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Introduction To
Flowcharting
Today’s Topics
• Flowchart Symbols
• Structures
•Sequence
•Selection
•Repetition
Flowchart:
Represents an algorithm
in graphical symbols
Terminal: Used to indicates the start and
end of a flowchart. Single flow line. Only
one “Start” and “Stop” terminal for each
program. The end terminal for
function/subroutine must use “Return”
instead of “Stop”.
Process: Used whenever data is being
manipulated. One flow line enters and
one flow line exits.
Input/Output: Used whenever data is
entered (input) or displayed (output).
One flow line enters and one flow line
exits.
Flowchart Symbols
Decision: Used to represent operations in which
there are two possible selections. One flow line
enters and two flow lines (labeled as “Yes” and
“No”) exit.
Function / Subroutine: Used to identify an
operation in a separate flowchart segment
(module). One flow line enters and one flow line
exits.
On-page Connector: Used to connect remote
flowchart portion on the same page. One flow line
enters and one flow line exits.
Off-page Connector: Used to connect remote
flowchart portion on different pages. One flow
line enters and one flow line exits.
Comment: Used to add descriptions or
clarification.
Flow line: Used to indicate the direction of flow of
control.
Flowchart Symbols
Comments or description
Start
Read N,
M
No
Yes
Stop
N = The number of students
M = The number of subjects
Connectors on the same page
Start
2
1
1 2
Stop
1- connection on the same
flowchart portion
2- connection on the different
flowchart portion
Connectors on a different page
Page 1 Page 2
Start
No
1
Yes 1
2
Stop
2
Function
Page 1
AVRG (result, n1, n2,n3)
Start
Stop
Read
n1, n2 , n3
Print
result
Page 2
AVRG ( result,n1, n2,n3)
Return
sum = n1+ n2+n3
result = sum/3
End terminal
must be a “Return”
Start terminal for a
Function is different.
Do not use “Start”
The detail of how the function works
is put in another flowchart.
This is known as Function-Definition
At this point,
we only focus on what
to do. How to do it,
it comes later.
This part is known as
Function-Call
Body of a function is
the same with
normal flowchart
This flowchart calculates the average of three numbers
The main flowcharting
structures
1.Sequence
2.Selection
3.Repetition
A flowchart expressing the solution to an involved
problem may have:
1. the main program flowchart on one page
2. with subprograms continuing the problem
solution on subsequent pages.
Each of the five acceptable structures
can be built from the basic elements as
shown below.
Each of the five acceptable structures
can be built from the basic elements as
shown below.
Each of the five acceptable structures
can be built from the basic elements as
shown below.
Sequence
In a computer program or an algorithm,
sequence involves simple steps which are
to be executed one after the other.
The steps are executed in the same order in which they are written.
In pseudocode,
sequence is expressed as:
process 1
process 2
…
…
process n
In a flowchart,
sequence is expressed as:
Sequence
An Example Using Sequence
Problem: Write a set of instructions that describe how to make a pot of tea.
Pseudocode
BEGIN
fill a kettle with water
boil the water in the kettle
put the tea leaves in the pot
pour boiling water in the pot
END
Flowchart
Binary Selection
In pseudocode, binary selection is
expressed in the following ways:
1. IF condition THEN
process 1
ENDIF
2. IF condition THEN
process 1
ELSE
process 2
ENDIF
Binary Selection
In flowcharts, binary selection is expressed in the
following ways:
Selection is used in a computer program or
algorithm
to determine which particular step or set of steps
is to be executed
Selection
Binary (structure)
Binary Selection
In pseudocode, binary
selection is expressed in the
following ways:
1. IF condition THEN
process 1
ENDIF
2. IF condition THEN
process 1
ELSE
process 2
ENDIF
Binary Selection
In flowcharts, binary selection is expressed in
the following ways:
Selection
Binary (flowchart structure)
Note: In a flowchart it is most important to indicate
1. which path is to be followed when the condition is true, and
2. which path to follow when the condition is false.
Without these indications the flowchart is open to more than one interpretation.
Note: There are two acceptable ways to represent a decision in all of the structures.
Either method is acceptable. For consistency, the method 1 is used throughout this document.
1. The condition is expressed as a
statement and the two possible
outcomes are indicated by
• True
• False
2. The condition is expressed as a
question and the two possible outcomes
are indicated by
• Yes
• No
Selection
Binary (examples)
Selection is used in a computer program or algorithm
to determine which particular step or set of steps is to be executed.
Examples Using Binary Selection
Problem 1: Write a set of instructions to describe when to answer the phone.
Binary Selection
Pseudocode
IF the telephone is ringing THEN
answer the telephone
ENDIF
Binary Selection
Flowchart
Selection
Binary (examples)
Examples Using Binary Selection
Problem 2: Write a set of instructions to follow when approaching a set of traffic
control lights.
Binary Selection
Pseudocode
IF the signal is green
THEN
proceed through the
intersection
ELSE
stop the vehicle
ENDIF
Binary Selection
Flowchart
Selection
Multi-way (structure)
Multi-way Selection
In pseudocode, multiple selection
is expressed as:
CASEWHERE expression
evaluates to
choice a : process a
choice b : process b
. .
. .
. .
OTHERWISE : default
process
ENDCASE
Note: As the flowchart version of
the multi-way selection indicates,
only one process on each pass is
executed as a result of the
implementation of the
Multi-way Selection
In flowcharts, multi-way selection is
expressed as:
Selection
Multi-way (examples)
Example Using Multi-way Selection
Problem: Write a set of instructions that describes how to:
respond to all possible signals at a set of traffic control lights.
Multi-way Selection
Pseudocode
CASEWHERE signal is
red : stop the
vehicle
amber : stop the
vehicle
green : proceed
through the intersection
OTHERWISE : proceed
with caution
ENDCASE
Multi-way Selection
Flowchart
Repetition
Repetition allows for a portion of an algorithm or computer program
to be done any number of times
dependent on some condition being met.
An occurrence of repetition is usually known as a loop.
An essential feature of repetition is that
each loop has a termination condition
to stop the repetition,
or the obvious outcome is that
the loop never completes execution (an infinite loop).
The termination condition can be checked or tested
1. at the beginning and is known as a pre-test loop or
2. at the end of the loop and is known as a post-test loop.
Repetition
Pre-test (structure)
Repetition: Pre-Test
A pre-tested loop is so named because the condition has to be met at
the very beginning of the loop or the body of the loop is not executed.
This construct is often called a guarded loop.
The body of the loop is executed repeatedly while the termination condition is true.
Repetition
In pseudocode, pre-test
repetition is expressed as:
WHILE condition is true
process(es)
ENDWHILE
Repetition
In flowcharting
pre-test repetition
is expressed as:
Repetition Post-test (structure)
Repetition: Post-Test
• A post-tested loop executes the body of the loop before testing the termination
condition.
• This construct is often referred to as an unguarded loop.
• The body of the loop is repeatedly executed until the termination condition is true.
An important difference between a pre-test and post-test loop is that the statements of a
post-test loop are executed at least once even if the condition is originally true, whereas the
body of the pre-test loop may never be executed if the termination condition is originally true.
A close look at the representations of the two loop types makes this point apparent.
Repetition
In pseudocode, post-test
repetition is expressed as:
REPEAT
process
UNTIL condition is true
Repetition
In a flowchart
post-test repetition
is expressed as:
Repetition Pre-test (example)
An Example Using Pre-Test Repetition
Problem: Determine a safety procedure for travelling in a carriage on a moving train.
Pre-test Repetition
Pseudocode
WHILE the train is moving
keep wholly within the
carriage
ENDWHILE
Pre-test Repetition
Flowchart
Repetition Post-test (example)
An Example Using Post-Test Repetition
Problem: Determine a procedure to beat egg whites until fluffy.
Post-test Repetition
Pseudocode
REPEAT
beat the egg whites
UNTIL fluffy
Post-test Repetition
Flowchart
Example:
Start
Stop
Read
Length,
Width
Print
Area,
Perimeter
Calculate Area
Area=Length * Width
Calculate Perimeter
Perimeter=
2 * (Width+Length)
Input:
Length <- 5
Width <- 3
Process:
Area = 5 * 3 = 15
Process:
Perimeter =
2* (5+3) = 16
Output
Area: 15
Perimeter: 16
Start
Stop
Read Num
Print
"Category A"
Yes
Num>0? No
Print
"Category B"
Example:
What is the output of the following flowchart when the input Num= 10
Num = 10
10 > 0 ? => YES
Input:
Num <- 10
Enter a Number >> 10
Output:
“Category A”
Category A
Start
Stop
Read Num
Print
"Category A"
Yes
Num>0? No
Print
"Category B"
Example:
What is the output of the following flowchart when the input is Num= 0
Num = 0
0 > 0 ? => NO
Output:
“Category B”
Input:
Num <- 0
Enter a Number >> 0
Category B
Output:
“Category A”
Category A
Start
Stop
Print
Result
Result=Result + Count
Count=Count - 1
Initialize
Result=0
Count=Num
Count>0?
Read Num
No
Print Count
Yes
Example:
What is the output of the following flowchart when the input is Num= 4
Input:
Num <- 4
Enter a Number => 4
Variables (in memory):
Num [ ]
Result [ ]
Count [ ]
Variables (in memory):
Num [ 4 ]
Result [ ]
Count [ ]
Count = 4
4 > 0 ? => YES
Variables (in memory):
Num [ 4 ]
Result [ 0 ]
Count [ 4 ]
Count: 4
Variables (in memory):
Num [ 4 ]
Result [ 4 ] 0 + 4
Count [ 3 ] 4 - 1
Count: 3
Count = 3
3 > 0 ? => YES
Variables (in memory):
Num [ 4 ]
Result [ 7 ] 4 + 3
Count [ 2 ] 3 - 1
Count: 2
Count = 2
2 > 0 ? => YES
Variables (in memory):
Num [ 4 ]
Result [ 9 ] 7 + 2
Count [ 1 ] 2 - 1
Count: 1
Count = 1
1 > 0 ? => YES
Variables (in memory):
Num [ 4 ]
Result [ 10] 9 + 1
Count [ 0 ] 1 - 1
Count: 0
Count = 0
0 > 0 ? => NO
Result: 10
Page 1
AVRG (average, 10, 5, N)
Start
Stop
Read
N
Print
average
Page 2
AVRG ( result,n1, n2,n3)
Return
sum = n1+ n2+n3
result = sum/3
Example:
What is the output of the following flowchart when the input is N = 6
average
10
5
N=6
Sum = 10 + 5 + 6
average =
21/3
Output:
Average: 7
T. O. L
Quiz
1. What is a flowchart?
2. It is used to connect remote flowchart
portion on the same page. One flow line
enters and one flow line exits.
3-5. Control Structures of Flowchart.

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Flowcharting Guide: Introduction to Flowchart Symbols, Structures, Sequence, Selection, and Repetition

  • 2. Today’s Topics • Flowchart Symbols • Structures •Sequence •Selection •Repetition
  • 4. Terminal: Used to indicates the start and end of a flowchart. Single flow line. Only one “Start” and “Stop” terminal for each program. The end terminal for function/subroutine must use “Return” instead of “Stop”. Process: Used whenever data is being manipulated. One flow line enters and one flow line exits. Input/Output: Used whenever data is entered (input) or displayed (output). One flow line enters and one flow line exits. Flowchart Symbols
  • 5. Decision: Used to represent operations in which there are two possible selections. One flow line enters and two flow lines (labeled as “Yes” and “No”) exit. Function / Subroutine: Used to identify an operation in a separate flowchart segment (module). One flow line enters and one flow line exits. On-page Connector: Used to connect remote flowchart portion on the same page. One flow line enters and one flow line exits. Off-page Connector: Used to connect remote flowchart portion on different pages. One flow line enters and one flow line exits. Comment: Used to add descriptions or clarification. Flow line: Used to indicate the direction of flow of control. Flowchart Symbols
  • 6. Comments or description Start Read N, M No Yes Stop N = The number of students M = The number of subjects
  • 7. Connectors on the same page Start 2 1 1 2 Stop 1- connection on the same flowchart portion 2- connection on the different flowchart portion
  • 8. Connectors on a different page Page 1 Page 2 Start No 1 Yes 1 2 Stop 2
  • 9. Function Page 1 AVRG (result, n1, n2,n3) Start Stop Read n1, n2 , n3 Print result Page 2 AVRG ( result,n1, n2,n3) Return sum = n1+ n2+n3 result = sum/3 End terminal must be a “Return” Start terminal for a Function is different. Do not use “Start” The detail of how the function works is put in another flowchart. This is known as Function-Definition At this point, we only focus on what to do. How to do it, it comes later. This part is known as Function-Call Body of a function is the same with normal flowchart This flowchart calculates the average of three numbers
  • 10. The main flowcharting structures 1.Sequence 2.Selection 3.Repetition A flowchart expressing the solution to an involved problem may have: 1. the main program flowchart on one page 2. with subprograms continuing the problem solution on subsequent pages.
  • 11. Each of the five acceptable structures can be built from the basic elements as shown below.
  • 12. Each of the five acceptable structures can be built from the basic elements as shown below.
  • 13. Each of the five acceptable structures can be built from the basic elements as shown below.
  • 14. Sequence In a computer program or an algorithm, sequence involves simple steps which are to be executed one after the other. The steps are executed in the same order in which they are written. In pseudocode, sequence is expressed as: process 1 process 2 … … process n In a flowchart, sequence is expressed as:
  • 15. Sequence An Example Using Sequence Problem: Write a set of instructions that describe how to make a pot of tea. Pseudocode BEGIN fill a kettle with water boil the water in the kettle put the tea leaves in the pot pour boiling water in the pot END Flowchart
  • 16. Binary Selection In pseudocode, binary selection is expressed in the following ways: 1. IF condition THEN process 1 ENDIF 2. IF condition THEN process 1 ELSE process 2 ENDIF Binary Selection In flowcharts, binary selection is expressed in the following ways: Selection is used in a computer program or algorithm to determine which particular step or set of steps is to be executed
  • 17. Selection Binary (structure) Binary Selection In pseudocode, binary selection is expressed in the following ways: 1. IF condition THEN process 1 ENDIF 2. IF condition THEN process 1 ELSE process 2 ENDIF Binary Selection In flowcharts, binary selection is expressed in the following ways:
  • 18. Selection Binary (flowchart structure) Note: In a flowchart it is most important to indicate 1. which path is to be followed when the condition is true, and 2. which path to follow when the condition is false. Without these indications the flowchart is open to more than one interpretation. Note: There are two acceptable ways to represent a decision in all of the structures. Either method is acceptable. For consistency, the method 1 is used throughout this document. 1. The condition is expressed as a statement and the two possible outcomes are indicated by • True • False 2. The condition is expressed as a question and the two possible outcomes are indicated by • Yes • No
  • 19. Selection Binary (examples) Selection is used in a computer program or algorithm to determine which particular step or set of steps is to be executed. Examples Using Binary Selection Problem 1: Write a set of instructions to describe when to answer the phone. Binary Selection Pseudocode IF the telephone is ringing THEN answer the telephone ENDIF Binary Selection Flowchart
  • 20. Selection Binary (examples) Examples Using Binary Selection Problem 2: Write a set of instructions to follow when approaching a set of traffic control lights. Binary Selection Pseudocode IF the signal is green THEN proceed through the intersection ELSE stop the vehicle ENDIF Binary Selection Flowchart
  • 21. Selection Multi-way (structure) Multi-way Selection In pseudocode, multiple selection is expressed as: CASEWHERE expression evaluates to choice a : process a choice b : process b . . . . . . OTHERWISE : default process ENDCASE Note: As the flowchart version of the multi-way selection indicates, only one process on each pass is executed as a result of the implementation of the Multi-way Selection In flowcharts, multi-way selection is expressed as:
  • 22. Selection Multi-way (examples) Example Using Multi-way Selection Problem: Write a set of instructions that describes how to: respond to all possible signals at a set of traffic control lights. Multi-way Selection Pseudocode CASEWHERE signal is red : stop the vehicle amber : stop the vehicle green : proceed through the intersection OTHERWISE : proceed with caution ENDCASE Multi-way Selection Flowchart
  • 23. Repetition Repetition allows for a portion of an algorithm or computer program to be done any number of times dependent on some condition being met. An occurrence of repetition is usually known as a loop. An essential feature of repetition is that each loop has a termination condition to stop the repetition, or the obvious outcome is that the loop never completes execution (an infinite loop). The termination condition can be checked or tested 1. at the beginning and is known as a pre-test loop or 2. at the end of the loop and is known as a post-test loop.
  • 24. Repetition Pre-test (structure) Repetition: Pre-Test A pre-tested loop is so named because the condition has to be met at the very beginning of the loop or the body of the loop is not executed. This construct is often called a guarded loop. The body of the loop is executed repeatedly while the termination condition is true. Repetition In pseudocode, pre-test repetition is expressed as: WHILE condition is true process(es) ENDWHILE Repetition In flowcharting pre-test repetition is expressed as:
  • 25. Repetition Post-test (structure) Repetition: Post-Test • A post-tested loop executes the body of the loop before testing the termination condition. • This construct is often referred to as an unguarded loop. • The body of the loop is repeatedly executed until the termination condition is true. An important difference between a pre-test and post-test loop is that the statements of a post-test loop are executed at least once even if the condition is originally true, whereas the body of the pre-test loop may never be executed if the termination condition is originally true. A close look at the representations of the two loop types makes this point apparent. Repetition In pseudocode, post-test repetition is expressed as: REPEAT process UNTIL condition is true Repetition In a flowchart post-test repetition is expressed as:
  • 26. Repetition Pre-test (example) An Example Using Pre-Test Repetition Problem: Determine a safety procedure for travelling in a carriage on a moving train. Pre-test Repetition Pseudocode WHILE the train is moving keep wholly within the carriage ENDWHILE Pre-test Repetition Flowchart
  • 27. Repetition Post-test (example) An Example Using Post-Test Repetition Problem: Determine a procedure to beat egg whites until fluffy. Post-test Repetition Pseudocode REPEAT beat the egg whites UNTIL fluffy Post-test Repetition Flowchart
  • 28. Example: Start Stop Read Length, Width Print Area, Perimeter Calculate Area Area=Length * Width Calculate Perimeter Perimeter= 2 * (Width+Length) Input: Length <- 5 Width <- 3 Process: Area = 5 * 3 = 15 Process: Perimeter = 2* (5+3) = 16 Output Area: 15 Perimeter: 16
  • 29. Start Stop Read Num Print "Category A" Yes Num>0? No Print "Category B" Example: What is the output of the following flowchart when the input Num= 10 Num = 10 10 > 0 ? => YES Input: Num <- 10 Enter a Number >> 10 Output: “Category A” Category A
  • 30. Start Stop Read Num Print "Category A" Yes Num>0? No Print "Category B" Example: What is the output of the following flowchart when the input is Num= 0 Num = 0 0 > 0 ? => NO Output: “Category B” Input: Num <- 0 Enter a Number >> 0 Category B Output: “Category A” Category A
  • 31. Start Stop Print Result Result=Result + Count Count=Count - 1 Initialize Result=0 Count=Num Count>0? Read Num No Print Count Yes Example: What is the output of the following flowchart when the input is Num= 4 Input: Num <- 4 Enter a Number => 4 Variables (in memory): Num [ ] Result [ ] Count [ ] Variables (in memory): Num [ 4 ] Result [ ] Count [ ] Count = 4 4 > 0 ? => YES Variables (in memory): Num [ 4 ] Result [ 0 ] Count [ 4 ] Count: 4 Variables (in memory): Num [ 4 ] Result [ 4 ] 0 + 4 Count [ 3 ] 4 - 1 Count: 3 Count = 3 3 > 0 ? => YES Variables (in memory): Num [ 4 ] Result [ 7 ] 4 + 3 Count [ 2 ] 3 - 1 Count: 2 Count = 2 2 > 0 ? => YES Variables (in memory): Num [ 4 ] Result [ 9 ] 7 + 2 Count [ 1 ] 2 - 1 Count: 1 Count = 1 1 > 0 ? => YES Variables (in memory): Num [ 4 ] Result [ 10] 9 + 1 Count [ 0 ] 1 - 1 Count: 0 Count = 0 0 > 0 ? => NO Result: 10
  • 32. Page 1 AVRG (average, 10, 5, N) Start Stop Read N Print average Page 2 AVRG ( result,n1, n2,n3) Return sum = n1+ n2+n3 result = sum/3 Example: What is the output of the following flowchart when the input is N = 6 average 10 5 N=6 Sum = 10 + 5 + 6 average = 21/3 Output: Average: 7
  • 34. Quiz 1. What is a flowchart? 2. It is used to connect remote flowchart portion on the same page. One flow line enters and one flow line exits. 3-5. Control Structures of Flowchart.