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Getting Started with IPv6
Sean Collins
About the Presenter

 Sean Collins
   Core IT Pro
     www.coreitpro.com
     sean@coreitpro.com
     https://github.com/sc68cal
Quick Refresher on IPv4


 RFC 791
  Released September of 1981, when I was -6
  Classful Network Architecture
  ARPANET
IPV4 THEORY


32 Bit addresses (2^32, or ~4.3 Million possible addresses)
Split into two pieces
  Network identifier
  Host identifier
IPv4 Classes

 A class
   First 8 bits of the 32 bits designated the network
 B class
   16 bits designated the network
 C class
   24 bits designated the network
CIDR


Classful networking was too rigid
  A class A network allows ~16 million hosts (2^24)
  A class B network allows ~65,000 hosts (2^16)
  A class C network allows 255 hosts (2^8)
CIDR

Allowed the network to be split into smaller pieces
  Have a network identifier use 20 bits, giving you 12 bits for hosts (2^12
  or 4095 hosts)
  If that’s not enough hosts, use 19 bits for a network identifier, and now
  you have 8191 (2^13)
Much more flexible than the old scheme.
Trouble Is.....

 CIDR notation made routing tables BALOON in size
 Oh, and we’re also running out of addresses.
   IPads and iPhones and Droids
   IP enabled Pants
   etc...
 NAT
IPv6


 128 Bit addressing
 2^128 possible addresses
 5x10^26 addresses for each human being on earth
This is Big (tm)



 No more CIDR
 No more NAT
IPv6 Theory


 Just like IPv4, two parts to an address
   Network Identifier (called a Prefix in IPv6-speak)
   Host Identifier
Network Identifier

 Nothing really different
 Just larger allocations
 Dirty little secret:
   They didn’t pick 128 bits just to never run out
   It made routing much easier, since you can give huge chunks of
   addresses to one network operator, rather than having /16’s all over the
   place
Host Identifier (This is Cool)

 Generated from your MAC Address
   Yep. You need to buy a Mac.
 Just kidding
   MAC addresses are unique identifiers for each network card
 IPv6 combines the prefix (network identifier), with the MAC address to
 create an IPv6 address.
MAC Address




IPv6 Address
Bootstrap Yourself Into IPv6
Using FreeBSD
 Install FreeBSD
   Good documentation
   Solid base install (DNS, Mail, etc..)
 Get yourself an IPv6 address
   No native IPv6? Use a Tunnel Broker
   http://www.sixxs.net/
Configure IPv6


 FreeBSD Handbook: Ch. 31 - Advanced Networking
   http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/
   network-ipv6.html
Deploy IPv6 Addresses To Hosts On
Your Network

 Three Ways
   DHCPv6
   Stateless Auto-configuration
   Static
Setting up IPv6 for clients


 If you are using a Tunnel Broker, you will need to apply for a subnet
 FreeBSD Box -> 2001:4830:1600:33b::2
     Subnet -> 2001:4830:1601::/48
        Laptop -> 2001:4830:1601::fa1e:dfff:fed9:16f9
        Cellphone -> 2001:4830:1601:0:a6ed:4eff:fe69:cedb
DHCPv6


Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
  New version, supports IPv6
  Useful for networks that already rely on DHCP
  A good migration strategy
Stateless Auto-configuration


 FreeBSD server runs rtadvd(8)
   http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=rtadvd&sektion=8
 Clients run rtsol(8)
   http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=rtsol&sektion=8
rtadvd(8) Configuration
Downsides to Auto-Configuration


 rtsol(8) and rtadvd(8) currently have experimental support for sending info
 about DNS
   CFT: IPv6 DNS autoconfiguration (RFC6106 RDNSS and DNSSL)
   http://www.mail-archive.com/freebsd-net@freebsd.org/msg36212.html
World IPv6 Day!


 http://isoc.org/wp/worldipv6day/
 “On 8 June, 2011, Google, Facebook, Yahoo!, Akamai and Limelight Networks will be amongst some of the major
 organisations that will offer their content over IPv6 for a 24-hour “test flight”. The goal of the Test Flight Day is to
 motivate organizations across the industry – Internet service providers, hardware makers, operating system
 vendors and web companies – to prepare their services for IPv6 to ensure a successful transition as IPv4
 addresses run out.”
Overall Impressions


 IPv6
   Awesome ... As Soon As Websites Deploy It.
   Goodbye DHCP!
   IPv6 on my Motorola Droid? Wow.
   Not on my PS3. BOO!
Overall Impressions


 Check your Firewall configuration. May need to reconfigure when you
 enable IPv6.
 Most software (Samba, BIND, IRC, etc...) is all ready to go.
 You may need to run Dual-Stack (IPv4 & IPv6) for some applications.

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Introduction to IPV6

  • 1. Getting Started with IPv6 Sean Collins
  • 2. About the Presenter Sean Collins Core IT Pro www.coreitpro.com sean@coreitpro.com https://github.com/sc68cal
  • 3. Quick Refresher on IPv4 RFC 791 Released September of 1981, when I was -6 Classful Network Architecture ARPANET
  • 4. IPV4 THEORY 32 Bit addresses (2^32, or ~4.3 Million possible addresses) Split into two pieces Network identifier Host identifier
  • 5. IPv4 Classes A class First 8 bits of the 32 bits designated the network B class 16 bits designated the network C class 24 bits designated the network
  • 6. CIDR Classful networking was too rigid A class A network allows ~16 million hosts (2^24) A class B network allows ~65,000 hosts (2^16) A class C network allows 255 hosts (2^8)
  • 7. CIDR Allowed the network to be split into smaller pieces Have a network identifier use 20 bits, giving you 12 bits for hosts (2^12 or 4095 hosts) If that’s not enough hosts, use 19 bits for a network identifier, and now you have 8191 (2^13) Much more flexible than the old scheme.
  • 8. Trouble Is..... CIDR notation made routing tables BALOON in size Oh, and we’re also running out of addresses. IPads and iPhones and Droids IP enabled Pants etc... NAT
  • 9. IPv6 128 Bit addressing 2^128 possible addresses 5x10^26 addresses for each human being on earth
  • 10.
  • 11. This is Big (tm) No more CIDR No more NAT
  • 12. IPv6 Theory Just like IPv4, two parts to an address Network Identifier (called a Prefix in IPv6-speak) Host Identifier
  • 13. Network Identifier Nothing really different Just larger allocations Dirty little secret: They didn’t pick 128 bits just to never run out It made routing much easier, since you can give huge chunks of addresses to one network operator, rather than having /16’s all over the place
  • 14. Host Identifier (This is Cool) Generated from your MAC Address Yep. You need to buy a Mac. Just kidding MAC addresses are unique identifiers for each network card IPv6 combines the prefix (network identifier), with the MAC address to create an IPv6 address.
  • 16. Bootstrap Yourself Into IPv6 Using FreeBSD Install FreeBSD Good documentation Solid base install (DNS, Mail, etc..) Get yourself an IPv6 address No native IPv6? Use a Tunnel Broker http://www.sixxs.net/
  • 17. Configure IPv6 FreeBSD Handbook: Ch. 31 - Advanced Networking http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/ network-ipv6.html
  • 18.
  • 19. Deploy IPv6 Addresses To Hosts On Your Network Three Ways DHCPv6 Stateless Auto-configuration Static
  • 20. Setting up IPv6 for clients If you are using a Tunnel Broker, you will need to apply for a subnet FreeBSD Box -> 2001:4830:1600:33b::2 Subnet -> 2001:4830:1601::/48 Laptop -> 2001:4830:1601::fa1e:dfff:fed9:16f9 Cellphone -> 2001:4830:1601:0:a6ed:4eff:fe69:cedb
  • 21. DHCPv6 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol New version, supports IPv6 Useful for networks that already rely on DHCP A good migration strategy
  • 22. Stateless Auto-configuration FreeBSD server runs rtadvd(8) http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=rtadvd&sektion=8 Clients run rtsol(8) http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=rtsol&sektion=8
  • 24. Downsides to Auto-Configuration rtsol(8) and rtadvd(8) currently have experimental support for sending info about DNS CFT: IPv6 DNS autoconfiguration (RFC6106 RDNSS and DNSSL) http://www.mail-archive.com/freebsd-net@freebsd.org/msg36212.html
  • 25.
  • 26.
  • 27. World IPv6 Day! http://isoc.org/wp/worldipv6day/ “On 8 June, 2011, Google, Facebook, Yahoo!, Akamai and Limelight Networks will be amongst some of the major organisations that will offer their content over IPv6 for a 24-hour “test flight”. The goal of the Test Flight Day is to motivate organizations across the industry – Internet service providers, hardware makers, operating system vendors and web companies – to prepare their services for IPv6 to ensure a successful transition as IPv4 addresses run out.”
  • 28. Overall Impressions IPv6 Awesome ... As Soon As Websites Deploy It. Goodbye DHCP! IPv6 on my Motorola Droid? Wow. Not on my PS3. BOO!
  • 29. Overall Impressions Check your Firewall configuration. May need to reconfigure when you enable IPv6. Most software (Samba, BIND, IRC, etc...) is all ready to go. You may need to run Dual-Stack (IPv4 & IPv6) for some applications.

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