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TRANSCODING for ACCESS and PRESERVATION Screening the Future Skip Elsheimer, A/V Geeks Dave Rice, AV Preserve 2011-03-15
Our Approach Grass-roots digitizing - little to no budgets. Low cost digitizing stations. Open source software tools Off the shelf computer hardware Transparent and controllable tools
Who are these guys anyway? David Rice Skip Elsheimer
OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION intro of digital video why transcode? transcoding assembly line transcoding for access transcoding for preservation
Transcoding What is it? Transcoding is the direct digital-to-digital conversion of one video encoding format to another.
Why do it? Access...  The Preservation Master is too big of a file to share with researchers.  Can't be streamed online. Can't be easily edited with popular NLE software.  Can't play in a DVD player. In a codec that can't be played back in real time or is proprietary. The “popular” online access format keeps changing (Realmedia, WMW, FLV, MPEG4, WebM?) as does the bandwidth allowed.
Why do it? Migration... Moving to a new, more efficient codec. Moving to an archive-wide standard codec. Original file codec that can't be played back in real time or is no longer being supported by current video playing software.
Characteristics of a Pixel & Frame Number of Channels/Samples (1, 2, 3, or 4) Colorspace (gray, RGB, YUV, XYZ, etc) Bit Depth (1, 4, 8, 10, 16) Valid Pixel Values ( 0-255, 16-235/16-240) Pixel Aspect Ratio Pixel Height and Pixel Width (640x480) Chroma Subsampling Packed or Paletted Interlaced or Progressive Presentation Time / Frame Duration
Y Cb / Cr Colorspace
Transcoding Process Demultiplexion Decoding Filters: Conversion of Pixel Format, Scaling, Padding, Cropping, Denoise, Inverse Telecine, Image Processing Encoding Multiplexion
Open MXF Decode jpeg2000 to raw video scale to 640x480, denoise, deinterlace filter, overlay logo, change pixel format from YUV 4:2:2 to YUV 4:2:0 Encode to h264 Wrap in MP4 Transcoding Process
Transcoding Process DV NTSC to DV PAL < File size  : 36000000> File size  : 36144000< Duration  : 00:00:10.010> Duration  : 00:00:10.040< Height  : 480> Height  : 576< Pixel aspect ratio  : 0.889> Pixel aspect ratio  : 1.067< Frame rate  : 29.970> Frame rate  : 25.000< Frame count  : 300> Frame count  : 251< Chroma subsampling  : 4:1:1> Chroma subsampling  : 4:2:0
Transcoding Process Film to Betacam < Size  : Large and round> Size  : Small and rectangular< Frame Size  : ~8k> Frame Size  : 720x486< Frame rate  : ~24.000> Frame rate  : 29.970< Chroma subsampling  : none> Chroma subsampling  : 4:2:2 < Colorspace  : RGB? > Colorspace  : YUV < Interlacement  : None (Progressive) > Interlacement  : Interlaced
Digital video basics - here’s what can be manipulated/lost/mangled when you transcode a video file Much transcoding for access is to reduce the bandwidth of the file and to switch to a more popularly available codec. Example – going from JPEG2000 MXF file to 800kbps h264 file. Reduce the frame size of the video file (720x540 to 320x240). Compress intraframe (each frame like JPEG) and intraframe (reduce number of frames, like MPEG) Change the color space and sampling rate (RGB to YUV, 10bit to 8bit). Deinterlacing, denoising for better encoding. Aspect ratio. Don't crop or squeeze an SD frame into a HD frame. Pad with pillarboxes.
Why is transcoding for access important and you should give it more attention in your workflow? To most people, an access file is a preservation file.  Without giving access, you are “shelving for the future” and not “screening for the future”. Going from an arcane format (tape/film) on a shelf to an arcane digital file on a hard drive on a shelf. Brewster Kahle's 3 points of access for future generations. PrestoPRIME “Preservation for access” Access can give context to the archive and generate interest(funding) to do further digitizing.
Examples of transcoding for access Make a reference DVD for average viewer. Make a stream-friendly file - h264. Make a file that can easily ingested for broadcast purposes. Updating online access file as average audience bandwidth increases, target screen changes (from computer to ipod to ipad to...), codec dujoir changes (Realmedia, WMV, MPG4, WebM)
100816 MPEG-4 68580 Windows Media 61985 AVI 49879 RealMedia 43106 JPEG 32318 Flash Video 28937 MPEG Audio 28617 MPEG-PS 13300 QuickTime  5979 OGG  4057 GIF  3365 ShockWave  2940 MPEG Video  1411 DivX  914 Matroska  907 PNG  582 ZIP  480 DV 421 BDAV393 MPEG-TS364 WebM300 SubRip296 Wave191 AMR189 ADTS117 DVD Video113 GZip 66 Bitmap 65 MZ 57 AIFF 56 7-Zip 49 MXF 38 FLAC 31 AC-3 27 CDXA/MPEG-PS A/V Container Popularity (# by use) within Internet Archive original video uploads
 
 
81625 MPEG-4 Visual68283 AVC43226 VC-133854 RealVideo 420374 H.26320131 MPEG-2 Video16793 VP616021 WMV211907 MPEG-1 Video 9502 M-JPEG 7880 RealVideo 3 6530 Sorenson 3 4865 WMV1 4272 Theora 1376 Dirac 1308 DV1131 DVCPRO1063 RLE 938 Sorenson 1 935 Cinepack 594 Indeo 4 577 Road Pizza 508 RGB 422 xvid 364 VP8 335 MS Video 252 WVP2 225 TechSmith 225 RealVideo 2 205 M-PNG A/V Video Codec Popularity (# by use) within Internet Archive original video uploads
 
 
 
 
24025 29.97021285 25.00010213 30.000 7265 15.000 2297 23.976 2150 14.985 1370  7.500  954 12.000  813 24.000  748 20.000  723  8.000  568 10.000 516 29.000  466 29.900  368 11.988  359 59.940  291  7.000  225 60.000  206 12.500  167 14.970  120 15.170  119 50.000 Video Frame Rate Popularity (# by use)
3775 720x480 @ 4:3 2956 720x480 @ 3:2 556 720x480 @ 16:9 13 720x480 @ 1.600 4 720x480 @ 1.296  4 720x480 @ 2.2:1  4 720x480 @ 4.615 3 720x480 @ 2.227 2 720x480 @ 1.636  2 720x480 @ 1.666 1 720x480 @ 1.863  1 720x480 @ 2.35:1 Sampling of the Display Aspect Ratios of 7,321 videos with 720x480  frame  size
 
 
 
Transcoding Use Case: Democracy Now! DVCam miniDV CD-R .dv .flac .mpeg .h264 Internet Archive .mp4 .mp3 .ogg .mp4 .ogv DVD-R CD-R Created during broadcast
•  ffmpeg -i camels.avi -vn -acodec libfaac -ab 64k -ac 2 temp.aac •  ffmpeg -an -deinterlace -i camels.avi -s 320x240 -r 20 -vcodec rawvideo -pix_fmt yuv420p -f rawvideo - 2>/dev/null | ffmpeg -an -f rawvideo -s 320x240 -r 20 -i - -f yuv4mpegpipe - 2>/dev/null | x264 --bitrate 512 --vbv-maxrate 768 --vbv-bufsize 1024 --profile baseline --pass 1 /dev/stdin --demuxer y4m -o temp.h264 •  ffmpeg -an -deinterlace -i camels.avi -s 320x240 -r 20 -vcodec rawvideo -pix_fmt yuv420p -f rawvideo - 2>/dev/null | ffmpeg -an -f rawvideo -s 320x240 -r 20 -i - -f yuv4mpegpipe - 2>/dev/null | x264 --bitrate 512 --vbv-maxrate 768 --vbv-bufsize 1024 --profile baseline --pass 2 /dev/stdin --demuxer y4m -o temp.h264 •  mp4creator -c temp.h264 -r 20 t2.mp4 •  mp4creator -c temp.aac -interleave t2.mp4 •  ffmpeg -i t2.mp4 -acodec copy -vcodec copy  -metadata title=&quot;Camels at a Zoo - http://www.archive.org/details/camels&quot; -metadata year=&quot;2004&quot; -metadata comment=&quot;license:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/&quot;  camels_512kb.mp4 •  mp4creator -optimize camels_512kb.mp4
 
 
qtmux qtmux --metadatatype metadata -o out.mov inVideo.mov inAudio.mov use -siv to activate save-in-placemultiple metadatatypes and input videos welcome accepted metadatatypes: Album, Artist, Author, Chapter, Comment, Composer, Copyright, CreationDate, Description, Director, Disclaimer, EncodedBy, FullName, Genre, HostComputer, Information, Keywords, Make, Model, OriginalArtist, OriginalFormat, OriginalSource, Performers, Producer, Product, Software, SpecialPlaybackRequirements, Track, Warning, Writer, URLLink, EditDate also accepted are metadatatypes of 4 characters starting with @
qtmedia -File- &quot;/Users/daverice/Downloads/B03774-12.mov_bitc.mov&quot;-Info- Hinted: No Ref Movie: No Size: 600.00 x 480.00 Duration: 32.00 seconds DataRate: 90077.97 bytes/secs BitRate: 0 bits/secs User Data: ©enc: &quot;WITNESS Media Archive oris: &quot;E007653 (WITNESS Media Archive); Prior source: B03774 (WITNESS Media Archive); FCP Reel Value: B03774 cmmt: &quot;Master (Generation). name: &quot;[Screening of ON THE FRONTLINES in Gasorwe, Nuyinga, and Mwaro] (3869) perf: &quot;Bukeni Tete Waruzi genr: &quot;Raw prod: &quot;P-OTF On the Frontlines: Child Soldiers in the DRC. keyw: &quot;Child Soldiers, Film and Video Screenings, WITNESS Events, WITNESS Partners, WITNESS, Burundi, Africa, Gasorwe, Nuyinga, Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire), Mwaro cprt: &quot;WITNESS/AJEDI-ka
Inspection: http://mediainfo.sourceforge.net / VideoCount  : 1AudioCount  : 1TextCount  : 11Video_Format_List  : AVCVideo_Language_List  : enAudio_Format_List  : DTSText_Format_List  : ASS / ASS / ASS / ASS / ASS / ASS / ASS / ASS / ASS / ASS / ASSText_Language_List  : en / fr / es / sv / da / fi / hu / ro / de / cs / slFolderName  : /Users/daverice/Projects/samples/samples2FileName  : matroska+h264+dca+0x0000+memory-usageFileExtension  : mkvFormat  : MatroskaFileSize  : 262144000Duration  : 8437088Duration/String3  : 02:20:37.088OverallBitRate  : 248563Encoded_Date  : UTC 2007-05-30 07:44:45File_Modified_Date  : UTC 2010-02-21 12:59:57File_Modified_Date_Local  : 2010-02-21 07:59:57Encoded_Application  : mkvmerge v2.0.2 ('You're My Flame') built on Feb 21 2007 23:40:55Encoded_Library  : libebml v0.7.7 + libmatroska v0.8.1Encoded_Library/String  : libebml v0.7.7 + libmatroska v0.8.1Cover  : Yes
VideoUniqueID  : 1Format  : AVCFormat_Profile  :  [email_address] Format_Settings  : CABAC / 8 Ref FramesCodecID  : V_MPEG4/ISO/AVCDuration/String3  : 02:20:37.104Width  : 1920Height  : 800PixelAspectRatio  : 1.000DisplayAspectRatio  : 2.400FrameRate  : 23.976ColorSpace  : YUVChromaSubsampling  : 4:2:0BitDepth  : 8ScanType  : ProgressiveDelay/String3  : 00:00:00.000Title  : Letters From Iwo Jima (2006)Encoded_Library/Name  : x264Encoded_Library/Version  : core 55Encoded_Library_Settings  : cabac=1 / ref=5 / deblock=1:-6:-6 / analyse=0x3:0x133 / me=umh / subme=7 / brdo=1 / mixed_ref=1 / me_range=16 / chroma_me=1 / trellis=1 / 8x8dct=1 / cqm=2 / deadzone=21,11 / chroma_qp_offset=0 / threads=3 / nr=0 / decimate=1 / mbaff=0 / bframes=3 / b_pyramid=1 / b_adapt=1 / b_bias=0 / direct=3 / wpredb=1 / bime=1 / keyint=250 / keyint_min=25 / scenecut=40(pre) / rc=2pass / bitrate=6546 / ratetol=1.0 / rceq='blurCplx^(1-qComp)' / qcomp=0.60 / qpmin=10 / qpmax=51 / qpstep=4 / cplxblur=20.0 / qblur=0.5 / ip_ratio=1.40 / pb_ratio=1.30 / aq=1:0.3:15.0Language  : en Inspection: http://mediainfo.sourceforge.net /
AudioUniqueID  : 881684881Format  : DTSFormat/Info  : Digital Theater SystemsCodecID  : A_DTSDuration/String3  : 02:20:37.088 BitRate_Mode  : CBRBitRate  : 1509750Channel(s)  : 6ChannelPositions  : Front: L C R, Side: L R, LFESamplingRate  : 48000SamplingCount  : 404980224Resolution  : 24BitDepth  : 24Delay/String3  : 00:00:00.000Delay_Source  : ContainerStreamSize  : 1592236701Title  : Japanese DTS 5.1 (1.5mbps)Text #1UniqueID  : 3861542542Format  : ASSCodecID  : S_TEXT/ASSCodecID/Info  : Advanced Sub Station AlphaCodec  : S_TEXT/ASSLanguage  : en Inspection: http://mediainfo.sourceforge.net /
Defining ‘Lossless’ Quicktime DV PCM Raw Video lossless h264 MP4 Original Quicktime: 125 MB  Resulting Lossless MP4: 187 MB
Quicktime DV PCM Raw Video lossless h264 MP4 Original Quicktime: 125 MB  Resulting Lossless MP4: 187 MB  Raw Decompressed Video: 512 MB  Defining ‘Lossless’ lossless process
codec= raw uyvy422 , bitdepth=8, frameSize=720x486 1210 Megabytes / minute codec= jpeg2000 , bitdepth=8, frameSize=720x486 409 Megabytes / minute  (encoded random video samples with openjpeg) codec= ffv1 , bitdepth=8, frameSize=720x486 354 Megabytes / minute  (encoded random video samples with ffmpeg / libavcodec) codec= dv50 , bitdepth=8, frameSize= 720x480 422 Megabytes / minute Comparison of Data Rates All scenario assume 29.97 fps, 4:2:2 and stereo 16 bit, 48,000 kHz audio
Verifying ‘Lossless’ ffmpeg -i 5129-B04312_DV-PAL_720x576.mov -f framemd5 -an -Input #0, mov,mp4,m4a,3gp,3g2,mj2, from '5129-B04312_DV-PAL_720x576.mov':  Duration: 00:55:14.04, start: 0.000000, bitrate: 301 kb/s  Stream #0.0(eng): Audio: pcm_s16be, 48000 Hz, 2 channels, s16, 1536 kb/  Stream #0.1(eng): Video: dvvideo, yuv420p, 720x576 [PAR 64:45 DAR 16:9], 28800 kb/s, PAR 118:81 DAR 295:162, 25 fps, 25 tbr, 2500 tbn, 25 tbc  Stream #0.2(eng): Data: tmcd / 0x64636D74Output #0, framemd5, to 'pipe:':  Stream #0.0(eng): Video: rawvideo, yuv420p, 720x576 [PAR 118:81 DAR 295:162], q=2-31, 200 kb/s, 90k tbn, 25 tbcStream mapping:  Stream #0.1 -> #0.0Press [q] to stop encoding0, 0, 622080, 9f7be428173e13d64a52ad75838b01230, 3600, 622080, e03f0dd12d7764100a201c378e732acc0, 7200, 622080, d6a0038f274dba8ce0a2e5b2015442900, 10800, 622080, a8dd7615d180b42a771cd071f1e37f160, 14400, 622080, 3c542b25edc7cf358c82400324f5f26e0, 18000, 622080, 41f456d4dae64dce0bf6dda30809d8550, 21600, 622080, 9018249d3224ecc89b474d97514220fd0, 25200, 622080, 1b9a03d8c21b5247f0f87c8d02b2542e0, 28800, 622080, 10214f13c0b7f18af715b359ed0263280, 32400, 622080, a7fa46bcff6ba19767d2587a8ec748770, 36000, 622080, c7e15c5a303755d759dfa6b0d99a69980, 39600, 622080, d2ff6b07d43d96296998e8be47a72ec80, 43200, 622080, 8a5477da7f834320e99b97b0642c2904
Verifying ‘Lossless’ ffmpeg -i 5129-B04312_DV-PAL_720x576_lossloss.mp4 -f framemd5 -t 0.5 -an -Input #0, mov,mp4,m4a,3gp,3g2,mj2, from '/Users/daverice/Desktop/samples/5129-B04312_DV-PAL_720x576_lossloss.mp4':  Duration: 00:00:32.96, start: 0.000000, bitrate: 45531 kb/s  Stream #0.0(eng): Video: h264 (High 4:4:4 Predictive), yuv420p, 720x576 [PAR 118:81 DAR 295:162], 45467 kb/s, PAR 131:90 DAR 131:72, 25 fps, 25 tbr, 25 tbn, 50 tbcOutput #0, framemd5, to 'pipe:':  Stream #0.0(eng): Video: rawvideo, yuv420p, 720x576 [PAR 131:90 DAR 131:72], q=2-31, 200 kb/s, 90k tbn, 25 tbcStream mapping:  Stream #0.0 -> #0.0Press [q] to stop encoding0, 0, 622080, 9f7be428173e13d64a52ad75838b01230, 3600, 622080, e03f0dd12d7764100a201c378e732acc0, 7200, 622080, d6a0038f274dba8ce0a2e5b2015442900, 10800, 622080, a8dd7615d180b42a771cd071f1e37f160, 14400, 622080, 3c542b25edc7cf358c82400324f5f26e0, 18000, 622080, 41f456d4dae64dce0bf6dda30809d8550, 21600, 622080, 9018249d3224ecc89b474d97514220fd0, 25200, 622080, 1b9a03d8c21b5247f0f87c8d02b2542e0, 28800, 622080, 10214f13c0b7f18af715b359ed0263280, 32400, 622080, a7fa46bcff6ba19767d2587a8ec74877
 
 
 
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Execution_of_Saddam_Hussein Time and place of execution Saddam was executed by hanging at approximately 06:00 local time (03:00  GMT ) on December 30, 2006, the day  Sunni  Iraqis begin ce leb rating  Eid ul-Adha . [4][5][6]  Report s con flict as to the exact time of t he executio n, with some  so urc es  rep ort ing the time as 06:00, 06:05, or some, as late as 06:10. [4][6][7]  The execution took place at the joint Iraqi-American military base  Camp Ju sti ce ,  lo cat ed  in  Kazimain , a north-eastern suburb of  Baghdad . Camp Justice was previo usly used by  Saddam as his military i ntellige nce headquarters, then known as Camp  Banzai , where Iraqi civilians were taken to be tortured and executed on the same gallows. Contrary to initial reports, Saddam was executed alone, not at the same time as his co-defendants  Barzan Ibrahim al-Tikriti  and  Awad Hamed al-Bandar , who were executed on January 15, 2007.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Execution_of_Saddam_Hussein Time and place of execution Saddam was executed by hanging at approximately 06:00 local time (03:00  GMT ) on December 30, 2006, the day  Sunni  Iraqis begin ce leb rating  Eid ul-Adha . [4][5][6]  Report s con flict as to the exact time of t he executio n, with some  so urc es  rep ort ing the time as 06:00, 06:05, or some, as late as 06:10. [4][6][7]  The execution took place at the joint Iraqi-American military base  Camp Ju sti ce ,  lo cat ed  in  Kazimain , a north-eastern suburb of  Baghdad . Camp Justice was previo usly used by  Saddam as his military i ntellige nce headquarters, then known as Camp  Banzai , where Iraqi civilians were taken to be tortured and executed on the same gallows. Contrary to initial reports, Saddam was executed alone, not at the same time as his co-defendants  Barzan Ibrahim al-Tikriti  and  Awad Hamed al-Bandar , who were executed on January 15, 2007. mediainfo saddam.3gp  GeneralFormat profile  : 3GPP Media Release 4File size  : 1381144Encoded date  : 2006-12-30 06:11:47VideoFormat  : H.263Format profile  :  [email_address] Duration  : 00:02:37.127Width  : 176Height  : 144Frame rate mode  : VariableFrame rate  : 6.186 fpsCompression mode  : Lossy
Thanks
More information which we won't be able to address during the presentation...
How? - Solutions for transcoding Early NLEs were concerned only with ingesting from video tape and outputting back to tape. Creating video that's only for watching on a computer is relatively new. Other tools for transcoding began to pop up and eventually NLEs added that functionality – although it can be a bit kludgy.
How – What to shop for? Inputs and outputs variety of video formats but make sure they can handle the formats that you need. Pro packages are mostly aimed towards content providers (TV networks, etc.) Basic/home user packages are aimed towards converting for internet, iPod, mobile device use – less features. Batch processing is a must. “Set it and forget it” Since transcoding can be very processor/time-intensive, letting a computer render overnight or during the weekend is very useful. Be aware of the licensing. Some programs limit the amount and types transcoding you can do to make you buy a more professional package. Watermarking, burn in time code, etc.
Transcoding with  Final Cut Pro/Premiere/After Effects, etc.  Most non-linear editors have the ability to import one video format and export to another. Tend to be the most expensive solutions with lots of overhead. If you don't need the other tools of an NLE, don't buy one just to transcode. It's overkill and maybe not the best solution. These programs are not always the archivists friend. Some NLEs do transcoding shortcuts and don't easily allow you to tweak the parameters.
Some professional transcoding tools Apple Compressor (Mac, $1000) Grass Valley Procoder (Windows, $500) Sorenson Squeeze (Mac & Windows, $800) Telestream Episode (Mac & Windows, $500) Telestream FlipFactory (Windows, $5500)
Hardware/Software Solutions Some digitizing cards have software to transcode. Some hardware speeds up the transcoding process with chips that have been optimized for certain codecs. Digital Rapids Stream (lite version bundles with same hardware as SAMMA Solo) Elgato Turbo h264 Matrox Compress HD
Cheap/Free Solutions ●  Quicktime Pro ($20, plus $20 if you wish to play/process MPEG2)  Don't use Quicktime X – it suX! ●  VLC (free)  http://www.videolan.org/ ●  MPEG Streamclip (free)  http://www.squared5.com   ●  Ffmpeg (free)  http://www.ffmpeg.org/ ●  mplayer ●  Scores of utilities that provide a GUI for ffmpeg. Some are  better than others (SUPER, ffmpegx, etc.)
WARNING – Common mistakes Going from a lower bitrate to higher bitrate video While it may be necessary to upsample the video for editing  (SD video in an HD production) it shouldn't be done for preservation migration, since. Files are bigger, but no quality is gained. With DV, you could be losing important implicit metadata (timestamps, error information, camera/exposure info) and even audio tracks Interlacing. If the access file is never going to be shown on a TV, the file should be deinterlaced. Quality is lessened but the annoying combing effect also goes
Questions? Skip Elsheimer A/V Geeks LLC [email_address] http://www.avgeeks.com

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Introduction to Transcoding: Tools and Processes

  • 1. TRANSCODING for ACCESS and PRESERVATION Screening the Future Skip Elsheimer, A/V Geeks Dave Rice, AV Preserve 2011-03-15
  • 2. Our Approach Grass-roots digitizing - little to no budgets. Low cost digitizing stations. Open source software tools Off the shelf computer hardware Transparent and controllable tools
  • 3. Who are these guys anyway? David Rice Skip Elsheimer
  • 4. OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION intro of digital video why transcode? transcoding assembly line transcoding for access transcoding for preservation
  • 5. Transcoding What is it? Transcoding is the direct digital-to-digital conversion of one video encoding format to another.
  • 6. Why do it? Access... The Preservation Master is too big of a file to share with researchers. Can't be streamed online. Can't be easily edited with popular NLE software. Can't play in a DVD player. In a codec that can't be played back in real time or is proprietary. The “popular” online access format keeps changing (Realmedia, WMW, FLV, MPEG4, WebM?) as does the bandwidth allowed.
  • 7. Why do it? Migration... Moving to a new, more efficient codec. Moving to an archive-wide standard codec. Original file codec that can't be played back in real time or is no longer being supported by current video playing software.
  • 8. Characteristics of a Pixel & Frame Number of Channels/Samples (1, 2, 3, or 4) Colorspace (gray, RGB, YUV, XYZ, etc) Bit Depth (1, 4, 8, 10, 16) Valid Pixel Values ( 0-255, 16-235/16-240) Pixel Aspect Ratio Pixel Height and Pixel Width (640x480) Chroma Subsampling Packed or Paletted Interlaced or Progressive Presentation Time / Frame Duration
  • 9. Y Cb / Cr Colorspace
  • 10. Transcoding Process Demultiplexion Decoding Filters: Conversion of Pixel Format, Scaling, Padding, Cropping, Denoise, Inverse Telecine, Image Processing Encoding Multiplexion
  • 11. Open MXF Decode jpeg2000 to raw video scale to 640x480, denoise, deinterlace filter, overlay logo, change pixel format from YUV 4:2:2 to YUV 4:2:0 Encode to h264 Wrap in MP4 Transcoding Process
  • 12. Transcoding Process DV NTSC to DV PAL < File size : 36000000> File size : 36144000< Duration : 00:00:10.010> Duration : 00:00:10.040< Height : 480> Height : 576< Pixel aspect ratio : 0.889> Pixel aspect ratio : 1.067< Frame rate : 29.970> Frame rate : 25.000< Frame count : 300> Frame count : 251< Chroma subsampling : 4:1:1> Chroma subsampling : 4:2:0
  • 13. Transcoding Process Film to Betacam < Size : Large and round> Size : Small and rectangular< Frame Size : ~8k> Frame Size : 720x486< Frame rate : ~24.000> Frame rate : 29.970< Chroma subsampling : none> Chroma subsampling : 4:2:2 < Colorspace : RGB? > Colorspace : YUV < Interlacement : None (Progressive) > Interlacement : Interlaced
  • 14. Digital video basics - here’s what can be manipulated/lost/mangled when you transcode a video file Much transcoding for access is to reduce the bandwidth of the file and to switch to a more popularly available codec. Example – going from JPEG2000 MXF file to 800kbps h264 file. Reduce the frame size of the video file (720x540 to 320x240). Compress intraframe (each frame like JPEG) and intraframe (reduce number of frames, like MPEG) Change the color space and sampling rate (RGB to YUV, 10bit to 8bit). Deinterlacing, denoising for better encoding. Aspect ratio. Don't crop or squeeze an SD frame into a HD frame. Pad with pillarboxes.
  • 15. Why is transcoding for access important and you should give it more attention in your workflow? To most people, an access file is a preservation file. Without giving access, you are “shelving for the future” and not “screening for the future”. Going from an arcane format (tape/film) on a shelf to an arcane digital file on a hard drive on a shelf. Brewster Kahle's 3 points of access for future generations. PrestoPRIME “Preservation for access” Access can give context to the archive and generate interest(funding) to do further digitizing.
  • 16. Examples of transcoding for access Make a reference DVD for average viewer. Make a stream-friendly file - h264. Make a file that can easily ingested for broadcast purposes. Updating online access file as average audience bandwidth increases, target screen changes (from computer to ipod to ipad to...), codec dujoir changes (Realmedia, WMV, MPG4, WebM)
  • 17. 100816 MPEG-4 68580 Windows Media 61985 AVI 49879 RealMedia 43106 JPEG 32318 Flash Video 28937 MPEG Audio 28617 MPEG-PS 13300 QuickTime 5979 OGG 4057 GIF 3365 ShockWave 2940 MPEG Video 1411 DivX 914 Matroska 907 PNG 582 ZIP 480 DV 421 BDAV393 MPEG-TS364 WebM300 SubRip296 Wave191 AMR189 ADTS117 DVD Video113 GZip 66 Bitmap 65 MZ 57 AIFF 56 7-Zip 49 MXF 38 FLAC 31 AC-3 27 CDXA/MPEG-PS A/V Container Popularity (# by use) within Internet Archive original video uploads
  • 18.  
  • 19.  
  • 20. 81625 MPEG-4 Visual68283 AVC43226 VC-133854 RealVideo 420374 H.26320131 MPEG-2 Video16793 VP616021 WMV211907 MPEG-1 Video 9502 M-JPEG 7880 RealVideo 3 6530 Sorenson 3 4865 WMV1 4272 Theora 1376 Dirac 1308 DV1131 DVCPRO1063 RLE 938 Sorenson 1 935 Cinepack 594 Indeo 4 577 Road Pizza 508 RGB 422 xvid 364 VP8 335 MS Video 252 WVP2 225 TechSmith 225 RealVideo 2 205 M-PNG A/V Video Codec Popularity (# by use) within Internet Archive original video uploads
  • 21.  
  • 22.  
  • 23.  
  • 24.  
  • 25. 24025 29.97021285 25.00010213 30.000 7265 15.000 2297 23.976 2150 14.985 1370 7.500 954 12.000 813 24.000 748 20.000 723 8.000 568 10.000 516 29.000 466 29.900 368 11.988 359 59.940 291 7.000 225 60.000 206 12.500 167 14.970 120 15.170 119 50.000 Video Frame Rate Popularity (# by use)
  • 26. 3775 720x480 @ 4:3 2956 720x480 @ 3:2 556 720x480 @ 16:9 13 720x480 @ 1.600 4 720x480 @ 1.296 4 720x480 @ 2.2:1 4 720x480 @ 4.615 3 720x480 @ 2.227 2 720x480 @ 1.636 2 720x480 @ 1.666 1 720x480 @ 1.863 1 720x480 @ 2.35:1 Sampling of the Display Aspect Ratios of 7,321 videos with 720x480 frame size
  • 27.  
  • 28.  
  • 29.  
  • 30. Transcoding Use Case: Democracy Now! DVCam miniDV CD-R .dv .flac .mpeg .h264 Internet Archive .mp4 .mp3 .ogg .mp4 .ogv DVD-R CD-R Created during broadcast
  • 31. • ffmpeg -i camels.avi -vn -acodec libfaac -ab 64k -ac 2 temp.aac •  ffmpeg -an -deinterlace -i camels.avi -s 320x240 -r 20 -vcodec rawvideo -pix_fmt yuv420p -f rawvideo - 2>/dev/null | ffmpeg -an -f rawvideo -s 320x240 -r 20 -i - -f yuv4mpegpipe - 2>/dev/null | x264 --bitrate 512 --vbv-maxrate 768 --vbv-bufsize 1024 --profile baseline --pass 1 /dev/stdin --demuxer y4m -o temp.h264 •  ffmpeg -an -deinterlace -i camels.avi -s 320x240 -r 20 -vcodec rawvideo -pix_fmt yuv420p -f rawvideo - 2>/dev/null | ffmpeg -an -f rawvideo -s 320x240 -r 20 -i - -f yuv4mpegpipe - 2>/dev/null | x264 --bitrate 512 --vbv-maxrate 768 --vbv-bufsize 1024 --profile baseline --pass 2 /dev/stdin --demuxer y4m -o temp.h264 •  mp4creator -c temp.h264 -r 20 t2.mp4 •  mp4creator -c temp.aac -interleave t2.mp4 •  ffmpeg -i t2.mp4 -acodec copy -vcodec copy -metadata title=&quot;Camels at a Zoo - http://www.archive.org/details/camels&quot; -metadata year=&quot;2004&quot; -metadata comment=&quot;license:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/&quot; camels_512kb.mp4 •  mp4creator -optimize camels_512kb.mp4
  • 32.  
  • 33.  
  • 34. qtmux qtmux --metadatatype metadata -o out.mov inVideo.mov inAudio.mov use -siv to activate save-in-placemultiple metadatatypes and input videos welcome accepted metadatatypes: Album, Artist, Author, Chapter, Comment, Composer, Copyright, CreationDate, Description, Director, Disclaimer, EncodedBy, FullName, Genre, HostComputer, Information, Keywords, Make, Model, OriginalArtist, OriginalFormat, OriginalSource, Performers, Producer, Product, Software, SpecialPlaybackRequirements, Track, Warning, Writer, URLLink, EditDate also accepted are metadatatypes of 4 characters starting with @
  • 35. qtmedia -File- &quot;/Users/daverice/Downloads/B03774-12.mov_bitc.mov&quot;-Info- Hinted: No Ref Movie: No Size: 600.00 x 480.00 Duration: 32.00 seconds DataRate: 90077.97 bytes/secs BitRate: 0 bits/secs User Data: ©enc: &quot;WITNESS Media Archive oris: &quot;E007653 (WITNESS Media Archive); Prior source: B03774 (WITNESS Media Archive); FCP Reel Value: B03774 cmmt: &quot;Master (Generation). name: &quot;[Screening of ON THE FRONTLINES in Gasorwe, Nuyinga, and Mwaro] (3869) perf: &quot;Bukeni Tete Waruzi genr: &quot;Raw prod: &quot;P-OTF On the Frontlines: Child Soldiers in the DRC. keyw: &quot;Child Soldiers, Film and Video Screenings, WITNESS Events, WITNESS Partners, WITNESS, Burundi, Africa, Gasorwe, Nuyinga, Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire), Mwaro cprt: &quot;WITNESS/AJEDI-ka
  • 36. Inspection: http://mediainfo.sourceforge.net / VideoCount : 1AudioCount : 1TextCount : 11Video_Format_List : AVCVideo_Language_List : enAudio_Format_List : DTSText_Format_List : ASS / ASS / ASS / ASS / ASS / ASS / ASS / ASS / ASS / ASS / ASSText_Language_List : en / fr / es / sv / da / fi / hu / ro / de / cs / slFolderName : /Users/daverice/Projects/samples/samples2FileName : matroska+h264+dca+0x0000+memory-usageFileExtension : mkvFormat : MatroskaFileSize : 262144000Duration : 8437088Duration/String3 : 02:20:37.088OverallBitRate : 248563Encoded_Date : UTC 2007-05-30 07:44:45File_Modified_Date : UTC 2010-02-21 12:59:57File_Modified_Date_Local : 2010-02-21 07:59:57Encoded_Application : mkvmerge v2.0.2 ('You're My Flame') built on Feb 21 2007 23:40:55Encoded_Library : libebml v0.7.7 + libmatroska v0.8.1Encoded_Library/String : libebml v0.7.7 + libmatroska v0.8.1Cover : Yes
  • 37. VideoUniqueID : 1Format : AVCFormat_Profile : [email_address] Format_Settings : CABAC / 8 Ref FramesCodecID : V_MPEG4/ISO/AVCDuration/String3 : 02:20:37.104Width : 1920Height : 800PixelAspectRatio : 1.000DisplayAspectRatio : 2.400FrameRate : 23.976ColorSpace : YUVChromaSubsampling : 4:2:0BitDepth : 8ScanType : ProgressiveDelay/String3 : 00:00:00.000Title : Letters From Iwo Jima (2006)Encoded_Library/Name : x264Encoded_Library/Version : core 55Encoded_Library_Settings : cabac=1 / ref=5 / deblock=1:-6:-6 / analyse=0x3:0x133 / me=umh / subme=7 / brdo=1 / mixed_ref=1 / me_range=16 / chroma_me=1 / trellis=1 / 8x8dct=1 / cqm=2 / deadzone=21,11 / chroma_qp_offset=0 / threads=3 / nr=0 / decimate=1 / mbaff=0 / bframes=3 / b_pyramid=1 / b_adapt=1 / b_bias=0 / direct=3 / wpredb=1 / bime=1 / keyint=250 / keyint_min=25 / scenecut=40(pre) / rc=2pass / bitrate=6546 / ratetol=1.0 / rceq='blurCplx^(1-qComp)' / qcomp=0.60 / qpmin=10 / qpmax=51 / qpstep=4 / cplxblur=20.0 / qblur=0.5 / ip_ratio=1.40 / pb_ratio=1.30 / aq=1:0.3:15.0Language : en Inspection: http://mediainfo.sourceforge.net /
  • 38. AudioUniqueID : 881684881Format : DTSFormat/Info : Digital Theater SystemsCodecID : A_DTSDuration/String3 : 02:20:37.088 BitRate_Mode : CBRBitRate : 1509750Channel(s) : 6ChannelPositions : Front: L C R, Side: L R, LFESamplingRate : 48000SamplingCount : 404980224Resolution : 24BitDepth : 24Delay/String3 : 00:00:00.000Delay_Source : ContainerStreamSize : 1592236701Title : Japanese DTS 5.1 (1.5mbps)Text #1UniqueID : 3861542542Format : ASSCodecID : S_TEXT/ASSCodecID/Info : Advanced Sub Station AlphaCodec : S_TEXT/ASSLanguage : en Inspection: http://mediainfo.sourceforge.net /
  • 39. Defining ‘Lossless’ Quicktime DV PCM Raw Video lossless h264 MP4 Original Quicktime: 125 MB Resulting Lossless MP4: 187 MB
  • 40. Quicktime DV PCM Raw Video lossless h264 MP4 Original Quicktime: 125 MB Resulting Lossless MP4: 187 MB Raw Decompressed Video: 512 MB Defining ‘Lossless’ lossless process
  • 41. codec= raw uyvy422 , bitdepth=8, frameSize=720x486 1210 Megabytes / minute codec= jpeg2000 , bitdepth=8, frameSize=720x486 409 Megabytes / minute (encoded random video samples with openjpeg) codec= ffv1 , bitdepth=8, frameSize=720x486 354 Megabytes / minute (encoded random video samples with ffmpeg / libavcodec) codec= dv50 , bitdepth=8, frameSize= 720x480 422 Megabytes / minute Comparison of Data Rates All scenario assume 29.97 fps, 4:2:2 and stereo 16 bit, 48,000 kHz audio
  • 42. Verifying ‘Lossless’ ffmpeg -i 5129-B04312_DV-PAL_720x576.mov -f framemd5 -an -Input #0, mov,mp4,m4a,3gp,3g2,mj2, from '5129-B04312_DV-PAL_720x576.mov': Duration: 00:55:14.04, start: 0.000000, bitrate: 301 kb/s Stream #0.0(eng): Audio: pcm_s16be, 48000 Hz, 2 channels, s16, 1536 kb/ Stream #0.1(eng): Video: dvvideo, yuv420p, 720x576 [PAR 64:45 DAR 16:9], 28800 kb/s, PAR 118:81 DAR 295:162, 25 fps, 25 tbr, 2500 tbn, 25 tbc Stream #0.2(eng): Data: tmcd / 0x64636D74Output #0, framemd5, to 'pipe:': Stream #0.0(eng): Video: rawvideo, yuv420p, 720x576 [PAR 118:81 DAR 295:162], q=2-31, 200 kb/s, 90k tbn, 25 tbcStream mapping: Stream #0.1 -> #0.0Press [q] to stop encoding0, 0, 622080, 9f7be428173e13d64a52ad75838b01230, 3600, 622080, e03f0dd12d7764100a201c378e732acc0, 7200, 622080, d6a0038f274dba8ce0a2e5b2015442900, 10800, 622080, a8dd7615d180b42a771cd071f1e37f160, 14400, 622080, 3c542b25edc7cf358c82400324f5f26e0, 18000, 622080, 41f456d4dae64dce0bf6dda30809d8550, 21600, 622080, 9018249d3224ecc89b474d97514220fd0, 25200, 622080, 1b9a03d8c21b5247f0f87c8d02b2542e0, 28800, 622080, 10214f13c0b7f18af715b359ed0263280, 32400, 622080, a7fa46bcff6ba19767d2587a8ec748770, 36000, 622080, c7e15c5a303755d759dfa6b0d99a69980, 39600, 622080, d2ff6b07d43d96296998e8be47a72ec80, 43200, 622080, 8a5477da7f834320e99b97b0642c2904
  • 43. Verifying ‘Lossless’ ffmpeg -i 5129-B04312_DV-PAL_720x576_lossloss.mp4 -f framemd5 -t 0.5 -an -Input #0, mov,mp4,m4a,3gp,3g2,mj2, from '/Users/daverice/Desktop/samples/5129-B04312_DV-PAL_720x576_lossloss.mp4': Duration: 00:00:32.96, start: 0.000000, bitrate: 45531 kb/s Stream #0.0(eng): Video: h264 (High 4:4:4 Predictive), yuv420p, 720x576 [PAR 118:81 DAR 295:162], 45467 kb/s, PAR 131:90 DAR 131:72, 25 fps, 25 tbr, 25 tbn, 50 tbcOutput #0, framemd5, to 'pipe:': Stream #0.0(eng): Video: rawvideo, yuv420p, 720x576 [PAR 131:90 DAR 131:72], q=2-31, 200 kb/s, 90k tbn, 25 tbcStream mapping: Stream #0.0 -> #0.0Press [q] to stop encoding0, 0, 622080, 9f7be428173e13d64a52ad75838b01230, 3600, 622080, e03f0dd12d7764100a201c378e732acc0, 7200, 622080, d6a0038f274dba8ce0a2e5b2015442900, 10800, 622080, a8dd7615d180b42a771cd071f1e37f160, 14400, 622080, 3c542b25edc7cf358c82400324f5f26e0, 18000, 622080, 41f456d4dae64dce0bf6dda30809d8550, 21600, 622080, 9018249d3224ecc89b474d97514220fd0, 25200, 622080, 1b9a03d8c21b5247f0f87c8d02b2542e0, 28800, 622080, 10214f13c0b7f18af715b359ed0263280, 32400, 622080, a7fa46bcff6ba19767d2587a8ec74877
  • 44.  
  • 45.  
  • 46.  
  • 47.  
  • 48. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Execution_of_Saddam_Hussein Time and place of execution Saddam was executed by hanging at approximately 06:00 local time (03:00 GMT ) on December 30, 2006, the day Sunni Iraqis begin ce leb rating Eid ul-Adha . [4][5][6] Report s con flict as to the exact time of t he executio n, with some so urc es rep ort ing the time as 06:00, 06:05, or some, as late as 06:10. [4][6][7] The execution took place at the joint Iraqi-American military base Camp Ju sti ce , lo cat ed in Kazimain , a north-eastern suburb of Baghdad . Camp Justice was previo usly used by Saddam as his military i ntellige nce headquarters, then known as Camp Banzai , where Iraqi civilians were taken to be tortured and executed on the same gallows. Contrary to initial reports, Saddam was executed alone, not at the same time as his co-defendants Barzan Ibrahim al-Tikriti and Awad Hamed al-Bandar , who were executed on January 15, 2007.
  • 49. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Execution_of_Saddam_Hussein Time and place of execution Saddam was executed by hanging at approximately 06:00 local time (03:00 GMT ) on December 30, 2006, the day Sunni Iraqis begin ce leb rating Eid ul-Adha . [4][5][6] Report s con flict as to the exact time of t he executio n, with some so urc es rep ort ing the time as 06:00, 06:05, or some, as late as 06:10. [4][6][7] The execution took place at the joint Iraqi-American military base Camp Ju sti ce , lo cat ed in Kazimain , a north-eastern suburb of Baghdad . Camp Justice was previo usly used by Saddam as his military i ntellige nce headquarters, then known as Camp Banzai , where Iraqi civilians were taken to be tortured and executed on the same gallows. Contrary to initial reports, Saddam was executed alone, not at the same time as his co-defendants Barzan Ibrahim al-Tikriti and Awad Hamed al-Bandar , who were executed on January 15, 2007. mediainfo saddam.3gp GeneralFormat profile : 3GPP Media Release 4File size : 1381144Encoded date : 2006-12-30 06:11:47VideoFormat : H.263Format profile : [email_address] Duration : 00:02:37.127Width : 176Height : 144Frame rate mode : VariableFrame rate : 6.186 fpsCompression mode : Lossy
  • 51. More information which we won't be able to address during the presentation...
  • 52. How? - Solutions for transcoding Early NLEs were concerned only with ingesting from video tape and outputting back to tape. Creating video that's only for watching on a computer is relatively new. Other tools for transcoding began to pop up and eventually NLEs added that functionality – although it can be a bit kludgy.
  • 53. How – What to shop for? Inputs and outputs variety of video formats but make sure they can handle the formats that you need. Pro packages are mostly aimed towards content providers (TV networks, etc.) Basic/home user packages are aimed towards converting for internet, iPod, mobile device use – less features. Batch processing is a must. “Set it and forget it” Since transcoding can be very processor/time-intensive, letting a computer render overnight or during the weekend is very useful. Be aware of the licensing. Some programs limit the amount and types transcoding you can do to make you buy a more professional package. Watermarking, burn in time code, etc.
  • 54. Transcoding with Final Cut Pro/Premiere/After Effects, etc. Most non-linear editors have the ability to import one video format and export to another. Tend to be the most expensive solutions with lots of overhead. If you don't need the other tools of an NLE, don't buy one just to transcode. It's overkill and maybe not the best solution. These programs are not always the archivists friend. Some NLEs do transcoding shortcuts and don't easily allow you to tweak the parameters.
  • 55. Some professional transcoding tools Apple Compressor (Mac, $1000) Grass Valley Procoder (Windows, $500) Sorenson Squeeze (Mac & Windows, $800) Telestream Episode (Mac & Windows, $500) Telestream FlipFactory (Windows, $5500)
  • 56. Hardware/Software Solutions Some digitizing cards have software to transcode. Some hardware speeds up the transcoding process with chips that have been optimized for certain codecs. Digital Rapids Stream (lite version bundles with same hardware as SAMMA Solo) Elgato Turbo h264 Matrox Compress HD
  • 57. Cheap/Free Solutions ● Quicktime Pro ($20, plus $20 if you wish to play/process MPEG2) Don't use Quicktime X – it suX! ● VLC (free) http://www.videolan.org/ ● MPEG Streamclip (free) http://www.squared5.com ● Ffmpeg (free) http://www.ffmpeg.org/ ● mplayer ● Scores of utilities that provide a GUI for ffmpeg. Some are better than others (SUPER, ffmpegx, etc.)
  • 58. WARNING – Common mistakes Going from a lower bitrate to higher bitrate video While it may be necessary to upsample the video for editing (SD video in an HD production) it shouldn't be done for preservation migration, since. Files are bigger, but no quality is gained. With DV, you could be losing important implicit metadata (timestamps, error information, camera/exposure info) and even audio tracks Interlacing. If the access file is never going to be shown on a TV, the file should be deinterlaced. Quality is lessened but the annoying combing effect also goes
  • 59. Questions? Skip Elsheimer A/V Geeks LLC [email_address] http://www.avgeeks.com