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TESTING,
ASSESSING AND
TEACHING
Hello!
I am Dian Agustini, S.Pd
I am here because I love to Learn new
things and share them with you!
Find me at dian.purnomo12@gmail.com
2
BRIEF SUMMARY of Content
In this presentation, the writer will explain about:
A. Assessment and teaching
 The Definition of the test.
 Assessment and Teaching
 Informal and formal assessment
 Formative and Summative Assessment
 Norm-referenced and Criterion Referenced
B. Approaches to Language Testing : A Brief History
 Discrete Points and Integrative Testing
 Communicative Language Testing
 Performance-Based Assessment
C. Current Issues in Classroom Testing
 New Views on Intelligence
 Traditional and Alternative Assessment
 Computer-Based Testing
Main Resource:
Language assessment: Principles and classroom
practices H. Douglas Brown
3
4
A.
ASSESSMENT AND
TEACHING
5
The
Definition of
Test
1
“ The Test is a Method of
measuring a person’s
ability, knowledge, or
performance in given
domain
7
A good test must have
Components:
1. Method (an instrument: technique, procedures or items for
test-taker)
2. Measure:
○ general ability
○ individual ability (who is the test taker), knowledge
(Their previous experience and background), and
performance (ability to perform language in four
skills)
○ given domain (exe: vocabs test, pronunciation test,
etc)
8
“ Sometimes, we
misunderstood by the term
assessment and test….
9
Assessment
 Ongoing
process
 Wider domain
 Assessed by self,
teacher or
friends
 incidental or
intended
Assessment and Test
Test
 Administratively
prepared
 Students responses
being measured and
evaluated
 Employ many
procedures and tasks
10
Assessment in 2013
curriculum
 Assessment for
 Assessment as
 Assessment of
Learning
Questions
1. Does everyday teaching involve assessment?
2. Are teachers constantly assessing students with
no interaction that is assessment free?
11
Perspective….
Assessment
and Teaching
2
Assesment and Teaching
Optimal Learning
requires freedom
experiments in the
classroom – try out
their own hypotheses
without feel they are
being judged in terms
of those trials and
errors..
13
Teaching
Assesment
Test
Informal and
formal
assessment
3
Informal Assessment:
○ Incidental
○ Unplanned comments
○ Responses
○ Unrecorded
○ Unfixed judgement
Along with learning activities
15
Formal Assessment:
○ Planned
○ Constructed
○ Systematic
○ Periodically
○ Time constrained
○ Draw limited sample of behaviour
○ Reflecting students’ progress Along with learning activities
16
“ All test are formal
assessment, but not all
formal assessment is
testing…
17
Non-Test Formal Assessment :
○ Portfolio
○ Students’ Journal
○ A systematic set of frequency of oral
participation
18
Formative and
Summative
Assessment
4
Formative Assessment:
Evaluating students in the process of forming their competencies
and skills with the goal of helping them continue that growth
process.
Example:
 Daily examination
 Middle term examination
 Assignment
 Oral test
20
Summative Assessment:
Is aimed to measure or summarize, what a students has grasped
and typically occurs at the end of the course or unit of instruction
Example:
 Final term Examination
 National Examination
21
“ One of the problems with
prevailing attitudes
toward testing is all test
(quizzes, periodic
reviews, mid-test, etc.)
are summative 22
23
Norm-Referenced
& Referenced Test
5
Norm Referenced test:
Each test taker score is interpreted in relation to mean (average
score), median (middle score), standard deviation (extent of
variance scores) and / or percentile rank.
Example:
 Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT)
 Test Of English as A Foreign Language (TOEFL)
Money and Efficiency are primary concerns in this test
25
Criterion-Referenced Test:
Designed to provide the test-takers feedbacks, usually in the form
of grades on specific course or lesson objective
Example:
 Daily classroom test.
In the context of classroom based assessment criterion-
Referenced testing is prominent interest than norm-reflected
testing
26
B.
APPROACHES TO
LANGUAGE TESTING
27
Discrete Point
and
Integrative
Testing
1
“
There were two major
approaches in language
testing being debated in 1970s-
early1980s: discrete point test
and integrative testing…
29
30
Discrete-Point
Test
Skills: SLRW
Language Units:
Phonology,
morphology, Syntax
Broken down the
components
Questions: Do all the language competences mentioned above are not
measured as one connected parts?
31
Integrative test
Skills integrated:
SLRW
Examples: Cloze
test, Dictations
Unifying all
components of
language into tests
Unitary Trait Hypothesis: Indivisible views of language proficiency
Communicativ
e Language
Testing
2
As a response of Unitary traits hypothesis there was a new design of
language testing called Communicative Language Teaching:
Because:
○ Integrative test: artificial, contrived, and unlikely reflect how students
use the language in real life
○ Integrative test did not measure linguistic performance of the
students.
○ Less Authentic
33
Then…
The new design was proposed by Bachman and Palmer (1996) based
Canale and Swain (1980) model of communicative competence.
34
Communicative Language Testing
Organizational and Pragmatic competence: Grammatical
and Textual components, illocutionary and sociolinguistic
components.
Emphasized the importance of strategic competence
(employ communicative strategies ) in the proces of
communication
Performance
Based
Assessment
3
Performance based assessment of language typically involves:
○ Oral Production
○ Written Production
○ Open-Ended Responses
○ Integrated performance (across skills)
○ Group performance
○ Other interactive tasks
36
The Positive and Negative of PBA
 Time consuming
 Expensive
 Requires great effort
37
 Authentic
 Various task
 Real world tasks
 Interactive
 Actual performance in
language
C.
CURRENT ISSUES IN
CLASSROOM TESTING
38
New Views on
Intelligence
1
“
We have lived in a world of
standardized test for many
years. However, psychologists
like Garner, Sternberg and
Goleman extended the
traditional view into seven
different components. 40
Garner introduced five other frames of mind:
○ Spatial intelligence
○ Musical Intelligence
○ Bodily-kinesthetic Intelligence
○ Interpersonal Intelligence (understand others)
○ Intrapersonal Intelligence (understand self)
41
Sternberg charted new territory:
○ Creative Thinking
○ Manipulative strategies
Goleman:
○ Emotional Quotient
42
The new perspectives in human intelligence, however,
challenges the experts, teachers and school to design
the test which are interpersonal, creative,
communicative, interactive and put the trust on the
subjectivity and intuition.
In English, the responsibility is broaden into whole
language skills, learning processes, and the ability to
negotiate meaning.
43
Traditional and
Alternative
Assessment
2
Traditional Assessment:
○ Focus on the right answer
○ Product oriented
○ Summative
○ Non-interactive
○ Foster extrinsic motivation
45
○ Product oriented
○ Summative
○ Non-interactive
○ Foster extrinsic motivation
Alternative Assessment:
○ Continuous long term
Assessment
○ Untimed
○ Free response format
○ Individualized feedbacks
and washback
○ Criterion-referenced
scores 46
○ Open ended
○ Creative answer
○ Formative
○ Process oriented
○ Interactive performance
○ Foster intrinsic motivation
Computer Based
Testing
3
“
Students receive prompts in
the form of written or spoken
stimuli from the computerized
test and are required to type or
speak their responses.
48
A specific type of computer-based test, a
Computer Adaptive Test (CAT). Each test taker
receives a set of questions that meet the test
specifications and generally appropriate for
performance level.
In CAT, the test taker sees only one
question at a time and the computer scores each
questions before selecting the next one.
The test taker sees only one question and cannot
skip question.
49
Advantages of CBT:
○ Classroom based testing
○ Self directed testing on various aspects of language.
○ Practice
○ Individualization
○ Done in large-scale standardized test
50
Disadvantages of CBT:
○ Lack of security and possibility of cheating in unsupervised
computerized test
○ Home-grown quizzes may appear in uofficial web
○ Mostly in multiple choices format
○ Less in open ended questions
○ The absence of human interactive element (oral production)
51
Let’s review some concepts
TEST
52
ASSESSMENT
ASSESSMENT AND TEACHING
FORMATIVE AND SUMMATIVE
ASSESSMENT DISCRETE AND
INTEGRATIVE TESTING
CLT
PERFORMANCE-BASED
ASSESSMENT
NEW VIEWS IN INTELLIGENCE
COMPUTER-BASED TESTING
Place your screenshot here
53
54
video.assesment in spore.html

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Introduction to Test and Assessment

  • 2. Hello! I am Dian Agustini, S.Pd I am here because I love to Learn new things and share them with you! Find me at dian.purnomo12@gmail.com 2
  • 3. BRIEF SUMMARY of Content In this presentation, the writer will explain about: A. Assessment and teaching  The Definition of the test.  Assessment and Teaching  Informal and formal assessment  Formative and Summative Assessment  Norm-referenced and Criterion Referenced B. Approaches to Language Testing : A Brief History  Discrete Points and Integrative Testing  Communicative Language Testing  Performance-Based Assessment C. Current Issues in Classroom Testing  New Views on Intelligence  Traditional and Alternative Assessment  Computer-Based Testing Main Resource: Language assessment: Principles and classroom practices H. Douglas Brown 3
  • 4. 4
  • 7. “ The Test is a Method of measuring a person’s ability, knowledge, or performance in given domain 7
  • 8. A good test must have Components: 1. Method (an instrument: technique, procedures or items for test-taker) 2. Measure: ○ general ability ○ individual ability (who is the test taker), knowledge (Their previous experience and background), and performance (ability to perform language in four skills) ○ given domain (exe: vocabs test, pronunciation test, etc) 8
  • 9. “ Sometimes, we misunderstood by the term assessment and test…. 9
  • 10. Assessment  Ongoing process  Wider domain  Assessed by self, teacher or friends  incidental or intended Assessment and Test Test  Administratively prepared  Students responses being measured and evaluated  Employ many procedures and tasks 10 Assessment in 2013 curriculum  Assessment for  Assessment as  Assessment of Learning
  • 11. Questions 1. Does everyday teaching involve assessment? 2. Are teachers constantly assessing students with no interaction that is assessment free? 11 Perspective….
  • 13. Assesment and Teaching Optimal Learning requires freedom experiments in the classroom – try out their own hypotheses without feel they are being judged in terms of those trials and errors.. 13 Teaching Assesment Test
  • 15. Informal Assessment: ○ Incidental ○ Unplanned comments ○ Responses ○ Unrecorded ○ Unfixed judgement Along with learning activities 15
  • 16. Formal Assessment: ○ Planned ○ Constructed ○ Systematic ○ Periodically ○ Time constrained ○ Draw limited sample of behaviour ○ Reflecting students’ progress Along with learning activities 16
  • 17. “ All test are formal assessment, but not all formal assessment is testing… 17
  • 18. Non-Test Formal Assessment : ○ Portfolio ○ Students’ Journal ○ A systematic set of frequency of oral participation 18
  • 20. Formative Assessment: Evaluating students in the process of forming their competencies and skills with the goal of helping them continue that growth process. Example:  Daily examination  Middle term examination  Assignment  Oral test 20
  • 21. Summative Assessment: Is aimed to measure or summarize, what a students has grasped and typically occurs at the end of the course or unit of instruction Example:  Final term Examination  National Examination 21
  • 22. “ One of the problems with prevailing attitudes toward testing is all test (quizzes, periodic reviews, mid-test, etc.) are summative 22
  • 23. 23
  • 25. Norm Referenced test: Each test taker score is interpreted in relation to mean (average score), median (middle score), standard deviation (extent of variance scores) and / or percentile rank. Example:  Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT)  Test Of English as A Foreign Language (TOEFL) Money and Efficiency are primary concerns in this test 25
  • 26. Criterion-Referenced Test: Designed to provide the test-takers feedbacks, usually in the form of grades on specific course or lesson objective Example:  Daily classroom test. In the context of classroom based assessment criterion- Referenced testing is prominent interest than norm-reflected testing 26
  • 29. “ There were two major approaches in language testing being debated in 1970s- early1980s: discrete point test and integrative testing… 29
  • 30. 30 Discrete-Point Test Skills: SLRW Language Units: Phonology, morphology, Syntax Broken down the components Questions: Do all the language competences mentioned above are not measured as one connected parts?
  • 31. 31 Integrative test Skills integrated: SLRW Examples: Cloze test, Dictations Unifying all components of language into tests Unitary Trait Hypothesis: Indivisible views of language proficiency
  • 33. As a response of Unitary traits hypothesis there was a new design of language testing called Communicative Language Teaching: Because: ○ Integrative test: artificial, contrived, and unlikely reflect how students use the language in real life ○ Integrative test did not measure linguistic performance of the students. ○ Less Authentic 33
  • 34. Then… The new design was proposed by Bachman and Palmer (1996) based Canale and Swain (1980) model of communicative competence. 34 Communicative Language Testing Organizational and Pragmatic competence: Grammatical and Textual components, illocutionary and sociolinguistic components. Emphasized the importance of strategic competence (employ communicative strategies ) in the proces of communication
  • 36. Performance based assessment of language typically involves: ○ Oral Production ○ Written Production ○ Open-Ended Responses ○ Integrated performance (across skills) ○ Group performance ○ Other interactive tasks 36
  • 37. The Positive and Negative of PBA  Time consuming  Expensive  Requires great effort 37  Authentic  Various task  Real world tasks  Interactive  Actual performance in language
  • 40. “ We have lived in a world of standardized test for many years. However, psychologists like Garner, Sternberg and Goleman extended the traditional view into seven different components. 40
  • 41. Garner introduced five other frames of mind: ○ Spatial intelligence ○ Musical Intelligence ○ Bodily-kinesthetic Intelligence ○ Interpersonal Intelligence (understand others) ○ Intrapersonal Intelligence (understand self) 41
  • 42. Sternberg charted new territory: ○ Creative Thinking ○ Manipulative strategies Goleman: ○ Emotional Quotient 42
  • 43. The new perspectives in human intelligence, however, challenges the experts, teachers and school to design the test which are interpersonal, creative, communicative, interactive and put the trust on the subjectivity and intuition. In English, the responsibility is broaden into whole language skills, learning processes, and the ability to negotiate meaning. 43
  • 45. Traditional Assessment: ○ Focus on the right answer ○ Product oriented ○ Summative ○ Non-interactive ○ Foster extrinsic motivation 45 ○ Product oriented ○ Summative ○ Non-interactive ○ Foster extrinsic motivation
  • 46. Alternative Assessment: ○ Continuous long term Assessment ○ Untimed ○ Free response format ○ Individualized feedbacks and washback ○ Criterion-referenced scores 46 ○ Open ended ○ Creative answer ○ Formative ○ Process oriented ○ Interactive performance ○ Foster intrinsic motivation
  • 48. “ Students receive prompts in the form of written or spoken stimuli from the computerized test and are required to type or speak their responses. 48
  • 49. A specific type of computer-based test, a Computer Adaptive Test (CAT). Each test taker receives a set of questions that meet the test specifications and generally appropriate for performance level. In CAT, the test taker sees only one question at a time and the computer scores each questions before selecting the next one. The test taker sees only one question and cannot skip question. 49
  • 50. Advantages of CBT: ○ Classroom based testing ○ Self directed testing on various aspects of language. ○ Practice ○ Individualization ○ Done in large-scale standardized test 50
  • 51. Disadvantages of CBT: ○ Lack of security and possibility of cheating in unsupervised computerized test ○ Home-grown quizzes may appear in uofficial web ○ Mostly in multiple choices format ○ Less in open ended questions ○ The absence of human interactive element (oral production) 51
  • 52. Let’s review some concepts TEST 52 ASSESSMENT ASSESSMENT AND TEACHING FORMATIVE AND SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT DISCRETE AND INTEGRATIVE TESTING CLT PERFORMANCE-BASED ASSESSMENT NEW VIEWS IN INTELLIGENCE COMPUTER-BASED TESTING

Editor's Notes

  1. Assessment as learning: to reflect the learning, usually by the students themselves, assessment for learning is used to diagnose students’ weaknesses to improve their competences (used for teachers reflecting themselves), assessment of learning: only to gain numeric data.