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Lesson 5:
Islam
Learning Objectives
 Identify the spiritual ang biological ancestors of Muslims.
 Narrate some key event in the life Muhammad, the founder of Islam.
 Explain the basic features of Islam’s sacred text, namely the Qur’an and Hadith
 Explain the Five Pillars of Islam, namely shahadah, salat, zakat, sawm, and hajj.
 Distinguish between the Sunni Islam and Shiite Islam.
 Explain the different element of Sufism or Sufi Islam.
Facts about Islam
The youngest and the second largest religion
Constitutes 25% of the world’s population
Indonesia has the largest population with 200 million Muslims
The early Muslims were Arabs
Islam and
Muslims
The word Islam literally means “surrender” or “submission”. In the
context of the religious tradition of Islam, the word specifically means
“surrender or submission to God”
The word Muslim or Moslem, means “one who submits to God”. The
god of Muslims is called “Allah” in Arabic.
Submission to God in Islam implies:
 Accepting and putting into action the doctrines of Islam, which is
contained in the Five Pillars of Islam
 Accepting other beliefs that Muhammad is God’s last prophet or
messenger.
Ishmael
The racial roots of
Muslims to
Abraham
The son of an
Egyptian
maidservant
Established a tribe
called Ishmaelites,
who were later on
called Arabs
Muhammad (Mohammad or
Mohammed)
A native from Mecca
The God’s chosen
messenger
The founder of Islam
Considered as the last
prophet
Regarded as the “Seal of
the Prophets” which
means there are no
other prophets after
him
The Life of
Muhammad
Born in Mecca
in 570 CE
First lived with
his grandfather
Abd al-
Muttalib
Lived with his
uncle Abu
Talib
Married to a
widow named
Khadijah
Died on June
8, 632
He had 6
children, 2
sons and 4
daughter
His daughter
Fatima married
Muhammad’s
cousin Ali ibn
Abu Talib, who
became the
fourth caliph
Hassan and
Hussein
Muhammad’s
grandsons who
became imam
Kabah (cube)
 A square-shaped shrine in Mecca which is a
center of pilgrimage
 Contained a black meteorite which was
worshipped
Night Journey or Night of Ascent
 The time when Muhammad was brought up to
heaven by angel Gabriel and met the prophets
Abraham, Noah and Moses
Hijra (Higira)
 The historical migration of Muhammad from
Mecca to Yathrib, now called Medina, to
escape from the persecution of Muhammad
and his followers
3 Sacred Cities of Islam
 Yathrib (Medina)
 Mecca
 Jerusalem
The Qur’an
and Hadith
Qur’an
 The holy book of Muslim
 Means the “The Recitation”
 Consists of 114 chapters
 Contains the main doctrine of Islam
Hadith
 A book that helps understand and interpret the doctrines in Qur’an
 Means “reports or recollection”
 Consists of written narration of Muhammad’s life, which report, his words, actions, decisions,
and characteristics as a person
 Refers to the entire collection of narration
 Also called Sunnah (referring to the words, actions, and decisions of Muhammad)
Shari’ah
 Means “pathway to be followed” i.e, the path leading to the watering place
 Refers to the Islamic Law or Islamic legal system
 A system of duties, responsibilities, or rules which Muslims must follow as a matter of
religion
Distinctions
 Qur’an contains God’s messages to Muhammad. These messages are the final message
of God to humanity through Muhammad.
 Hadith is a written record of the words, actions, decisions, character, and practices of
Muhammad.
 Shari’ah refers to the Islamic legal law, which was based on the Qur’an and Hadith. It
was formulated to serve as specific guidelines to Muslims in their everyday affairs and
activities.
Doctrines and
Practices
Tawhid
 Refers to the belief of the oneness of God
Other names of the God of Muslims
 ar-Rahmn (the Most Compassionate)
 ar- Rahm (the Merciful)
 as- Salm (All Peaceful)
 al-Ghaffr (the Forgiver)
 al-Latf (the Gentle, Knower of Subtleties)
The Afterlife
 Jannah is a place of eternal happiness
where good people are put by God
 Jahannam is a place of suffering where
evil people are put by God
Angels and Jinns
Angels are made of light. They were created before
mankind, and created to follow the commands of
Allah. They cannot deviate from obeying His
command, therefore they do not have a free will and
they are free of sin.
The Jinns are beings created by Allah, who created
them from fire and with a free will, as opposed to
the angels. The Jinn live on earth in a world
parallel to mankind but they are invisible to
us. Just as humans, Jinns are also required to
worship Allah and follow Islam.
The Prophets
 Adam (the first prophet)
 Abraham
 Ishmael
 Noah
 Moses
 Elisha
 David
 John the Baptist
 Jesus
 Muhammad (the last prophet)
1. Testimony of Faith (Shahadah)
 The most important and the foundation of the other pillars
 Requires Muslims to publicly profess or affirm their faith in the
oneness of God and in the authority of Muhammad as the
messenger of God.
 It is done by publicly reciting in Arabic the Islamic creed which can
be translated in English as “There is no god but God Allah” and
“Muhammad is the messenger of God”
The Five Pillars of Islam
2. Prayer (Salat)
 Requires Muslims to pray five times each day i.e., a) before dawn,
b) at midday/noon, c) mid-afternoon, d) sunset and, e) nighttime
 A person called muezzin usually announces the times of prayer
from top of a tower called minaret
• Wudu is a purification ritual or a ritual of washing
3. Charity for the Poor (Zakat)
 Requires Muslims to donate a certain percentage of
their resources to the poor
 It is usually done at the end of the month of
Ramadan
4. Fasting during Ramadan (Sawm)
 It is done during the month of Ramadan
 Done to promote spiritual growth or purification by disciplining
an individual’s desire, foster spiritual unity among Muslims,
empathize with the suffering and the poor, and reinforce
dependence of God
 Requires Muslims to abstain taking food and water in a certain
period of time
5. Pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj)
 Requires Muslims who are physically and financially
capable to visit the holy place of Mecca at least once in
their lifetime
 A Muslim male who has undertaken the journey to
Mecca is called hajji while a female Muslim who has
undertaken the same journey is called hajjiyah
Jihad
 Literally means “struggle”
 Sometimes called as the sixth
pillar
 Any kind of struggle to defend
the faith
Other Islamic Practices
 Males are allowed to have four wives whom he must treat equally
 Muslims are forbidden to eat pork, drink alcohol, and engage in usury and gambling.
 Muslims also practice circumcision.
 During marriage arrangement, a bridegroom’s family provides dowry, or an offer of money or
property to the family of the bride as part of the contract
 Muslims also observe Day of Sacrifice (Id al-Adha), which is celebrated at the end of the month of
the Hajj; Day of Breaking the Fast (Id al-Ftr), which is observed at the end of the month of
Ramadan; Muharram, which celebrates the migration of Muhammad and his followers to Yathrib
 Muslims also celebrate Muhammad’s birthday and other birthdays of the holy men and women of
Islam.
Denominations and
Challenges
Caliphs (successors)
 Headed Islam after the death of Muhammad
The first four caliphs
1. Abu Bakr (632 – 634 CE)
2. Umar (634 – 644 CE)
3. Uthman (644 – 656 CE)
4. Ali (656-661 CE)
The Rightly Guided Caliphs
 Called for the golden age of Islam
The Sunnis
 The largest denomination of Islam (75 to 90 percent of all Muslims
today)
 Believed that a caliph should be elected by the community
 Anyone who is righteous and just , and living according to the
teachings of Qur’an and the Hadith could be a caliph
The Shiites
 Making up the about 10 to 15 percent of all Muslims today
 Believed that only descendants or blood relative of Muhammad could be his
successor
 According to the only Ali was the legitimate and rightful one making him the first
caliph
 Claimed that Muhammad named Ali as his successor
 Also believe that only descendants or blood relatives of Muhammad can be
imams or spiritual leaders of Islam
The Sufis
Sufi Islam came about after the reign of the Rightly Guided Caliphs
Sufism
• Mystical version of Islam
• Called Tasawwuf (to dress in wool) in Arabic
• Comes from the Arabic word “suf” which means wool, the material that makes up the garments
worn by Sufi ascetics
• Emphasized what is thought to be essential in Islam, its spirituality which has been undermined
or lost when Islam become a world power
• Dedicate their life in meditation and expressing oneself in loving God through poetry
Salient Features of Sufism
 Fundamental principle: God, man and the relation of love
between God and man is fundamental to Sufism.
 Central Ideas: The idea of soul, divine proximity, divine love and
self annihilation are central to the theory of Sufism.
 Love of humanity: According to Sufism, love of God meant love of
humanity and thus, they stressed that service to God is nothing
but service of humanity.
 Belief in Equality: Sufism transcends all religious and communal
distinctions and treats all human beings as equal.
 Self discipline: Sufism also lays stress on self discipline and
considers it essential to gain knowledge of God.
 Inner Purity: Unlike orthodox Muslim sects, who lay emphasis on
external conduct. Sufism lays stress on inner purity.
(https://www.drishtiias.com/)
Relevance of Sufism in the present times
 Non Violence: Sufism believes in love and devotion to God. It has no place for
violence in its order.
 Equality of Beings: It does not believe in any societal classification such as religion,
caste, class or gender. With growing differences between people, Sufism gives the
message of essential equality of all human beings.
 Social Welfare: It stresses on social welfare which has led to the establishment of
works of charitable nature, opening of orphanages and women service centres.
 Morality: At a time when struggle for power is the prevailing madness, Sufism
reminds men of their moral obligations. In this world which is torn by strife and
conflict, It gives the message of peace and harmony.
 Meditation: Another idea emphasized by Sufism is meditation. With growing stress
in our body and mind, meditation gives a sense of calm, peace and balance that
can benefit both your emotional well-being and your overall health.
(https://www.drishtiias.com/)
Challenges
 The Israeili-Arab wars
 The Muslim internal war between the
Sunnis and the Shiites
 Islam has also been associated with some
terrorist acts, whether rightly or wrongly
 Negative views about Muslims,
discrimination and prejudice, or public
misconceptions about Islam
1-3. What are the 3 sacred cities of Islam? Mecca, Yathrib (Medina), Jerusalem
4. It is the holy book of Islam. Qur’an
5. It literally means “struggle”. Jihad
6-10. What are the five pillars of Islam?
11. It is a place of eternal happiness where good people are put by God.
Jannah
12. What is the literal meaning of the word Islam? surrender or submission
13. It is the country that has the largest population of Muslims. Indonesia
14. She is the mother of Ishmael and a maidservant of Abraham. Hagar
15. They are supernatural beings, but like humans, they will also be judged on
the Day of Judgment. Jinns
On a ½ sheet of paper, write 5 examples of Sufi poetry. The examples can
either be in lines or stanzas. Don’t forget to write the name of the poet.
ASSIGNMENT:

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Introduction to World Religions and Belief Systems Lesson 5 - Islam.pptx

  • 2. Learning Objectives  Identify the spiritual ang biological ancestors of Muslims.  Narrate some key event in the life Muhammad, the founder of Islam.  Explain the basic features of Islam’s sacred text, namely the Qur’an and Hadith  Explain the Five Pillars of Islam, namely shahadah, salat, zakat, sawm, and hajj.  Distinguish between the Sunni Islam and Shiite Islam.  Explain the different element of Sufism or Sufi Islam.
  • 3. Facts about Islam The youngest and the second largest religion Constitutes 25% of the world’s population Indonesia has the largest population with 200 million Muslims The early Muslims were Arabs
  • 4. Islam and Muslims The word Islam literally means “surrender” or “submission”. In the context of the religious tradition of Islam, the word specifically means “surrender or submission to God” The word Muslim or Moslem, means “one who submits to God”. The god of Muslims is called “Allah” in Arabic. Submission to God in Islam implies:  Accepting and putting into action the doctrines of Islam, which is contained in the Five Pillars of Islam  Accepting other beliefs that Muhammad is God’s last prophet or messenger.
  • 5. Ishmael The racial roots of Muslims to Abraham The son of an Egyptian maidservant Established a tribe called Ishmaelites, who were later on called Arabs
  • 6. Muhammad (Mohammad or Mohammed) A native from Mecca The God’s chosen messenger The founder of Islam Considered as the last prophet Regarded as the “Seal of the Prophets” which means there are no other prophets after him
  • 7. The Life of Muhammad Born in Mecca in 570 CE First lived with his grandfather Abd al- Muttalib Lived with his uncle Abu Talib Married to a widow named Khadijah Died on June 8, 632 He had 6 children, 2 sons and 4 daughter His daughter Fatima married Muhammad’s cousin Ali ibn Abu Talib, who became the fourth caliph Hassan and Hussein Muhammad’s grandsons who became imam
  • 8. Kabah (cube)  A square-shaped shrine in Mecca which is a center of pilgrimage  Contained a black meteorite which was worshipped Night Journey or Night of Ascent  The time when Muhammad was brought up to heaven by angel Gabriel and met the prophets Abraham, Noah and Moses
  • 9. Hijra (Higira)  The historical migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Yathrib, now called Medina, to escape from the persecution of Muhammad and his followers 3 Sacred Cities of Islam  Yathrib (Medina)  Mecca  Jerusalem
  • 11. Qur’an  The holy book of Muslim  Means the “The Recitation”  Consists of 114 chapters  Contains the main doctrine of Islam Hadith  A book that helps understand and interpret the doctrines in Qur’an  Means “reports or recollection”  Consists of written narration of Muhammad’s life, which report, his words, actions, decisions, and characteristics as a person  Refers to the entire collection of narration  Also called Sunnah (referring to the words, actions, and decisions of Muhammad)
  • 12. Shari’ah  Means “pathway to be followed” i.e, the path leading to the watering place  Refers to the Islamic Law or Islamic legal system  A system of duties, responsibilities, or rules which Muslims must follow as a matter of religion Distinctions  Qur’an contains God’s messages to Muhammad. These messages are the final message of God to humanity through Muhammad.  Hadith is a written record of the words, actions, decisions, character, and practices of Muhammad.  Shari’ah refers to the Islamic legal law, which was based on the Qur’an and Hadith. It was formulated to serve as specific guidelines to Muslims in their everyday affairs and activities.
  • 14. Tawhid  Refers to the belief of the oneness of God Other names of the God of Muslims  ar-Rahmn (the Most Compassionate)  ar- Rahm (the Merciful)  as- Salm (All Peaceful)  al-Ghaffr (the Forgiver)  al-Latf (the Gentle, Knower of Subtleties)
  • 15. The Afterlife  Jannah is a place of eternal happiness where good people are put by God  Jahannam is a place of suffering where evil people are put by God
  • 16. Angels and Jinns Angels are made of light. They were created before mankind, and created to follow the commands of Allah. They cannot deviate from obeying His command, therefore they do not have a free will and they are free of sin. The Jinns are beings created by Allah, who created them from fire and with a free will, as opposed to the angels. The Jinn live on earth in a world parallel to mankind but they are invisible to us. Just as humans, Jinns are also required to worship Allah and follow Islam.
  • 17. The Prophets  Adam (the first prophet)  Abraham  Ishmael  Noah  Moses  Elisha  David  John the Baptist  Jesus  Muhammad (the last prophet)
  • 18. 1. Testimony of Faith (Shahadah)  The most important and the foundation of the other pillars  Requires Muslims to publicly profess or affirm their faith in the oneness of God and in the authority of Muhammad as the messenger of God.  It is done by publicly reciting in Arabic the Islamic creed which can be translated in English as “There is no god but God Allah” and “Muhammad is the messenger of God” The Five Pillars of Islam
  • 19. 2. Prayer (Salat)  Requires Muslims to pray five times each day i.e., a) before dawn, b) at midday/noon, c) mid-afternoon, d) sunset and, e) nighttime  A person called muezzin usually announces the times of prayer from top of a tower called minaret • Wudu is a purification ritual or a ritual of washing
  • 20. 3. Charity for the Poor (Zakat)  Requires Muslims to donate a certain percentage of their resources to the poor  It is usually done at the end of the month of Ramadan
  • 21. 4. Fasting during Ramadan (Sawm)  It is done during the month of Ramadan  Done to promote spiritual growth or purification by disciplining an individual’s desire, foster spiritual unity among Muslims, empathize with the suffering and the poor, and reinforce dependence of God  Requires Muslims to abstain taking food and water in a certain period of time
  • 22. 5. Pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj)  Requires Muslims who are physically and financially capable to visit the holy place of Mecca at least once in their lifetime  A Muslim male who has undertaken the journey to Mecca is called hajji while a female Muslim who has undertaken the same journey is called hajjiyah
  • 23. Jihad  Literally means “struggle”  Sometimes called as the sixth pillar  Any kind of struggle to defend the faith
  • 25.  Males are allowed to have four wives whom he must treat equally  Muslims are forbidden to eat pork, drink alcohol, and engage in usury and gambling.  Muslims also practice circumcision.  During marriage arrangement, a bridegroom’s family provides dowry, or an offer of money or property to the family of the bride as part of the contract  Muslims also observe Day of Sacrifice (Id al-Adha), which is celebrated at the end of the month of the Hajj; Day of Breaking the Fast (Id al-Ftr), which is observed at the end of the month of Ramadan; Muharram, which celebrates the migration of Muhammad and his followers to Yathrib  Muslims also celebrate Muhammad’s birthday and other birthdays of the holy men and women of Islam.
  • 27. Caliphs (successors)  Headed Islam after the death of Muhammad The first four caliphs 1. Abu Bakr (632 – 634 CE) 2. Umar (634 – 644 CE) 3. Uthman (644 – 656 CE) 4. Ali (656-661 CE) The Rightly Guided Caliphs  Called for the golden age of Islam
  • 28. The Sunnis  The largest denomination of Islam (75 to 90 percent of all Muslims today)  Believed that a caliph should be elected by the community  Anyone who is righteous and just , and living according to the teachings of Qur’an and the Hadith could be a caliph
  • 29. The Shiites  Making up the about 10 to 15 percent of all Muslims today  Believed that only descendants or blood relative of Muhammad could be his successor  According to the only Ali was the legitimate and rightful one making him the first caliph  Claimed that Muhammad named Ali as his successor  Also believe that only descendants or blood relatives of Muhammad can be imams or spiritual leaders of Islam
  • 30. The Sufis Sufi Islam came about after the reign of the Rightly Guided Caliphs Sufism • Mystical version of Islam • Called Tasawwuf (to dress in wool) in Arabic • Comes from the Arabic word “suf” which means wool, the material that makes up the garments worn by Sufi ascetics • Emphasized what is thought to be essential in Islam, its spirituality which has been undermined or lost when Islam become a world power • Dedicate their life in meditation and expressing oneself in loving God through poetry
  • 31. Salient Features of Sufism  Fundamental principle: God, man and the relation of love between God and man is fundamental to Sufism.  Central Ideas: The idea of soul, divine proximity, divine love and self annihilation are central to the theory of Sufism.  Love of humanity: According to Sufism, love of God meant love of humanity and thus, they stressed that service to God is nothing but service of humanity.  Belief in Equality: Sufism transcends all religious and communal distinctions and treats all human beings as equal.  Self discipline: Sufism also lays stress on self discipline and considers it essential to gain knowledge of God.  Inner Purity: Unlike orthodox Muslim sects, who lay emphasis on external conduct. Sufism lays stress on inner purity. (https://www.drishtiias.com/)
  • 32. Relevance of Sufism in the present times  Non Violence: Sufism believes in love and devotion to God. It has no place for violence in its order.  Equality of Beings: It does not believe in any societal classification such as religion, caste, class or gender. With growing differences between people, Sufism gives the message of essential equality of all human beings.  Social Welfare: It stresses on social welfare which has led to the establishment of works of charitable nature, opening of orphanages and women service centres.  Morality: At a time when struggle for power is the prevailing madness, Sufism reminds men of their moral obligations. In this world which is torn by strife and conflict, It gives the message of peace and harmony.  Meditation: Another idea emphasized by Sufism is meditation. With growing stress in our body and mind, meditation gives a sense of calm, peace and balance that can benefit both your emotional well-being and your overall health. (https://www.drishtiias.com/)
  • 33. Challenges  The Israeili-Arab wars  The Muslim internal war between the Sunnis and the Shiites  Islam has also been associated with some terrorist acts, whether rightly or wrongly  Negative views about Muslims, discrimination and prejudice, or public misconceptions about Islam
  • 34. 1-3. What are the 3 sacred cities of Islam? Mecca, Yathrib (Medina), Jerusalem 4. It is the holy book of Islam. Qur’an 5. It literally means “struggle”. Jihad 6-10. What are the five pillars of Islam? 11. It is a place of eternal happiness where good people are put by God. Jannah 12. What is the literal meaning of the word Islam? surrender or submission 13. It is the country that has the largest population of Muslims. Indonesia 14. She is the mother of Ishmael and a maidservant of Abraham. Hagar 15. They are supernatural beings, but like humans, they will also be judged on the Day of Judgment. Jinns
  • 35. On a ½ sheet of paper, write 5 examples of Sufi poetry. The examples can either be in lines or stanzas. Don’t forget to write the name of the poet. ASSIGNMENT: