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At the end of this section, students will be able to:-
• Identify with examples the different classes of
materials.
• Describe the distinctive chemical features of different
materials.
• Identify ‘Advanced Materials’ and how these differ from the
classical material classes.
Materials science: Studies the relationships that exist
between the structures and properties of materials.
Materials engineering: Designing or engineering a material
with a predetermined set of properties on the basis of the
structure property correlations.
Why should we know about materials? Because it is the job
of the engineer to select materials for given application
based of materials structure, properties, processing,
performance and cost.
What is Materials science and engineering?
It was built with the wrong steel (containing excessive ratios
of sulphur and phosphor) which undergo brittle fracture at low
temperature.
Why did Titanic sink in
1912?
Fuel leakage in the rocket booster caused by a O-ring.
The O-ring lost elasticity at low temperature.
The Space Shuttle Challenger disaster:
Caused by metal fatigue of the wheels.
Eschede train disaster:
Stone Age
Ages of human development are called
after important materials.
Silicon Age
Bronze Age
Iron Age
Concrete
Now…?
Polymer Age
Prehistoric hunting tools Hunting tools today
Combine Harvester today
harvester's sickle, 3000 BC
made from baked clay
Structure:
The structure of a material is usually the arrangement of its
internal components.
Atomic structure: the organisation of atoms or molecules
relative to one another.
Microscopic structure: a larger structural realm, which contains
large groups of atoms that are normally agglomerated
together, which is subject to direct observation using some
type of microscope.
Macroscopic structure: comprises structural elements that
may be viewed with the naked eye.
Properties:
“A property is a material trait in terms of the kind and
magnitude of response to a specific imposed stimulus.”
Mechanical properties: for example, would relate
deformation to an applied load or force; examples include
elastic modulus and strength.
Electrical properties: such as electrical conductivity and
dielectric constant, the stimulus is an electric field.
Thermal properties: measure for the behaviour of a
material in response to temperature such as heat capacity
and thermal conductivity.
Properties:
“A property is a material trait in terms of the kind and
magnitude of response to a specific imposed stimulus.”
Magnetic properties: the response of a material to the
application of a magnetic field.
Optical properties: the stimulus is electromagnetic or light
radiation. Index of refraction and reflectivity are representative
optical properties.
Processing: The series of operations that transforms industrial
materials from a raw-material state into finished parts or
products.
Performance: processing
structure properties
composition
structure determines
properties
processing effects
structure and
structure determines
processing routes
processing influences
properties and properties
determines processing
routes
composition influences
processing routes, structure &
properties
Same material – aluminium oxide – different processing
method – different structure
Single crystal
Polycrystalline
made of very small
single crystals
Polycrystalline
with pores
Adapted from Fig. 1.2,
Callister & Rethwisch 8e.
(Specimen preparation,
P.A. Lessing; photo by S.
Tanner.)
Metals:
Composed of one or more metallic elements (such as iron,
aluminium, copper, titanium, gold, and nickel), and often also non-
metallic elements (for example, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen) in
relatively small amounts.
Atoms in metals and their alloys
are arranged in a
very orderly manner.
Fig. 1.08 Callister & Rethwisch 8e.
Properties:
Stiff and strong, but ductile
High thermal & electrical conductivity
Opaque, reflective
High density
Polymers (plastics or rubber):
Many polymers are organic compounds that are chemically
based on carbon, hydrogen, and other non-metallic elements (O,
N, and Si). Inorganic polymers also exist such as silicon rubber.
Very large molecular structures
often chain-like in nature.
Fig. 1.10 Callister & Rethwisch 8e.
Properties:
Soft, ductile, low strength, low
density
Thermal & electrical insulators
Optically translucent or transparent
Ceramics:
Compounds formed with metallic and non-metallic elements.
They are most frequently oxides, nitrides, and carbides.
Examples: aluminum oxide (or alumina, Al2O3), silicon
dioxide (or silica, SiO2), silicon carbide (SiC), silicon nitride
(Si3N4), clay minerals (i.e., porcelain), cement, and glass.
Fig. 1.09 Callister & Rethwisch 8e.
Properties:
Brittle, glassy
Strong
Non-conducting (insulators)
Optical characteristics – can be
transparent, translucent, or opaque
Composites:
A composite consist of two (or more) individual materials formed from
metals, ceramics, and/or polymers.
The design goal of a composite is to achieve a combination of properties
that is not displayed by any single material, and also to incorporate the best
characteristics of each of the component materials.
Example: fibreglass
Made of small glass fibres
embedded within a polymeric
material (epoxy).
Properties:
stiff, strong (from the glass)
flexible, and ductile (from polymer)
Density
Adapted from Fig. 1.03 Callister & Rethwisch 8e.
Stiffness
Adapted from Fig. 1.04 Callister & Rethwisch 8e.
Materials that are utilized in high-technology:
Typically traditional materials whose properties have been
enhanced, newly developed, high-performance materials.
Include all material types (e.g., metals, ceramics, polymers).
Generally expensive.
Examples include: materials that are used for lasers,
integrated circuits, magnetic information storage, fibre optics,
etc.
Semiconductors:
Have electrical properties that are intermediate between the
electrical conductors (metals and metal alloys) and insulators
(ceramics and polymers).
Examples: gallium arsenide, germanium.
Biomaterials:
Employed as components implanted into the human body for
replacement of diseased or damaged body parts.
Biocompatible - must not cause adverse biological reactions.
Can be metals, ceramics, polymers, composites, or
semiconductors.
Nano-engineered materials:
Nanomaterials typically have sizes of below 100 nm
(1 nm = 10-9m).
At these dimensions materials can acquire novel properties
(i.e. optical, mechanical, thermal).
Example: Bulk silver and silver nanoparticles.
• Use the right material for the job.
• Understand the relationship between properties, structure,
and processing.
• Recognise new design opportunities offered by materials
selection.
Introduction to materials science

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Introduction to materials science

  • 1.
  • 2. At the end of this section, students will be able to:- • Identify with examples the different classes of materials. • Describe the distinctive chemical features of different materials. • Identify ‘Advanced Materials’ and how these differ from the classical material classes.
  • 3. Materials science: Studies the relationships that exist between the structures and properties of materials. Materials engineering: Designing or engineering a material with a predetermined set of properties on the basis of the structure property correlations. Why should we know about materials? Because it is the job of the engineer to select materials for given application based of materials structure, properties, processing, performance and cost. What is Materials science and engineering?
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  • 5. It was built with the wrong steel (containing excessive ratios of sulphur and phosphor) which undergo brittle fracture at low temperature. Why did Titanic sink in 1912?
  • 6. Fuel leakage in the rocket booster caused by a O-ring. The O-ring lost elasticity at low temperature. The Space Shuttle Challenger disaster:
  • 7. Caused by metal fatigue of the wheels. Eschede train disaster:
  • 8. Stone Age Ages of human development are called after important materials. Silicon Age Bronze Age Iron Age Concrete Now…? Polymer Age
  • 9. Prehistoric hunting tools Hunting tools today
  • 10. Combine Harvester today harvester's sickle, 3000 BC made from baked clay
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  • 12. Structure: The structure of a material is usually the arrangement of its internal components. Atomic structure: the organisation of atoms or molecules relative to one another. Microscopic structure: a larger structural realm, which contains large groups of atoms that are normally agglomerated together, which is subject to direct observation using some type of microscope. Macroscopic structure: comprises structural elements that may be viewed with the naked eye.
  • 13. Properties: “A property is a material trait in terms of the kind and magnitude of response to a specific imposed stimulus.” Mechanical properties: for example, would relate deformation to an applied load or force; examples include elastic modulus and strength. Electrical properties: such as electrical conductivity and dielectric constant, the stimulus is an electric field. Thermal properties: measure for the behaviour of a material in response to temperature such as heat capacity and thermal conductivity.
  • 14. Properties: “A property is a material trait in terms of the kind and magnitude of response to a specific imposed stimulus.” Magnetic properties: the response of a material to the application of a magnetic field. Optical properties: the stimulus is electromagnetic or light radiation. Index of refraction and reflectivity are representative optical properties.
  • 15. Processing: The series of operations that transforms industrial materials from a raw-material state into finished parts or products. Performance: processing structure properties composition structure determines properties processing effects structure and structure determines processing routes processing influences properties and properties determines processing routes composition influences processing routes, structure & properties
  • 16. Same material – aluminium oxide – different processing method – different structure Single crystal Polycrystalline made of very small single crystals Polycrystalline with pores Adapted from Fig. 1.2, Callister & Rethwisch 8e. (Specimen preparation, P.A. Lessing; photo by S. Tanner.)
  • 17. Metals: Composed of one or more metallic elements (such as iron, aluminium, copper, titanium, gold, and nickel), and often also non- metallic elements (for example, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen) in relatively small amounts. Atoms in metals and their alloys are arranged in a very orderly manner. Fig. 1.08 Callister & Rethwisch 8e. Properties: Stiff and strong, but ductile High thermal & electrical conductivity Opaque, reflective High density
  • 18. Polymers (plastics or rubber): Many polymers are organic compounds that are chemically based on carbon, hydrogen, and other non-metallic elements (O, N, and Si). Inorganic polymers also exist such as silicon rubber. Very large molecular structures often chain-like in nature. Fig. 1.10 Callister & Rethwisch 8e. Properties: Soft, ductile, low strength, low density Thermal & electrical insulators Optically translucent or transparent
  • 19. Ceramics: Compounds formed with metallic and non-metallic elements. They are most frequently oxides, nitrides, and carbides. Examples: aluminum oxide (or alumina, Al2O3), silicon dioxide (or silica, SiO2), silicon carbide (SiC), silicon nitride (Si3N4), clay minerals (i.e., porcelain), cement, and glass. Fig. 1.09 Callister & Rethwisch 8e. Properties: Brittle, glassy Strong Non-conducting (insulators) Optical characteristics – can be transparent, translucent, or opaque
  • 20. Composites: A composite consist of two (or more) individual materials formed from metals, ceramics, and/or polymers. The design goal of a composite is to achieve a combination of properties that is not displayed by any single material, and also to incorporate the best characteristics of each of the component materials. Example: fibreglass Made of small glass fibres embedded within a polymeric material (epoxy). Properties: stiff, strong (from the glass) flexible, and ductile (from polymer)
  • 21. Density Adapted from Fig. 1.03 Callister & Rethwisch 8e.
  • 22. Stiffness Adapted from Fig. 1.04 Callister & Rethwisch 8e.
  • 23. Materials that are utilized in high-technology: Typically traditional materials whose properties have been enhanced, newly developed, high-performance materials. Include all material types (e.g., metals, ceramics, polymers). Generally expensive. Examples include: materials that are used for lasers, integrated circuits, magnetic information storage, fibre optics, etc.
  • 24. Semiconductors: Have electrical properties that are intermediate between the electrical conductors (metals and metal alloys) and insulators (ceramics and polymers). Examples: gallium arsenide, germanium. Biomaterials: Employed as components implanted into the human body for replacement of diseased or damaged body parts. Biocompatible - must not cause adverse biological reactions. Can be metals, ceramics, polymers, composites, or semiconductors.
  • 25. Nano-engineered materials: Nanomaterials typically have sizes of below 100 nm (1 nm = 10-9m). At these dimensions materials can acquire novel properties (i.e. optical, mechanical, thermal). Example: Bulk silver and silver nanoparticles.
  • 26. • Use the right material for the job. • Understand the relationship between properties, structure, and processing. • Recognise new design opportunities offered by materials selection.