathew, Benny Joseph & C Freeda Christy The natural M- Sand was replaced with laterite at the rate of 10%, 20% and 30 % by weight for design mix of M25 controlled concrete. A total of 36 specimens prepared to determine the cube compressive strength, and flexural strength. From the studies, addition of laterite reduces workability in concrete. Compressive strength decrees with increasesin%oflaterite replacement with sand. The flexural strength has only slight variation with controlled concrete. Laterite of 20 % by weight of sand content has shown the best results, thus indicating possibility of using laterite as a partial replacement. Prof. Vishal S. & Pranita S.Bhandari (2013) Here an attempt is made to partially replace Portland cement by silica fume. The main objective of this research work was to determine the optimum replacement percentages of silica fume. To fulfill the objective variouspropertiesofconcreteusingsilica fume have been evaluated. Further to determine the optimum replacement percentage comparison between the regular concrete and concrete containing silica fume isdone .It has been seen that when cement is replaced bysilica fume compressive strength increases up to certain percentage (10% replacement of cement by silica fume).But higher replacement of cement by silica fume gives lower strength Debabrata Pradhan & D. Dutta (2013) The main objective of this paper has been made to investigate the different mechanical properties like compressive strength, compacting factor, slump of concrete incorporating silica fume. The experimentswere carriedoutbyreplacingcement with different percentages of silica fume at a single constant water-cementitious materialsratiokeepingothermixdesign variables constant. The silica fume was replaced by 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%forwatercementitiousmaterials(w/cm) ratio for 0.40. For all mixes compressive strengths were determined at 24 hours, 7 and 28 days for 100 mm and 150 mm cubes. Other properties like compacting factor and slump were also determined for five mixes of concrete. The optimum percentage of replacement of silica fume is obtained was 10%. Concrete is so closely related with every construction activity that it touches every human being in his day to day living. It is an artificial compound generally made by mixing of binding material (cement), fine aggregates, coarse aggregates, water and admixtures in suitable proportions. Concrete does not solidify from drying after mixing and placement; the water reacts with the cement in a chemical process known as hydration. In India the annual consumption of cement is in the order of approximately 22 million tons. Concrete is a site-made material unlike other materials of construction and as such can vary to a very great extent in is quality, properties and performancedue to the use of natural materials except cement. From materials of varying properties, to make concrete of stipulated qualities, an intimate knowledgeoftheinteractionofvarious ingredients that go into the making of concreteisrequiredto be known, both in the fresh and hardened conditions. This knowledge is necessary for concrete technologistsaswell as for site engineers. The increased demandfortheusageofthe huge quantity of concrete leads to increase in costofbinding material (cement) and depletion of natural sources of fine aggregate which in turn increase s cost of concrete. Due to above cause alternative materialsarerequired topartiallyor fully replacements for Portland cement or fine aggregate or coarse aggregate in the concrete mixture to continue the constructionwork,withoutchangingthepreviousproperties of the concrete like strength, workability and durability. It has been observed that based on the availability of laterite,a fine aggregate, and laterite could either partially or fully replace sand as fine aggregate. The criterion for concrete strength requirement is always based on the characteristics compressive strength obtained after 28- day curing. There are large number of investigation was carried out throughout the world for replacing natural sand with alternative material such as manufactured sand. The study on replacement of natural sand with laterite is negligibly small. Olubisi A. Ige(2013) describes the compressive strength of laterizedmortarwithlaterite-fineaggregateratio variation decreases when subjected to alternatewetting and drying and increaseswhensubjectedto magnesiumsulphate (Mg2SO4). It was also discovered that a laterized cement motar with a laterite-fineaggregateratioof20%conditioned to a temperature range of 1000C attained optimum compressive strength 4. MATERIALS AND MIX PROPORTION 4.1 MATERIALS Cement: In this research work, 53 grades Ordinary Portland Cement is used for all concreting purposes. Free from lumps. That was good in color. The tests on cement were done as per standard codal provisions. The physical properties are shown below.
  • 3. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 09 Issue: 05 | May 2022 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2022, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 965 Table -1: Physical properties of cement Properties Results of Conducted Tests Fineness 8% Specific Gravity 3.03 Normal consistency 33% Initial setting time 46min Final setting time 400min Fine aggregates (FA): For this investigation, fine aggregates are locally available good quality Shahpur sand. Passing through 4.75mm sieve, it is found under zone II.The physical properties are as shown below. Table -2: Physical property of fine aggregate Properties Results of test conducted Sp. Gravity 2.65 Fineness Modulus 3.27 Water absorption 0.9 Coarse aggregates (CA): The aggregate size more than 4.75mm they are called as coarse aggregates. In this exploration work, 20mm down size aggregates are utilized. Table -3: Physical properties of Coarse aggregate Properties Results of test conducted Specific Gravity 2.68 B.density(kg/m3) 2086 Water absorption 0.5 Water: The water is used in concrete plays an important part in the mixing, laying compaction setting and hardening of concrete. The strength of concretedirectlydependsonthe quality and quantity of water is used in the mix. Laterite soil: Chemical composition of laterite soil/gravel varies widely based on genesis, climate conditions, and age of laterization. Lateritic soil contains more than 60% Fe2O3 and little of Al2O3. The chemical analysis of Indian soils shows that soils rich in iron and aluminum but poor in nitrogen, potassium, lime and organic matter. The specific gravity of laterite soil is done according to Is codes. Is found to be 2.44 Fig -1: Laterite soil Fibers: Double-end hooked steel fibers with anaspectratio of 50, length 5cm and diameter 1mm were used in this research work Methodology Fig -2: Steel fibers used in the project Super plasticizer: In this research work conplastSP-430 is used as a super plasticizer. 1% of cementitious material will be the dosage of super plasticizer.
  • 4. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 09 Issue: 05 | May 2022 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2022, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 966 Fig -3: Super Plasticizer used in the project 4.2 MIX DESIGN According to IS: 10262-2009 mix design was done for the purpose of concrete casting of various mixes with the help of all the above preliminary investigation test outcomes. The mix design was done for M30 grade. From the mixdesign,the conventional trial mix was preparedandithavingmixratiois 1:1.92:2.76 and the w/c of 0.40. Table -4: Mix Proportion of concrete Material Quantity(kg/m3) Proportion Cement 425.5 1 F.A 664.92 1.56 C.A 1130.6 2.66 Water 191.5 0.45 Chemical admixture 4.5 1% 5. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM 5.1 GENERAL In this research work total 84 cubes, 63 cylinders, 63 prisms are cast and tested at 3, 7 & 28 days respectively. For finding out the mechanical properties as well as permanence properties of the concrete. Table -5: Mix Proportion were involved in this project 5.2 MIXING AND CASTING The mixture of all materials was hand-made by mixing on a steel plate. Cement, Laterite soil, F.A, C.A, and fibers are thoroughly mixed beforeaddingwater.Afterdrymixingthen the water, curing agent and super plasticizer are added and then mixed until a treatable concrete mixture is obtained. Then oil the internal surface of molds, they are filled by concrete and compaction is done by stuffing rod. Fig -4: Mixing and casting 6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 6.1 COMPACTION FACTOR TESt Workability gives an idea of the capability of being workability. That workability of concrete can be found out by the compaction factor test. 6.2 SLUMP CONE TEST Slump test was conducted to determine the workability Cement kg/m3 % Laterite Fine Aggregate Coarse Aggregate sand Laterite 425.5 0% 664.92 0 1130.6 425.5 10% 597.6 66.4 1130.6 425.5 20% 532.12 132.8 1130.6 425.5 30% 464.8 199.2 1130.6
  • 5. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 09 Issue: 05 | May 2022 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2022, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 967 Table -6: Results of compaction factor and slump cone test MIX Compaction factor Slump (mm) M0 0.85 75 M10 0.90 60 M20 0.92 55 M30 0.95 52 6.3 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH This is one of the essential properties of the concrete. Alternate properties of concrete have an unmistakable association with compressive strength. On the off chance that the compressive strengthofconcreteisenhancedatthat point there is change in different properties of concrete, in this manner compressive strength of the concrete is basic test. Cube of size 150X150X150mm is cast according to different mix proportions of this research work. after curing for the number of days these cubes are tested in a compressive machine, to get a desired compressivestrength for different days of curing. Table -7: Results of Compressive strength test Mix Compressive Strength in N/mm2 7days 28 days CC 21.96 34.50 Mix1 22.37 34.73 Mix2 24.51 36.81 Mix3 22.33 35.70 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 CC Mix1 Mix2 Mix3 7days 28 days Chart-1 Compressive strength graph 6.4 SPLIT TENSILE STRENGTH It is the standard test to determine the tensile strength of concrete indirectly. stand. Size of cylinder of concrete specimen of dia 150mm and length 300mm is placed horizontally between the loading surfaces of compression testing machine. Table -8: Results of Split tensile strength test Mix Split tensile Strength in N/mm2 7days 28 days CC 2.06 3.08 Mix1 2.03 2.96 Mix2 2.28 3.34 Mix3 2.09 3.17 Chart 2 - Split tensile strength graph 6.5 FLEXURAL STRENGTH TEST This test is performed by the center point loading method to determine the flexural strength of concrete. The size of the specimen is 100x100x500 mm was utilized. Table -9: Results of Flexural strength test Mix Flexural Strength in N/mm2 7 days 28 days CC 3.08 4.06 Mix1 3.14 4.13 Mix2 3.45 4.27 Mix3 3.32 4.17
  • 6. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 09 Issue: 05 | May 2022 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2022, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 968 0 1 2 3 4 5 CC Mix1 Mix2 Mix3 7 days 28 days Chart 3- Flexural strength graph 7. CONCLUSIONS  In this research, the fresh property of M30 Grade concrete that is workability is goneonincreasing by increase in the curing period.  From the results, it can be seen that the maximum compressive strength is obtained at 20% replacement of laterite soil.  Addition to laterite to any particular concretemixis found to reduce its compressive strength. This is due to fineness of laterite which ultimatelyincrease the air voids as fine particle at bottom, side and air voids at the top level do not fill properly.  In porosity, in red soil mixed concrete, porosity is higher than plain concrete but the permeability is low in red soil compared to the plain concrete. Due to tiny pores in fine soil, it can hold water tighter in small pores so that it is low in permeability, It resists the fluid passage. Hence it is impervious.  Red soil can be used in RCC as well as prestressed concrete.  Compressive strength decreaseswithanincreasein the replacement level of sand.  Specific gravity of laterite soil and sand is nearly equal. Hence density remains the same.  From the results, it can be seen that the maximum tensile strength is obtained at 20% replacement of laterite soil. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors can acknowledge any person/authoritiesinthis section. This is not mandatory. REFERENCES [1] Prakash.S, Rajeshkumar.K, Sakthi. S&Shembiang Marthong, Kumutha &Vijai k., “Feasibility study on utilization of laterite soil for stabilized earth blocks”, Research Desk 2013, Jul-Sep (2)3.229-236. [2] TarhReema, Ajanta Kalita, “Strength characteristics of red soils blended with fly ash and lime”, International Journal of Innovative Research in science,Engineering and Technology, Vol. 4(3), March 2014. [3] T. Subramani and K.S.Ramesh “Experimental Study on Partial Replacement of Cement and Fly ash And Complete Replacement Of sand With M Sand”, InternationalJournal [4] M.S. Shetty, Concrete Technology: Theory and Practice fifth edition [5] Amar R Dongapura and Shivaraj S Mangalgi “Strengthof Concrete Using Laterite Sand and Quarry Dust as Fine Aggregates” International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology- Volume 3 Issue 12, December-2014. [6] L O Ettu, O M Ibearugbulem, “Suitability Of Using Laterite As Sole Fine Aggregates In Concrete”, International Journal of Scientific And Engineering Research, Volume 4, Issue 5, May- 2013. [7] Joshua, Amusan, “Effects of Partial Replacement of Sand with Lateritic Soil inSandcreteBlocks”.CovenantJournal of research in the built environment - Volume 1 No 2 March 2014. BIOGRAPHIES Mohammed Zaheer (UG Student, Department of Civil Engineering, ISL Engineering College, Hyderabad, Telangana) Mohd Zabiullah Jaseer (UG Student, Department of Civil Engineering, ISL Engineering College, Hyderabad, Telangana) Sahil Noushi Sheikh (UG Student, Department of Civil Engineering, ISL Engineering College, Hyderabad, Telangana)