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INTRODUCTION TO HEALTH AND ILLNESS
• A dynamic state of being, in which the
developmental and behavioral potential of an
individual are realized to the fullest extent
possible . ( ANA,1980)
CONCEPTS OF HEALTH
BIOMEDICAL CONCEPT
• Greek word Oikos which means house.
• Health is a dynamic equilibrium or
adjustment between man and his environment.
ECOLOGICAL CONCEPT
ECOLOGICAL CONCEPT
PSYCHOSOCIAL CONCEPT
HOLISTIC CONCEPT
• Individuals health is one whole having sound
mind in a sound body in a sound family,
society and in a sound environment
• Multi dimensional process
DIMENSIONS OF HEALTH
PHYSICAL DIMENSION
• Related to body and its functions
• Physical state of perfect functioning of the
body
MENTAL DIMENSION
• State of balance between individual and the
surrounding world ,a state of harmony
between oneself and others, a co-existence
between the realities of the self and that of
other people and that of the environment.
SOCIAL DIMENSION
• The quantity and quality of an individuals
interpersonal ties and the extend of involvement
with the community
EMOTIONAL DIMENSION
• Feelings .Ability to recognise, accept and
express feelings of oneself and others
SPIRITUAL DIMENSION
• Refers to the individuals striving for finding
meaning and purpose in life . It is something that
embedded in morality principle, purpose in life,
achieving highest goals of life.
VOCATIONAL DIMENSION
• Gives an individual a sense of achievement,
purpose and self realization
ENVIRONMENTAL DIMENSION
• Two dimensions : Internal environment ( each and
every components, harmonious functioning with
inhuman system)and external environment(
extraneous factors)
OTHER DIMENSIONS
• Mental
• Cultural
• Educational
• Nutritive curative
• Preventive
• Promotive
• Philosophical
DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH
• Biological
• Life style
• Environment
• Socioeconomic
• Health services
• Heath policies and health programmes
• Other factors
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
• Introduced by Abraham Maslow
• A theory of motivation which states that human
decision making is under girded by a hierarchy of
psychological needs.
• According to Maslow lower need is met, the next
need on the hierarchy becomes our focus of
attention
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
• Suggested that people are motivated to
fulfilled basic needs before moving to other
needs.
• Lowest level is basic needs and top levels are
complex needs
• Maslow believed that these needs are similar
to instincts and play major role in motivating
behaviour
• Maslow termed the highest level of the
pyramid as growth needs
Characteristics of self actualized people
• Acceptance and realism
• Problem centering
• Spontaneity
• Autonomy and solitude
• Continued freshness of appreciation
• Peak experiences
COMPARISON
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
• Physiological
• Love and belonging
• Self actualisation
BASIC HUMAN NEEDS
• Physical
• Emotional
• Social needs
HEALTH ILLNESS CONTINUUM
Envisioned by John W Travis in 1972
Defined as the range of a person’s total
health
• Continuum illustrates human being in a
dynamic state to left or right from neutral
point
• External and internal environment bring
changes
• Positive health- healthy
• Negative health (signs and symptoms-
treatment)
• High level wellness used to measure a
person’s perceived level of wellness
DUNN introduced high level wellness
model or grid (1961)
• Health is an ongoing process towards a person’s highest
potential of functioning.
• Process that helps a person to know who and what he or she
is:
• Recognising self as separate individual
• Belonging
• Growing and developing
Making personal changes to fit self and others
Quadrants of wellness grid by Dunn’s
• High level wellness in a favourable environment
= Healthy and favourable environment
• Emergent High level wellness in an unfavourable
environment = Awareness on health but
unfavourable environment
• Protected poor health in a favourable
environment = Illness and favourable environment
• Poor health in an unfavourable environment =
Illness and unfavourable environment
MODELS OF HEALTH AND ILLNESS
• Health belief model by Rosenstock,Hochbaum,
Kegels(individual perceptions, modifying factors,
likelihood of action)
• Health promotion model by Noja J Pender(
individual characteristics and experiences, behaviour
specific cognitions and affects, behavioral
outcomes)
• Holistic health model
FACTORS INFLUENCING HEALTH
• Rising health care costs
• Physical factors
• Ageing
• Psychological factors
• Environmental factors (physical, biological,
psychological)
• Host factors ( Demographic , biological, social and
economical, lifestyle)
• Agent factors (Biological, nutritional, physical,
mechanical, social ,absence or excess of factors)
ILLNESS
• Illness is defined individually by each person
who experiences an alteration in health
• Illness is the product of the disharmonious
interaction between mind, body, emotions and
spirit
CAUSES FOR DEVELOPING
ILLNESSES
Caused by microorganism Bacteria
Viruses
Fungi
Parasites
Direct contact Person to person
Animal to person
Mother to unborn child
Indirect contact
Insect bites
RISK FACTORS FOR DEVELOPING
ILLNESSES
• Risk is the potential of losing something of value
• Risk factor is a variable associated with the development of
disease
• Risk groups (susceptible population): Groups of individuals,
who are exposed to or associated with the risk factors and
therefore they are art high risk of morbidity or mortality,
either because of constitution or of the environment
physically, biologically or socio culturally.
RISK GROUPS
• Depending upon situation:
• Physical situation (poor living condition, over
crowding, lack of sanitation)
• Biological situation (Age wise- Low birth weight
babies , infants, toddlers ,elderly), Sex wise – female sin
reproductive age),Physiological state- pregnancy,
malnutrition), Genetic factors – strong family history)
• Socio cultural situation ( class, habits, customs--)
ILLNESS- TYPES
ACUTE ILLNESS
• Sudden onset, short time.
• Depend on the cause may or may not require
intervention
• Some acute illness are serious Eg. Appendicitis
CHRONIC ILLNESS
• Lasts for an extended period (6 months)
• Different physical and mental alterations
• Caused by alterations in normal anatomy and
physiology
• Eg: Lung disease, arthritis
TERMINAL ILLNESS
• Critical cases, cannot be cured or treated adequately
and life expectancy of the person is estimated to 6
months or less
• Disease will progress and death occur regardless of
treatment
AGE RELATED ILLNESS
• Disease of the elderly
• Due to neuro degeneration, decreased host immune
response and complex changes
• Eg: Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, Cancer
ILLNESS BEHAVIOUR
• A complex process that involves the ways,
person monitor their bodies, define and
interpret their symptoms, take remedial
measures and use health care services
STAGES OF ILLNESS BEHAVIOUR
• Edward Suchman (1972) identified 5
stages of illness behaviour
• This pattern involves how a person seeks ,
finds and complete the health care
SYMPTOM EXPERIENCES
• First stage ------- a person comes to believe that
something is wrong
• Eg. Pain, fever, cough
• Known of symptoms of an illness that is
Physical, cognitive, emotional
ASSUMPTION OF THE SICK ROLE
• Accept sick role
• Do self treatment
• Persistant or potential threat influence
to seek medical care
MEDICAL CARE CONTACT
• Acknowledge the illness , seeks explain the
symptom, causes, duration
• Take treatment if sickness
• Denying of diagnosis
ASSUMING A DEPENDENT ROLE
• Patient’s decision to accept diagnosis and follow the
treatment
• Need informations or not regarding treatment and
progress
• Disrupt activities in daily living , society, family
RECOVERY OR REHABILITATION
• Start gaining normal health
• Recovery depends on the severity of sickness
• Prompt health education
STAGES OF ILLNESS BEHAVIOUR
• SYMPTOM EXPERIENCE
• ASSUMPTION OF SICK ROLE
• MEDICAL CARE CONTACT
• ASSUMING A DEPENDENT ROLE
RECOVERY / REHABILITATION
EMOTIONAL RESPONSES TO
ILLNESS
• Fear
• Anxiety
• Stress
• Over dependency or feeling of helplessness
IMPACT OF ILLNESS ON PATIENT
AND FAMILY
• Behavioral changes (Anxiety, shock, denial)
• Impact on family roles (Alteration in life and
Role changes affecting performance)
• Impact on body images (Maladaptation, affect
physical characteristics)
• Impact on self concept (Restricted life, social
isolation, devalued life, emotions)
• Impact on family dynamics (Level of functioning
before and after varies)
•THANK YOU…….

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INTRODUCTION TO HEALTH AND ILLNESS for 1st SEM BSc NURSING

  • 2.
  • 3. • A dynamic state of being, in which the developmental and behavioral potential of an individual are realized to the fullest extent possible . ( ANA,1980)
  • 6. • Greek word Oikos which means house. • Health is a dynamic equilibrium or adjustment between man and his environment. ECOLOGICAL CONCEPT
  • 9. HOLISTIC CONCEPT • Individuals health is one whole having sound mind in a sound body in a sound family, society and in a sound environment • Multi dimensional process
  • 11. PHYSICAL DIMENSION • Related to body and its functions • Physical state of perfect functioning of the body
  • 12. MENTAL DIMENSION • State of balance between individual and the surrounding world ,a state of harmony between oneself and others, a co-existence between the realities of the self and that of other people and that of the environment.
  • 13. SOCIAL DIMENSION • The quantity and quality of an individuals interpersonal ties and the extend of involvement with the community
  • 14. EMOTIONAL DIMENSION • Feelings .Ability to recognise, accept and express feelings of oneself and others
  • 15. SPIRITUAL DIMENSION • Refers to the individuals striving for finding meaning and purpose in life . It is something that embedded in morality principle, purpose in life, achieving highest goals of life.
  • 16. VOCATIONAL DIMENSION • Gives an individual a sense of achievement, purpose and self realization
  • 17. ENVIRONMENTAL DIMENSION • Two dimensions : Internal environment ( each and every components, harmonious functioning with inhuman system)and external environment( extraneous factors)
  • 18. OTHER DIMENSIONS • Mental • Cultural • Educational • Nutritive curative • Preventive • Promotive • Philosophical
  • 19. DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH • Biological • Life style • Environment • Socioeconomic • Health services • Heath policies and health programmes • Other factors
  • 20. MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS • Introduced by Abraham Maslow • A theory of motivation which states that human decision making is under girded by a hierarchy of psychological needs.
  • 21. • According to Maslow lower need is met, the next need on the hierarchy becomes our focus of attention
  • 23. • Suggested that people are motivated to fulfilled basic needs before moving to other needs. • Lowest level is basic needs and top levels are complex needs • Maslow believed that these needs are similar to instincts and play major role in motivating behaviour • Maslow termed the highest level of the pyramid as growth needs
  • 24. Characteristics of self actualized people • Acceptance and realism • Problem centering • Spontaneity • Autonomy and solitude • Continued freshness of appreciation • Peak experiences
  • 25. COMPARISON MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS • Physiological • Love and belonging • Self actualisation BASIC HUMAN NEEDS • Physical • Emotional • Social needs
  • 26. HEALTH ILLNESS CONTINUUM Envisioned by John W Travis in 1972 Defined as the range of a person’s total health
  • 27.
  • 28. • Continuum illustrates human being in a dynamic state to left or right from neutral point • External and internal environment bring changes • Positive health- healthy • Negative health (signs and symptoms- treatment) • High level wellness used to measure a person’s perceived level of wellness
  • 29. DUNN introduced high level wellness model or grid (1961) • Health is an ongoing process towards a person’s highest potential of functioning. • Process that helps a person to know who and what he or she is: • Recognising self as separate individual • Belonging • Growing and developing Making personal changes to fit self and others
  • 30. Quadrants of wellness grid by Dunn’s
  • 31. • High level wellness in a favourable environment = Healthy and favourable environment • Emergent High level wellness in an unfavourable environment = Awareness on health but unfavourable environment • Protected poor health in a favourable environment = Illness and favourable environment • Poor health in an unfavourable environment = Illness and unfavourable environment
  • 32. MODELS OF HEALTH AND ILLNESS • Health belief model by Rosenstock,Hochbaum, Kegels(individual perceptions, modifying factors, likelihood of action) • Health promotion model by Noja J Pender( individual characteristics and experiences, behaviour specific cognitions and affects, behavioral outcomes) • Holistic health model
  • 33. FACTORS INFLUENCING HEALTH • Rising health care costs • Physical factors • Ageing • Psychological factors • Environmental factors (physical, biological, psychological) • Host factors ( Demographic , biological, social and economical, lifestyle) • Agent factors (Biological, nutritional, physical, mechanical, social ,absence or excess of factors)
  • 34. ILLNESS • Illness is defined individually by each person who experiences an alteration in health • Illness is the product of the disharmonious interaction between mind, body, emotions and spirit
  • 35. CAUSES FOR DEVELOPING ILLNESSES Caused by microorganism Bacteria Viruses Fungi Parasites Direct contact Person to person Animal to person Mother to unborn child Indirect contact Insect bites
  • 36. RISK FACTORS FOR DEVELOPING ILLNESSES • Risk is the potential of losing something of value • Risk factor is a variable associated with the development of disease • Risk groups (susceptible population): Groups of individuals, who are exposed to or associated with the risk factors and therefore they are art high risk of morbidity or mortality, either because of constitution or of the environment physically, biologically or socio culturally.
  • 37. RISK GROUPS • Depending upon situation: • Physical situation (poor living condition, over crowding, lack of sanitation) • Biological situation (Age wise- Low birth weight babies , infants, toddlers ,elderly), Sex wise – female sin reproductive age),Physiological state- pregnancy, malnutrition), Genetic factors – strong family history) • Socio cultural situation ( class, habits, customs--)
  • 38. ILLNESS- TYPES ACUTE ILLNESS • Sudden onset, short time. • Depend on the cause may or may not require intervention • Some acute illness are serious Eg. Appendicitis
  • 39. CHRONIC ILLNESS • Lasts for an extended period (6 months) • Different physical and mental alterations • Caused by alterations in normal anatomy and physiology • Eg: Lung disease, arthritis
  • 40. TERMINAL ILLNESS • Critical cases, cannot be cured or treated adequately and life expectancy of the person is estimated to 6 months or less • Disease will progress and death occur regardless of treatment
  • 41. AGE RELATED ILLNESS • Disease of the elderly • Due to neuro degeneration, decreased host immune response and complex changes • Eg: Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, Cancer
  • 42. ILLNESS BEHAVIOUR • A complex process that involves the ways, person monitor their bodies, define and interpret their symptoms, take remedial measures and use health care services
  • 43. STAGES OF ILLNESS BEHAVIOUR • Edward Suchman (1972) identified 5 stages of illness behaviour • This pattern involves how a person seeks , finds and complete the health care
  • 44. SYMPTOM EXPERIENCES • First stage ------- a person comes to believe that something is wrong • Eg. Pain, fever, cough • Known of symptoms of an illness that is Physical, cognitive, emotional
  • 45. ASSUMPTION OF THE SICK ROLE • Accept sick role • Do self treatment • Persistant or potential threat influence to seek medical care
  • 46. MEDICAL CARE CONTACT • Acknowledge the illness , seeks explain the symptom, causes, duration • Take treatment if sickness • Denying of diagnosis
  • 47. ASSUMING A DEPENDENT ROLE • Patient’s decision to accept diagnosis and follow the treatment • Need informations or not regarding treatment and progress • Disrupt activities in daily living , society, family
  • 48. RECOVERY OR REHABILITATION • Start gaining normal health • Recovery depends on the severity of sickness • Prompt health education
  • 49. STAGES OF ILLNESS BEHAVIOUR • SYMPTOM EXPERIENCE • ASSUMPTION OF SICK ROLE • MEDICAL CARE CONTACT • ASSUMING A DEPENDENT ROLE RECOVERY / REHABILITATION
  • 50. EMOTIONAL RESPONSES TO ILLNESS • Fear • Anxiety • Stress • Over dependency or feeling of helplessness
  • 51. IMPACT OF ILLNESS ON PATIENT AND FAMILY • Behavioral changes (Anxiety, shock, denial) • Impact on family roles (Alteration in life and Role changes affecting performance)
  • 52. • Impact on body images (Maladaptation, affect physical characteristics) • Impact on self concept (Restricted life, social isolation, devalued life, emotions) • Impact on family dynamics (Level of functioning before and after varies)