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© 2012 Clear View Training Limited
IntroductiontoBPMN2
1
Introduction to BPMN 2
Dr. Jim Arlow
Clear View Training
www.clearviewtraining.com
SAMPLE
ISBN: 9780957292802
Training course for
IntroductiontoBPMN2
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited
About the author…
• Dr Jim Arlow
• Director of Clear View Training Limited
• Consultancy and training in UML, BPMN, Meta Data
Management, Requirements Engineering
• Customers include British Airways, BBC, JP Morgan
Chase, Aviva Investments, Vodafone
• Senior Visiting Research Fellow at Bournemouth
University
• Author of UML, BPMN and other books
• Linked in: http://uk.linkedin.com/in/jimarlow
• Website: www.clearviewtraining.com
2
IntroductiontoBPMN2
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited
Secrets of Analysis
• If you are interested in
BPMN, UML or just
modeling in general,
then our new book,
“Secrets of Analysis”, is
a must!
• Learn how to model
effectively
• Check out the full table
of contents on the
website
3
www.clearviewtraining.com/secrets-of-analysis.html
IntroductiontoBPMN2
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited
Other books...
4
In 9+
languages!
www.clearviewtraining.com
• Contact us for training and consultancy
IntroductiontoBPMN2
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited
About the course book...
• This training course is based on “Introduction
to BPMN 2” 

Arlow and Neustadt 

ISBN:9780957292802
• This is an enhanced ebook with animations,
interactive figures and quizzes
• It is available for the iPad etc. in Apple iBooks
• A non-interactive PDF version is also available
• We are excited about the potential of
interactive textbooks and how this is realised
by the revolutionary iBooks and iBooks
Author from Apple. This is why the enhanced
ebook is the primary edition of this work
• There is a non-interactive version of the
book available on Amazon
5
ISBN: 9780957292802
IntroductiontoBPMN2
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited 6
Our approach to BPMN
• Introduction
• Basic BPMN
• Just enough to get you started modelling
• Core BPMN
• Might be enough for up to 80% of your needs
• Advanced BPMN
• Filling in the gaps!
• Exercises
• An opportunity to use what you have learned as you
go along
• Laboratory Work
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited
IntroductiontoBPMN2
7
Processes and BPMN 2
Chapter 1 of
IntroductiontoBPMN2
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited
Contents
• What is a business process?
• Why model processes?
• What is BPMN 2?
• History
• Structure
• Complexity
8
IntroductiontoBPMN2
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited 9
What is a business process?
• There is no standard definition of a business
process, so we define it as: 

A sequence of activities performed by one or
more business participants in order to deliver
value to the business
• This definition emphasises the following points:
• The process can be broken down into a sequence of
simpler activities
• These activities have to be performed by someone or
something (a participant)
• The ultimate goal is to deliver value to the business
whether directly or indirectly
IntroductiontoBPMN2
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited
Types of business process
• Management processes
• Govern the operation of a business
• Operational processes
• Constitute the core business
activities and create the primary
value stream
• Supporting processes
• Support the core operational
processes
10
Management
Operational
Supporting
Management
IntroductiontoBPMN2
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited
Why model processes?
• Understand and control current processes
• Measure time, cost, resources
• Improve current processes
• Streamline, identify missing steps, rationalise
• Design new processes
• Realise business requirements with new processes
• Communicate existing and new processes
• Process models are a very effective way to communicate existing and
new processes
• Automate processes
• Apply a process execution engine
11
You can’t control what you don’t understand
IntroductiontoBPMN2
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited
What is BPMN 2?
• Business Process Model and Notation v. 2
• Human oriented industry standard graphical notation
for modelling processes
• Based on flow charts (already widely used)
• Has a mapping to BPEL4WS
• Scope:
• Organisational structures and resources
• Functional breakdowns
• Data and information flows
• Business strategy
• Business rules
12
IntroductiontoBPMN2
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited
BPMN history
• Note the name change from 1.x to 2.x
13
2001 2002 2003 2004 20092008 2010
BPMN = Business
Process Modelling
Notation
BPMN = Business
Process Model and
Notation
BPMI.org
starts
developing
BPML
OMG
BPMN 1.0
OMG
BPMN 1.2
OMG
BPMN 2.0
Ongoing BPMN development
IntroductiontoBPMN2
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited
Models, diagrams and pictures
• A true BPMN tool such as Magic Draw is a modelling tool:
• When diagrams are created information is added into an underlying model
• Each model element may be represented by 0..* diagram elements
• Each diagram element must have exactly 1 representation in the underlying model
• The modelling tool enforces BPMN semantics and syntax
• Pictures have no formal syntax or semantics (e.g. PowerPoint, Visio)
14
Model elements
have well-
defined
meanings
(semantics)
Diagram
elements
provide a visual
syntax for
representing
model elements
Model Diagram
IntroductiontoBPMN2
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited 15
Model element attributes
• BPMN model elements may
have attributes. These are
slots that store information
about the element
• Attributes store the
semantic "meat" of the
model
• BPMN tools allow you to
inspect and change
attributes
Double click
Task
Task attributes
IntroductiontoBPMN2
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited
BPMN structure
• BPMN 2 allows you to model 3 different, but
related aspects of business processes:
• Process - a sequence of activities that constitutes a
business process
• Focus: the sequence of activities and events
• Collaboration - a process that has two or more
participants
• Focus: the sequence of activities and events and or the
Messages sent between participants
• Choreography - a sequence of interactions between
participants
• Focus: the participants in the business process and the
sequence in which they interact together
16
IntroductiontoBPMN2
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited 17
BPMN structure summary
• BPMN has a relatively simple high-level structure BUT complexity arises
because BPMN has:
• 4 types of event (with many different triggers and throw & catch semantics)
• 4 types of activity (but with many variants)
• 5 types of gateway
• 3 connecting objects
• 2 artifacts
• 4 types of data object
• Conversations, choreographies etc.
IntroductiontoBPMN2
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited 18
Managing BPMN complexity
• Divide and conquer!
• We define 3 levels of
BPMN
• Basic - just enough to
create some simple
models (bootstrap!)
• Core - enough for about
80% of your modelling
needs
• Advanced - features that
are rarely needed
Advanced
Core
Basic
IntroductiontoBPMN2
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited 19
Summary
• BPMN 2 – Business Process Model and Notation
• Model processes so that you can understand and
improve existing processes, and create new processes
• We can categorise processes into management,
operational and support
• BPMN has a simple high-level structure
IntroductiontoBPMN2
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited
Laboratory work
• Consider the organization in which you are
currently working...
• List the key business processes.
• Categorize these processes as management,
operational or support processes.
• Which of these processes do you think could be
improved? Suggest some possible improvements.
20
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited
IntroductiontoBPMN2
21
Basic BPMN
Chapter 2 of
IntroductiontoBPMN2
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited
Contents
• What is Basic BPMN?
• Process semantics – the token game
• Basic BPMN elements in the process diagram:
• Artifacts
• Swimlanes
• Flow objects
• Connecting objects
22
IntroductiontoBPMN2
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited 23
What is Basic BPMN?
• It is the simplest possible subset of BPMN that
we consider to be useable
• The goal of Basic BPMN is to be:
• Just enough BPMN to get you creating very simple
diagrams!
• Easy to learn
• Easy for non-technical stakeholders to understand
• Good enough for rough sketches and informal
diagrams
IntroductiontoBPMN2
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited 24
Basic BPMN structure
• Basic BPMN comprises the simplest useable
subset of elements:
IntroductiontoBPMN2
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited 25
The process diagram
• BPMN defines a process as a set of flow elements that comprise
different types of flow node that may be connected by sequence
flows and other connecting objects to form a kind of flowchart
• Flow nodes may be:
• Events – something that happens during the process
• Activities – work performed in the process
• Gateways – control flow through the process
Event
activity
Gateway
Sequence
Flow
IntroductiontoBPMN2
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited 26
Process semantics - the token game
• Token game – a token is an imaginary focus of control that
you imagine flowing around the process
• Tokens traverse from a source flow object to a target flow
object via a sequence flow
• A flow object executes when it has tokens on one or more of
its input flows
• When a flow object starts to execute it takes tokens off its input flows
• When a flow object has finished executing it offers tokens on one or
more of its output flows
Start event
End event
IntroductiontoBPMN2
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited 27
Process instances
• Each time a process receives a new start event,
a new instance of that process begins executing
• We say that a process may have many process
instances
Instance 3
Time
Instance 2
Instance 1
IntroductiontoBPMN2
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited
Diagram annotation
• BPMN provides two artifacts, the text annotation and group,
that allow you to add extra information to models
• We use text annotations extensively to document our models
• Text annotations are linked to model elements by the
association connecting object
28
Artifacts
Syntax Name Semantics
Text annotation Text annotations allow text to be added to a diagram
to increase its comprehensibility
Group A way to group together diagram elements to show
that they are related
Association
IntroductiontoBPMN2
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited 29
Using artifacts
• Use groups as a way to organise and highlight parts of the model in order
to increase its comprehensibility
• Groups have no semantics beyond a simple organising role
• In the example below, the groups indicate phases in the process
• Use text annotations connected to flow objects by associations to
document the process
IntroductiontoBPMN2
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited 30
Flow objects
• A process is defined as a sequence of flow objects:
• Events – something that happens during the process
• Activities – work performed in the process
• Gateways – split/merge flow through the process
• There are many types of flow object!
Event
Activity
Gateway
Sequence
flow
IntroductiontoBPMN2
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited 31
Connecting objects
• Connect flow nodes together:
• Sequence flows – determine the sequence of activities
• Message flows – messages between process participants
• Associations – associate text or data with modeling elements
Sequence
flow
Message
flow
Association
Pool
IntroductiontoBPMN2
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited 32
Collaboration diagrams
• A collaboration diagram is like a process diagram but with more than one
participant
• We can organise the collaboration diagram into:
• Pools – represent a participant in the process
• Lanes – group related activities
• N.B. If a diagram has a single pool and no lanes, it is a process diagram and the
pool boundary rectangle may be omitted
IntroductiontoBPMN2
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited 33
Pools, message flows and messages
• Use pools in conjunction with explicit messages to
show communication between two or more business
participants:
Pool representing
the Sales Department
Pool representing
the Warehouse
Message
A
collaboration
diagram
Message flow
IntroductiontoBPMN2
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited 34
Summary
• Basic BPMN Elements in the process diagram:
• Artifacts
• Flow objects
• Connecting objects
• Swimlanes
• BPMN semantics – the token game
IntroductiontoBPMN2
© 2012 Clear View Training Limited
That’s the end of the sample…
• If you liked this sample, please support
us by buying the full set of slides
• And if you like the slides, you will love
the book!
• You can buy the slides and book at
www.clearviewtraining.com
• We are very grateful for your purchase -
it allows us to continue producing quality
books and training materials
• Of course, we all like, “free”, but if you
won’t support authors by buying books
like this, soon there won’t be any books
like this left to buy…
35

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Introduction To BPMN 2

  • 1. © 2012 Clear View Training Limited IntroductiontoBPMN2 1 Introduction to BPMN 2 Dr. Jim Arlow Clear View Training www.clearviewtraining.com SAMPLE ISBN: 9780957292802 Training course for
  • 2. IntroductiontoBPMN2 © 2012 Clear View Training Limited About the author… • Dr Jim Arlow • Director of Clear View Training Limited • Consultancy and training in UML, BPMN, Meta Data Management, Requirements Engineering • Customers include British Airways, BBC, JP Morgan Chase, Aviva Investments, Vodafone • Senior Visiting Research Fellow at Bournemouth University • Author of UML, BPMN and other books • Linked in: http://uk.linkedin.com/in/jimarlow • Website: www.clearviewtraining.com 2
  • 3. IntroductiontoBPMN2 © 2012 Clear View Training Limited Secrets of Analysis • If you are interested in BPMN, UML or just modeling in general, then our new book, “Secrets of Analysis”, is a must! • Learn how to model effectively • Check out the full table of contents on the website 3 www.clearviewtraining.com/secrets-of-analysis.html
  • 4. IntroductiontoBPMN2 © 2012 Clear View Training Limited Other books... 4 In 9+ languages! www.clearviewtraining.com • Contact us for training and consultancy
  • 5. IntroductiontoBPMN2 © 2012 Clear View Training Limited About the course book... • This training course is based on “Introduction to BPMN 2” 
 Arlow and Neustadt 
 ISBN:9780957292802 • This is an enhanced ebook with animations, interactive figures and quizzes • It is available for the iPad etc. in Apple iBooks • A non-interactive PDF version is also available • We are excited about the potential of interactive textbooks and how this is realised by the revolutionary iBooks and iBooks Author from Apple. This is why the enhanced ebook is the primary edition of this work • There is a non-interactive version of the book available on Amazon 5 ISBN: 9780957292802
  • 6. IntroductiontoBPMN2 © 2012 Clear View Training Limited 6 Our approach to BPMN • Introduction • Basic BPMN • Just enough to get you started modelling • Core BPMN • Might be enough for up to 80% of your needs • Advanced BPMN • Filling in the gaps! • Exercises • An opportunity to use what you have learned as you go along • Laboratory Work
  • 7. © 2012 Clear View Training Limited IntroductiontoBPMN2 7 Processes and BPMN 2 Chapter 1 of
  • 8. IntroductiontoBPMN2 © 2012 Clear View Training Limited Contents • What is a business process? • Why model processes? • What is BPMN 2? • History • Structure • Complexity 8
  • 9. IntroductiontoBPMN2 © 2012 Clear View Training Limited 9 What is a business process? • There is no standard definition of a business process, so we define it as: 
 A sequence of activities performed by one or more business participants in order to deliver value to the business • This definition emphasises the following points: • The process can be broken down into a sequence of simpler activities • These activities have to be performed by someone or something (a participant) • The ultimate goal is to deliver value to the business whether directly or indirectly
  • 10. IntroductiontoBPMN2 © 2012 Clear View Training Limited Types of business process • Management processes • Govern the operation of a business • Operational processes • Constitute the core business activities and create the primary value stream • Supporting processes • Support the core operational processes 10 Management Operational Supporting Management
  • 11. IntroductiontoBPMN2 © 2012 Clear View Training Limited Why model processes? • Understand and control current processes • Measure time, cost, resources • Improve current processes • Streamline, identify missing steps, rationalise • Design new processes • Realise business requirements with new processes • Communicate existing and new processes • Process models are a very effective way to communicate existing and new processes • Automate processes • Apply a process execution engine 11 You can’t control what you don’t understand
  • 12. IntroductiontoBPMN2 © 2012 Clear View Training Limited What is BPMN 2? • Business Process Model and Notation v. 2 • Human oriented industry standard graphical notation for modelling processes • Based on flow charts (already widely used) • Has a mapping to BPEL4WS • Scope: • Organisational structures and resources • Functional breakdowns • Data and information flows • Business strategy • Business rules 12
  • 13. IntroductiontoBPMN2 © 2012 Clear View Training Limited BPMN history • Note the name change from 1.x to 2.x 13 2001 2002 2003 2004 20092008 2010 BPMN = Business Process Modelling Notation BPMN = Business Process Model and Notation BPMI.org starts developing BPML OMG BPMN 1.0 OMG BPMN 1.2 OMG BPMN 2.0 Ongoing BPMN development
  • 14. IntroductiontoBPMN2 © 2012 Clear View Training Limited Models, diagrams and pictures • A true BPMN tool such as Magic Draw is a modelling tool: • When diagrams are created information is added into an underlying model • Each model element may be represented by 0..* diagram elements • Each diagram element must have exactly 1 representation in the underlying model • The modelling tool enforces BPMN semantics and syntax • Pictures have no formal syntax or semantics (e.g. PowerPoint, Visio) 14 Model elements have well- defined meanings (semantics) Diagram elements provide a visual syntax for representing model elements Model Diagram
  • 15. IntroductiontoBPMN2 © 2012 Clear View Training Limited 15 Model element attributes • BPMN model elements may have attributes. These are slots that store information about the element • Attributes store the semantic "meat" of the model • BPMN tools allow you to inspect and change attributes Double click Task Task attributes
  • 16. IntroductiontoBPMN2 © 2012 Clear View Training Limited BPMN structure • BPMN 2 allows you to model 3 different, but related aspects of business processes: • Process - a sequence of activities that constitutes a business process • Focus: the sequence of activities and events • Collaboration - a process that has two or more participants • Focus: the sequence of activities and events and or the Messages sent between participants • Choreography - a sequence of interactions between participants • Focus: the participants in the business process and the sequence in which they interact together 16
  • 17. IntroductiontoBPMN2 © 2012 Clear View Training Limited 17 BPMN structure summary • BPMN has a relatively simple high-level structure BUT complexity arises because BPMN has: • 4 types of event (with many different triggers and throw & catch semantics) • 4 types of activity (but with many variants) • 5 types of gateway • 3 connecting objects • 2 artifacts • 4 types of data object • Conversations, choreographies etc.
  • 18. IntroductiontoBPMN2 © 2012 Clear View Training Limited 18 Managing BPMN complexity • Divide and conquer! • We define 3 levels of BPMN • Basic - just enough to create some simple models (bootstrap!) • Core - enough for about 80% of your modelling needs • Advanced - features that are rarely needed Advanced Core Basic
  • 19. IntroductiontoBPMN2 © 2012 Clear View Training Limited 19 Summary • BPMN 2 – Business Process Model and Notation • Model processes so that you can understand and improve existing processes, and create new processes • We can categorise processes into management, operational and support • BPMN has a simple high-level structure
  • 20. IntroductiontoBPMN2 © 2012 Clear View Training Limited Laboratory work • Consider the organization in which you are currently working... • List the key business processes. • Categorize these processes as management, operational or support processes. • Which of these processes do you think could be improved? Suggest some possible improvements. 20
  • 21. © 2012 Clear View Training Limited IntroductiontoBPMN2 21 Basic BPMN Chapter 2 of
  • 22. IntroductiontoBPMN2 © 2012 Clear View Training Limited Contents • What is Basic BPMN? • Process semantics – the token game • Basic BPMN elements in the process diagram: • Artifacts • Swimlanes • Flow objects • Connecting objects 22
  • 23. IntroductiontoBPMN2 © 2012 Clear View Training Limited 23 What is Basic BPMN? • It is the simplest possible subset of BPMN that we consider to be useable • The goal of Basic BPMN is to be: • Just enough BPMN to get you creating very simple diagrams! • Easy to learn • Easy for non-technical stakeholders to understand • Good enough for rough sketches and informal diagrams
  • 24. IntroductiontoBPMN2 © 2012 Clear View Training Limited 24 Basic BPMN structure • Basic BPMN comprises the simplest useable subset of elements:
  • 25. IntroductiontoBPMN2 © 2012 Clear View Training Limited 25 The process diagram • BPMN defines a process as a set of flow elements that comprise different types of flow node that may be connected by sequence flows and other connecting objects to form a kind of flowchart • Flow nodes may be: • Events – something that happens during the process • Activities – work performed in the process • Gateways – control flow through the process Event activity Gateway Sequence Flow
  • 26. IntroductiontoBPMN2 © 2012 Clear View Training Limited 26 Process semantics - the token game • Token game – a token is an imaginary focus of control that you imagine flowing around the process • Tokens traverse from a source flow object to a target flow object via a sequence flow • A flow object executes when it has tokens on one or more of its input flows • When a flow object starts to execute it takes tokens off its input flows • When a flow object has finished executing it offers tokens on one or more of its output flows Start event End event
  • 27. IntroductiontoBPMN2 © 2012 Clear View Training Limited 27 Process instances • Each time a process receives a new start event, a new instance of that process begins executing • We say that a process may have many process instances Instance 3 Time Instance 2 Instance 1
  • 28. IntroductiontoBPMN2 © 2012 Clear View Training Limited Diagram annotation • BPMN provides two artifacts, the text annotation and group, that allow you to add extra information to models • We use text annotations extensively to document our models • Text annotations are linked to model elements by the association connecting object 28 Artifacts Syntax Name Semantics Text annotation Text annotations allow text to be added to a diagram to increase its comprehensibility Group A way to group together diagram elements to show that they are related Association
  • 29. IntroductiontoBPMN2 © 2012 Clear View Training Limited 29 Using artifacts • Use groups as a way to organise and highlight parts of the model in order to increase its comprehensibility • Groups have no semantics beyond a simple organising role • In the example below, the groups indicate phases in the process • Use text annotations connected to flow objects by associations to document the process
  • 30. IntroductiontoBPMN2 © 2012 Clear View Training Limited 30 Flow objects • A process is defined as a sequence of flow objects: • Events – something that happens during the process • Activities – work performed in the process • Gateways – split/merge flow through the process • There are many types of flow object! Event Activity Gateway Sequence flow
  • 31. IntroductiontoBPMN2 © 2012 Clear View Training Limited 31 Connecting objects • Connect flow nodes together: • Sequence flows – determine the sequence of activities • Message flows – messages between process participants • Associations – associate text or data with modeling elements Sequence flow Message flow Association Pool
  • 32. IntroductiontoBPMN2 © 2012 Clear View Training Limited 32 Collaboration diagrams • A collaboration diagram is like a process diagram but with more than one participant • We can organise the collaboration diagram into: • Pools – represent a participant in the process • Lanes – group related activities • N.B. If a diagram has a single pool and no lanes, it is a process diagram and the pool boundary rectangle may be omitted
  • 33. IntroductiontoBPMN2 © 2012 Clear View Training Limited 33 Pools, message flows and messages • Use pools in conjunction with explicit messages to show communication between two or more business participants: Pool representing the Sales Department Pool representing the Warehouse Message A collaboration diagram Message flow
  • 34. IntroductiontoBPMN2 © 2012 Clear View Training Limited 34 Summary • Basic BPMN Elements in the process diagram: • Artifacts • Flow objects • Connecting objects • Swimlanes • BPMN semantics – the token game
  • 35. IntroductiontoBPMN2 © 2012 Clear View Training Limited That’s the end of the sample… • If you liked this sample, please support us by buying the full set of slides • And if you like the slides, you will love the book! • You can buy the slides and book at www.clearviewtraining.com • We are very grateful for your purchase - it allows us to continue producing quality books and training materials • Of course, we all like, “free”, but if you won’t support authors by buying books like this, soon there won’t be any books like this left to buy… 35

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