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INTRODUCTION TO CNS AND ITS
NEUROTRANSMITTERS
DR.RAHUL
Non specific CNS stimulants
 Act by blocking inhibitory neurotransmission
 Direct excitation
 EXAMPLES:
 Cocaine
 Alcohol
 Caffeines
 Methylxanthines
Levels of CNS Depression
 Calming
 Drowsiness (sedation)
 Conscious sedation
 Sleep (hypnosis)
 Unconsciousness
 Surgical anesthesia
 Coma
 Respiratory collapse
 Cardiovascular collapse
 Death
Topics covered under CNS
 Sedative Hypnotics
 Preanaesthetic
Medications
 General Anesthesia
 Opioid analgesics
 Anti-parkinsonian agents
 Antiepileptics
 Psychopharmacology :
 Antipsychotics
 Antidepressants
 Anti maniac
EXCITATOR
Y
INHIBITOR
Y
GLUTAMATE
RECEPTORS
GABAergic SYNAPSE
GABA
glutamate
glucose
Cl
-
GAD
Dopamine SystemDopamine System
Dopamine System
There are four major pathways for the
dopaminergic system in the brain:
I. The Nigro-Stiatal Pathway.
II. The Mesolimbic Pathway.
III. The Mesocortical Pathway.
IV. The Tuberoinfundibular Pathway.
Catecholamines
Tyrosine
⇓ Tyrosine hydroxylase
L-Dopa
⇓ Dopa decarboxylase
Dopamine (DA)
⇓ Dopamine β hydroxylase
Norepinephrine (NE)
(Noradrenaline) Phenylethanolamine-
⇓ -N-methyltransferase
Epinephrine (EPI)
(Adrenaline)
Dopamine Synapse
DA
L-DOPA
Tyrosine
Tyrosine
Dopamine System
 DOPAMINE RECEPTORS
There are at least five subtypes of receptors:
Receptor
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
Dopamine Reuptake System
Serotonetgic transmissionSerotonetgic transmission
Neurotransmitter
 Substance produced in the neuron
(synthesized), contained and secreted
by that neuron to transmit information to
postsynaptic target.
Introduction to Central Nervous system Pharmacology : Dr Rahul Kunkulol's Power point preparations
Introduction to Central Nervous system Pharmacology : Dr Rahul Kunkulol's Power point preparations

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Introduction to Central Nervous system Pharmacology : Dr Rahul Kunkulol's Power point preparations

Editor's Notes

  1. Slide 4: The synapse and synaptic neurotransmission Describe the synapse and the process of chemical neurotransmission. Indicate how vesicles containing a neurotransmitter, such as dopamine (the stars), move toward the presynaptic membrane as an electrical impulse arrives at the terminal. Describe the process of dopamine release (show how the vesicles fuse with the presynaptic membrane). Once inside the synaptic cleft, the dopamine can bind to specific proteins called dopamine receptors (in blue) on the membrane of a neighboring neuron. Introduce the idea that occupation of receptors by neurotransmitters causes various actions in the cell; activation or inhibition of enzymes, entry or exit of certain ions. State that you will describe how this happens in a few moments.
  2. Slide 6: Dopamine and the production of cyclic AMP Using the close-up view, explain what happens when dopamine binds to its receptor. When dopamine binds to its receptor, another protein called a G-protein (in pink) moves up close to the dopamine receptor. The G-protein signals an enzyme to produce cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) molecules (in green) inside the cell. [Sometimes the signal can decrease production of cAMP, depending on the kind of dopamine receptor and G-protein present.] Point to the dopamine receptor-G-protein/adenylate cyclase complex, and show how cAMP is generated when dopamine binds to its receptor. Indicate that cAMP (point to the cyclic-looking structures) controls many important functions in the cell including the ability of the cell to generate electrical impulses.
  3. Slide 12: Dopamine binding to receptors and uptake pumps in the nucleus accumbens Explain that cocaine concentrates in areas of the brain that are rich in dopamine synapses. Review dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens. Point to dopamine in the synapse and to dopamine bound to dopamine receptors and to uptake pumps on the terminal.