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INTRODUCTION TO ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE BASIC
 Rational agents or Problem-solving agents in AI
mostly used these search strategies or algorithms to
solve a specific problem and provide the best result.
 Problem-solving agents are the goal-based agents and
use atomic representation.
 Search: Searching is a step by step procedure to solve
a search-problem in a given search space. A search
problem can have three main factors:
◦ Search Space: Search space represents a set of possible
solutions, which a system may have.
◦ Start State: It is a state from where agent begins the search.
◦ Goal test: It is a function which observe the current state and
returns whether the goal state is achieved or not.
 Search tree: A tree representation of search problem is called
Search tree. The root of the search tree is the root node which is
corresponding to the initial state.
 Actions: It gives the description of all the available actions to the
agent.
 Transition model: A description of what each action do, can be
represented as a transition model.
 Path Cost: It is a function which assigns a numeric cost to each
path.
 Solution: It is an action sequence which leads from the start node to
the goal node.
 Optimal Solution: If a solution has the lowest cost among all
solutions.
Four essential properties of search algorithms to compare
the efficiency of these algorithms:
 Completeness: A search algorithm is said to be
complete if it guarantees to return a solution if at least
any solution exists for any random input.
 Time Complexity: Time complexity is a measure of
time for an algorithm to complete its task.
 Optimality: If a solution found for an algorithm is
guaranteed to be the best solution (lowest path cost)
among all other solutions, then such a solution for is
said to be an optimal solution.
 Space Complexity: It is the maximum storage space
required at any point during the search, as the
complexity of the problem.
 Based on the search problems we can classify the
search algorithms into
1. uninformed (Blind search) search and
2. informed search (Heuristic search) algorithms.
INTRODUCTION TO ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE BASIC
 does not contain any domain knowledge such as
closeness, the location of the goal.
 operates in a brute-force way as it only includes
information about how to traverse the tree and how to
identify leaf and goal nodes.
 Uninformed search applies a way in which search tree
is searched without any information about the search
space like initial state operators and test for the goal, so
it is also called blind search.
 It examines each node of the tree until it achieves the
 Informed search algorithms use domain knowledge.
 Informed search strategies can find a solution more
efficiently than an uninformed search strategy.
 Informed search is also called a Heuristic search.
 A heuristic is a way which might not always be
guaranteed for best solutions but guaranteed to find a
good solution in reasonable time.
 Informed search can solve much complex problem which
could not be solved in another way.
 Breadth-first search is the most common search
strategy for traversing a tree or graph. This algorithm
searches breadthwise in a tree or graph, so it is called
breadth-first search.
 BFS algorithm starts searching from the root node of
the tree and expands all successor node at the current
level before moving to nodes of next level.
 Breadth-first search implemented using FIFO queue
data structure.
 BFS will provide a solution if any solution exists.
 If there are more than one solutions for a given
problem, then BFS will provide the minimal solution
which requires the least number of steps.
 BFS algorithm from the root node S to goal node K.
 It starts from the root node and follows each path to its greatest
depth node before moving to the next path.
 DFS uses a stack data structure for its implementation.
 The process of the DFS algorithm is similar to the BFS algorithm.
Advantage:
 requires very less memory
 takes less time to reach to the goal node than BFS algorithm (if it
traverses in the right path).
 Root node--->Left node ----> right node.
 A depth-limited search algorithm is similar to depth-
first search with a predetermined limit.
 Depth-limited search can solve the drawback of the
infinite path in the Depth-first search.
 In this algorithm, the node at the depth limit will treat
as it has no successor nodes further.
 (It may not be optimal if the problem has
more than one solution.) incompleteness
INTRODUCTION TO ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE BASIC
 used for traversing a weighted tree or graph.
 This algorithm comes into play when a different cost is
available for each edge.
 is implemented by the priority queue.
 It gives maximum priority to the lowest cumulative
cost.
 Uniform cost search is equivalent to BFS algorithm if
the path cost of all edges is the same.
 does not care about the number of steps
involve in searching
 The iterative deepening algorithm is a combination of
DFS and BFS algorithms.
 finds out the best depth limit and does it by gradually
increasing the limit until a goal is found.
 The iterative search algorithm is useful uninformed
search when search space is large, and depth of goal
node is unknown.
INTRODUCTION TO ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE BASIC
 1'st Iteration-----> A
2'nd Iteration----> A, B, C
3'rd Iteration------>A, B, D, E, C, F, G
4'th Iteration------>A, B, D, H, I, E, C, F, K, G
In the fourth iteration, the algorithm will find the goal
node.
 Bidirectional search algorithm runs two simultaneous searches, one
form initial state called as forward-search and other from goal node
called as backward-search, to find the goal node.
 Bidirectional search replaces one single search graph with two small
subgraphs in which one starts the search from an initial vertex and
other starts from goal vertex. The search stops when these two
graphs intersect each other.
 Bidirectional search can use search techniques such as BFS, DFS,
DLS, etc.
 Implementation of the bidirectional search tree is
difficult.
INTRODUCTION TO ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE BASIC

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INTRODUCTION TO ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE BASIC

  • 2.  Rational agents or Problem-solving agents in AI mostly used these search strategies or algorithms to solve a specific problem and provide the best result.  Problem-solving agents are the goal-based agents and use atomic representation.
  • 3.  Search: Searching is a step by step procedure to solve a search-problem in a given search space. A search problem can have three main factors: ◦ Search Space: Search space represents a set of possible solutions, which a system may have. ◦ Start State: It is a state from where agent begins the search. ◦ Goal test: It is a function which observe the current state and returns whether the goal state is achieved or not.
  • 4.  Search tree: A tree representation of search problem is called Search tree. The root of the search tree is the root node which is corresponding to the initial state.  Actions: It gives the description of all the available actions to the agent.  Transition model: A description of what each action do, can be represented as a transition model.  Path Cost: It is a function which assigns a numeric cost to each path.  Solution: It is an action sequence which leads from the start node to the goal node.  Optimal Solution: If a solution has the lowest cost among all solutions.
  • 5. Four essential properties of search algorithms to compare the efficiency of these algorithms:  Completeness: A search algorithm is said to be complete if it guarantees to return a solution if at least any solution exists for any random input.  Time Complexity: Time complexity is a measure of time for an algorithm to complete its task.
  • 6.  Optimality: If a solution found for an algorithm is guaranteed to be the best solution (lowest path cost) among all other solutions, then such a solution for is said to be an optimal solution.  Space Complexity: It is the maximum storage space required at any point during the search, as the complexity of the problem.
  • 7.  Based on the search problems we can classify the search algorithms into 1. uninformed (Blind search) search and 2. informed search (Heuristic search) algorithms.
  • 9.  does not contain any domain knowledge such as closeness, the location of the goal.  operates in a brute-force way as it only includes information about how to traverse the tree and how to identify leaf and goal nodes.  Uninformed search applies a way in which search tree is searched without any information about the search space like initial state operators and test for the goal, so it is also called blind search.  It examines each node of the tree until it achieves the
  • 10.  Informed search algorithms use domain knowledge.  Informed search strategies can find a solution more efficiently than an uninformed search strategy.  Informed search is also called a Heuristic search.  A heuristic is a way which might not always be guaranteed for best solutions but guaranteed to find a good solution in reasonable time.  Informed search can solve much complex problem which could not be solved in another way.
  • 11.  Breadth-first search is the most common search strategy for traversing a tree or graph. This algorithm searches breadthwise in a tree or graph, so it is called breadth-first search.  BFS algorithm starts searching from the root node of the tree and expands all successor node at the current level before moving to nodes of next level.  Breadth-first search implemented using FIFO queue data structure.
  • 12.  BFS will provide a solution if any solution exists.  If there are more than one solutions for a given problem, then BFS will provide the minimal solution which requires the least number of steps.
  • 13.  BFS algorithm from the root node S to goal node K.
  • 14.  It starts from the root node and follows each path to its greatest depth node before moving to the next path.  DFS uses a stack data structure for its implementation.  The process of the DFS algorithm is similar to the BFS algorithm. Advantage:  requires very less memory  takes less time to reach to the goal node than BFS algorithm (if it traverses in the right path).
  • 15.  Root node--->Left node ----> right node.
  • 16.  A depth-limited search algorithm is similar to depth- first search with a predetermined limit.  Depth-limited search can solve the drawback of the infinite path in the Depth-first search.  In this algorithm, the node at the depth limit will treat as it has no successor nodes further.  (It may not be optimal if the problem has more than one solution.) incompleteness
  • 18.  used for traversing a weighted tree or graph.  This algorithm comes into play when a different cost is available for each edge.  is implemented by the priority queue.  It gives maximum priority to the lowest cumulative cost.  Uniform cost search is equivalent to BFS algorithm if the path cost of all edges is the same.
  • 19.  does not care about the number of steps involve in searching
  • 20.  The iterative deepening algorithm is a combination of DFS and BFS algorithms.  finds out the best depth limit and does it by gradually increasing the limit until a goal is found.  The iterative search algorithm is useful uninformed search when search space is large, and depth of goal node is unknown.
  • 22.  1'st Iteration-----> A 2'nd Iteration----> A, B, C 3'rd Iteration------>A, B, D, E, C, F, G 4'th Iteration------>A, B, D, H, I, E, C, F, K, G In the fourth iteration, the algorithm will find the goal node.
  • 23.  Bidirectional search algorithm runs two simultaneous searches, one form initial state called as forward-search and other from goal node called as backward-search, to find the goal node.  Bidirectional search replaces one single search graph with two small subgraphs in which one starts the search from an initial vertex and other starts from goal vertex. The search stops when these two graphs intersect each other.  Bidirectional search can use search techniques such as BFS, DFS, DLS, etc.
  • 24.  Implementation of the bidirectional search tree is difficult.