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UNIVERSITÉ SAINT-JOSEPH
FACULTÉ DES SCIENCES DE L'ÉDUCATION

Information and Communication Technology in Building Prospective Teachers’ Knowledge Base:
Cohort of Secondary Mathematics Pre-service Teachers in Lebanon
A Doctoral Dissertation in Sciences of Education

Prepared By

Milad Mikhael Saad

Thesis Director: Dr. Aziz M. Barbar
Thesis Co-director: Dr. Suzanne A.R. AbouRjeily

Beirut, 10/1/2014
Information and Communication Technology
in Building Prospective Teachers’ Knowledge Base:
Cohort of Secondary Mathematics Pre-service Teachers in Lebanon
Pages = 631 / Words = 127,290 / References = 260 / Tables = 103/ Figures = 74 / Working hours ≃ 5,500 hrs. + tons of stress

Findings

Introduction

Number of Slides

Review of
Literature

Theoretical
Framework

ICT
Taxonomy

Methodology

&
Conclusions

2

3

7

2

2

5

Total 21 slides

Milad Mikhael Saad

2
Reality & Expectations in Pre-service Teacher Education!

Introduction

Slide 1 of 2

What
is?

“Lebanon’s overall educational
technology efforts may best be categorized
within the emerging category of nations in
terms of the overall educational
technology efforts.” (Burns, 2012, p.12)
http://www.mehe.gov.lb/Uploads/file/TTLA.pdf

Lack of research evidence to describe the status-quo

What
should
be?

Lebanon’s National Educational Technology Strategic Plan.
“ MEHE, CERD, and Faculties of Education should use this
strategic plan as an opportunity to review and improve recruiting,
preparing, supporting, and compensating teachers on the preservice front end rather than fixing issues of poor-quality
instruction on the in-service back end” (MEHE, 2012, p. 83).
http://www.mehe.gov.lb/Uploads/file/TLSP.pdf

Introduction

Number of Slides

2

Review of
Literature

3

Theoretical
Framework

7

ICT
Taxonomy

2

Findings
Methodology

2

&
Conclusions

5

3
Research Questions …

Introduction

In Simple Words

Slide 2 of 2

Are prospective secondary mathematics teachers ready, willing,
and able to teach with technology in the digital age within the
Lebanese educational context?
 What is the nature of pre-service teachers’ knowledge that
enables them to teach mathematics with technology, and how it
can be built during their reparation?
 And, based on what theoretical model?
 What types of ICTs should they learn about?
 And, how far are pre-service teachers of the faculties of
education in Lebanon are capable of integrating technology in
teaching secondary mathematics?

Introduction

Number of Slides

2

Review of
Literature

3

Theoretical
Framework

7

ICT
Taxonomy

2

Findings
Methodology

2

&
Conclusions

5

4
Review of Literature
Teachers’ Pedagogical ICT Knowledge: A Quick Review

Review
of
Literature

Slide 1 of 3

Common themes in international
research
 Pre-service teacher preparation
 Complex and resistant to
standardization
 Ill-structured, dynamic
environment
 Situated and Contextual
 ICTs in pre-service teacher
preparation
 Ever-Changing
 Stand-alone technology
courses are not sufficient
 Infusion into all aspects
is risky
 Pedagogical use of ICTs
is the result of the
interrelation of ICT
knowledge with other
sciences of education
(Recommended but not well
shaped)
Number of Slides

Interdisciplinarity of
teacher’s knowledge
describes the
argument that
teacher’s knowledge
is an integrated
knowledge that
synthesizes/blends
the knowledge
drawn from different
disciplinary
knowledge
constructs to form a
coherent unified
whole knowledge for
teaching (Lattuca,
2001).

Introduction

2

Review of
Literature

3

Theoretical
Framework

7

ICT
Taxonomy

2

Findings
Methodology

2

&
Conclusions

5

5
Review of Literature:
Example of ICTs Interrelation with Pedagogy and Didactics
The use of technology affordances to support learning ought to be viewed with
respect to its functional connection to a pedagogical and didactical philosophy
(Atkinson, 1997).
ICTs
Educational
Technology

Pedagogy
&
Didactics

Behaviorism
Programmed Instruction

Social learning theory
ICTs to foster modeling

Cognitivism
ICTs fostering differentiated learning

Constructivism
ICTs enhancing discovery, sharing and
collaboration

Connectivism
diverse knowledge sources
(Internet networks and resources)

 These philosophies will necessarily characterize the
ways in which ICT is incorporated into a school.
(Anderson & van Weert, 2002, p.23)

Introduction

Number of Slides

2

Review of
Literature

3

Theoretical
Framework

7

ICT
Taxonomy

2

Review
of
Literature

Slide 2 of 3

“If technology is
truly to be beneficial
to education, the
power and potential
of educational
technology must be
acknowledged to
reside within
educators and not
within objects (p.52).
.. a way of looking at
educational
technology that goes
beyond continuously
"chasing" the latest
and greatest
innovation.”
(Mishra, Koehler, &
Kereluik, 2009, p. 50)

Findings
Methodology

2

&
Conclusions

5

6
Review of Literature:
Summary

Review
of
Literature

Slide 3 of 3

Review of literature highly indicates that ICT knowledge is
situated and synthesized with and within other knowledge
domains to form pre-service teacher’s knowledge base that:
 is broad, multifaceted, and is informed by many different
disciplines.
 interrelates and integrates several disciplinary knowledge
domains that enable future teachers to render this integrated
coherent unified whole knowledge into conscious decisions
in their future teaching of secondary mathematics in ICT-rich
/enhanced teaching learning environments.

But, what theoretical
model would enable
me to detect this
knowledge domains
amalgam in my
research?

The interdisciplinarity of pre-service teachers’ professional
knowledge base is essential for these teachers to become
capable of analyzing, evaluating, and synthesizing information
from multiple disciplines in order to make meaningful
connections and to integrate the various disciplines and
render them into reasoned decisions, while utilizing ICTs in
their secondary mathematics teaching.

Introduction

Number of Slides

2

Review of
Literature

3

Theoretical
Framework

7

ICT
Taxonomy

2

Findings
Methodology

2

&
Conclusionss

5

7
Theoretical Framework
Evolution of Prominent Frameworks in Teacher Education

Theoretical
Framework

Slide 1 of 7

Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (PCK)
http://www.leeshulman.net/domains-pedagogical-content-knowledge.html

Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge
(TPACK)
http://www.tpack.org/

ICT-TPCK as a strand of Technological Pedagogical
and Content Knowledge (TPACK)
http://teaching.cycu.edu.tw/pdf/2009_TPCK.pdf

Visit page 159
This and the coming 3 slides are the core content of our (the authors
listed below) published article.
Saad, M., Barbar, A. M., & Abourjelli, S. A. R. (2012). Introduction
of TPACK-XL: A Transformative View of ICT-TPCK for Building
Pre-service Teacher Knowledge Base. Turkish Journal of Teacher
Education, 1(2), 41-60.
http://tujted.com/index.php/tujted/article/view/6
Introduction

Number of Slides

2

Review of
Literature

3

Theoretical
Framework

7

ICT
Taxonomy

2

Findings
Methodology

2

&
Conclusions

5

8
Elaboration of ICT-TPCK Constructs

Theoretical
Framework

Slide 2 of 7

Introduction

Number of Slides

2

Review of
Literature

3

Theoretical
Framework

7

ICT
Taxonomy

2

Findings
Methodology

2

&
Conclusions

5

9
Introduction of TPACK-XL

Theoretical
Framework

Slide 3 of 7

That's an impressive looking a diagram - I bet it was a feat just to
figure out how to represent all of that!
In general, I see the temptation to add more realms of knowledge (in
this case, X and L). We originally had four, for example (we used to
have an R). While these representations probably capture more depth they sacrifice parsimony and the ability to communicate with teachers
and teacher educators. That is, there's a lot to be said for parsimony
(M. Koehler, personal communication, August 8, 2012).

Introduction

Number of Slides

2

Review of
Literature

3

Theoretical
Framework

7

ICT
Taxonomy

2

Findings
Methodology

2

&
Conclusions

5

10
Technology Interdisciplinary Knowledge
(TIK) Framework within TPACK-XL

Theoretical
Framework

Slide 4 of 7
TIK = {(T, TX), (TP, TPX), (TC, TX), (T, TCX), (TL, TLX),
(TPC, TPCX), (TCL, TCLX), (TPCL, TPCLX)}
Seek generalizations, relish them, challenge then, and
take them as far as you can. Seek particularizations,
collect them, explore them, and build local
neighborhoods of understanding from them. And let
those generalizations and particularizations interact and
engage with each other, for only in that manner will our
capacities for engaging in the practical work of teaching
and learning flourish. (Shulman, 2002, p. ix)

Thus,TIK is a composite function represented as:

𝑇𝐼𝐾 = 𝐿○𝐺(𝑇, 𝑃, 𝐶, 𝐿, 𝑋)

But, Where does this
knowledge grow?

Introduction

Number of Slides

2

Review of
Literature

3

Theoretical
Framework

7

ICT
Taxonomy

2

Findings
Methodology

2

&
Conclusions

5

11
Pre-service Teachers Learning Communities and Contexts:
Elaboration of A Theoretical Model

Theoretical
Framework

Slide 5 of 7

Contextually-situated and inquiryframed TPACK model. (Adopted from
Pierson & Borthwick, 2010, p.130)

Introduction

Number of Slides

2

Review of
Literature

3

Contextually-Situated and InquiryFramed TPACK-XL modified model

Theoretical
Framework

7

ICT
Taxonomy

2

Findings
Methodology

2

&
Conclusions

5

12
Conceptualizing Teacher Learning and Development
Within Communities and Contexts

Theoretical
Framework

Slide 6 of 7

Shulman and Shulman (2004)
theoretical framework that
embeds “universal features of
accomplished teaching and its
development’ (p.7)
Introduction

Number of Slides

2

Review of
Literature

3

Theoretical
Framework

7

ICT
Taxonomy

2

Findings
Methodology

2

&
Conclusions

5

13
Research Theoretical Model

Theoretical
Framework

Slide 7 of 7

Introduction

Number of Slides

2

Review of
Literature

3

Theoretical
Framework

7

ICT
Taxonomy

2

Findings
Methodology

2

&
Conclusions

5

14
Taxonomy of ICTs for the Emerging Stage

ICT
Taxonomy

Slide 1 of 2

Identify ICTs types and their
educational affordances in
secondary mathematics
Blending ICTs affordances
knowledge with other
sciences of education
knowledge to augment
teaching through
pedagogy-based ICT
integration

Classification is based on:
 Availability
 Commonalities
 Affordances supported
by research evidence
 International and local
trends in using ICTs for
secondary mathematics
education in the
“emerging stage”

Grounded on 5 years of literature review and the researcher’s 30 years of
knowledge and experience in the field of education and ICTs in secondary
mathematics education, the
 TIK framework of TPACK-XL,
 Taxonomy of Current ICTs and their pedagogical affordances
 Shulman & Shulman framework of teaching and learning communities,
All form the researcher’s lenses and cognitive tool kit to explore the research
ground.
Introduction

Number of Slides

2

Review of
Literature

3

Theoretical
Framework

7

ICT
Taxonomy

2

Findings
Methodology

2

&
Conclusions

5

15
Taxonomy of ICTs for the Emerging Stage

ICT
Taxonomy

Slide 2 of 2

ICTs in Mathematics Education

Taxonomies construct the ways in which
we organize knowledge and education.
However, they are neither permanent nor
complete and their boundaries change.
(Klein, 2010, p.15)

2

5
4

Common Productivity
Software Applications
Database
Management
systems

d

1
c

Mathematics Instructional
Software

Mathematics Productivity
Software Applications

f

d

3

c

Statistical Analysis Software

e
d

b
b

Presentation
Software

a

Math Open
Courseware and
other Online Math
6
Resources

c

Graph Plotting Software

a

Math Videos

b
a

Math Applets
Spreadsheets
Geometry Dynamic Software

Math Simulators

Word processors

Math Drill and
Practice Software

Computer Algebra Systems

Learning Management
Systems (LMS)

Math Tutorials
Emailing

ICT Hardware

c
b
a

b

Web 2.0 and Social
Networking

Computer Laboratory

e
d

a

Web Searching
c

Hand-held Digital Devices
Online publishing

d

Interactive White Boards
Computers & Multimedia Projectors

Online communicating

e

Online Resources
Access,
Communication &
Collaboration

Scientific & Graphing Calculators

16
Number of Slides

2

3

7

2

2

5
Methodology

Methodology

How do pre-service teachers assess their knowledge related to technology integration in
secondary mathematics teaching? How do they assess the role of the faculty of education
in building that knowledge?
This research study combines the techniques of survey and descriptive studies
Data were collected from 4 prominent Lebanese Universities and two MEHE consultants
MEHE Consultants
Views

Slide 1 of 2

• MEHE ICT in PTE Policy Consultants Views (n = 2)
• Interviews

Policy

Courses

Educators Views

• ICTs in the SMPTE Courses Profiles (n = 10)
• Document Analysis

Educator

Course Descriptors
Content

• SMPTE ICT-Teachers’ Educators Views (n = 8 )
• Interviews and open-ended survey

Mentor

• ICT development and Support Experts Views (n = 3)
• Interviews

Student

ICT Support
Experts Views

• SMPTE Teachers’ Mentors Views (n = 5 )
• Interviews

Support

Mentors Views

• SMPT (tier 1, n =43; tier 2, n = 32)
• Tier 1: Close-ended survey; Tier 2: Open-ended Survey

Students
Views

Introduction

Number of Slides

2

Review of
Literature

3

Theoretical
Framework

7

ICT
Taxonomy

2

Findings
Methodology

2

&
Conclusions

5

17
Methodology

Methodology

Slide 2 of 2

Student Teachers Close-Ended Survey-English Version
http://ifteachersmatter.com/survey_en.html

Open-Ended Survey
Educators Version
https://docs.google.com/forms/d/19I8liW5hzD8notJcwXukjyCUYVKa
v2-qeXt4jygz3J8/viewform

Student Teachers Version
https://docs.google.com/forms/d/15KA4TVDoxBij2ZL98cSs
d9j4nSFEq50H9rdt6P7LGl0/viewform

Introduction

Number of Slides

2

Review of
Literature

3

Theoretical
Framework

7

ICT
Taxonomy

2

Findings
Methodology

2

&
Conclusions

5

18
Findings Related to Student Teachers’ TIK

Findings
&
Conclusions

Slide 1 of 5
Technological Knowledge – Software
Internal Consistency (alpha) 0.786
Average Percent of familiarity 63.5%
N = 20
I am familiar with

Percent

95.3%

Word processing (e.g., Microsoft word, iWork Pages, etc.)
Spreadsheets (e.g., Microsoft Excel, iWork Numbers, etc.).

90.7%

Presentation software (e.g., Microsoft PowerPoint, iWork Keynote, etc.)

95.3%

Database management systems (e.g., Microsoft Access, FileMaker, etc.).

30.2%

Learning (or course) management systems (e.g., Blackboard, Moodle, etc.).

41.9%

Computer Algebra Systems (e.g., DERIVE, Mathcad, etc.).

46.5%

Geometry Dynamic Software (e.g., Cabri Geometry, GeoGebra, etc.).

55.8%

Graph Plotting Software (e.g., Graphmatica, DPlot, etc.).

30.2%

Statistical Analysis Software (e.g., SPSS, STAT, etc.).

46.5%

Math tutorials.

72.0%

Math Drill and Practice Software.

55.8%

Math Simulators.

39.5%

Math Applets.

27.9%

Math videos.

46.5%

Math open courseware and other online math resources.

41.9%

Emailing (e.g., Microsoft Outlook, Gmail, Hotmail, your university mail, etc.).

97.7%

Web searching (e.g., Google, Yahoo, etc.).

100 %

Web 2.0 and social networking (e.g. Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, YouTube, etc.).

95.3%

Online publishing (e.g., Blogging, Podcasts, and YouTube).

67.4%

Online communicating (e.g., Skype, WebEx, MSN, Viber, and Whatsapp).

93.0%

Introduction

Number of Slides

2

Review of
Literature

3

Theoretical
Framework

7

3.58

ICT
Taxonomy

2

Findings
Methodology

2

&
Conclusions

5

19
Findings Related to Student Teachers’ TIK
Example of Technological Content Knowledge

Findings
&
Conclusions

Slide 2 of 5
Technological Content Knowledge (Mean 3.97)
Internal Consistency (alpha) 0.878

Mean

I am capable of using word processors to produce documents embedding math notations

4.26

using equation editor.
I am capable of using word processors to create math instruction documents embedding

4.07

graphs, images, and tables.
I am capable of using spreadsheets to perform math-specific calculations and data analysis.

3.81

I am capable of using spreadsheets to visualize data by different graphs and charts in math.

3.84

I am capable of using presentation software to create presentations that contain math

3.86

notations using equation editor.
[ ] ... search online for mathematics resources.

4.16

[ ] ... identify suitable web-based resources for teaching specific math topics.

3.79

TC Scale Summary Item Statistics

TC Knowledge (Mean 3.97)

Maximum /
Mean
Item Means

Minimum

Maximum

Range

Minimum

Variance

N of Items

3.970

3.791

4.256

.465

1.123

.036

7

3.97

TC Scale Statistics
Mean
27.79

Variance Std. Deviation N of Items
47.693

6.906

7

Introduction

Number of Slides

2

Review of
Literature

3

Theoretical
Framework

7

ICT
Taxonomy

2

Findings
Methodology

2

&
Conclusions

5

20
Response

Frequency

Percent

17

40%

26

60%

Sample Findings Related to Teacher Education Programs
Teacher education
courses
Not sole source of
knowledge
NO knowledge

0

0%

Total

43

100.0

Findings
&
Conclusions

Slide 3 of 5
Item 4.5 (TE)

I gained most of my knowledge of
mathematics productivity software
applications, through my:
Response
Teacher education
courses
Not sole source of
knowledge

Frequency

Percent

17

40%

21

49%

NO knowledge

5

11%

Total

43

100%

Item 5.5 (TE)
I gained most of my knowledge of
mathematics instructional software,
through my:
Response

Frequency

Percent

11

25.6%

23

53.5%

NO knowledge

9

20.9%

Total

43

100%

Teacher education
courses
Not sole source of
knowledge

Introduction

Number of Slides

2

Review of
Literature

3

Theoretical
Framework

7

ICT
Taxonomy

2

Findings
Methodology

2

&
Conclusions

5

21
Findings
&
Conclusions

Conclusions

Slide 4 of 5

There are good indications that:
 Teacher Education are exposing pre-service teachers to most
Emerging stage ICTs
 Most ICT-standalone courses content are fit to universal
standards of the Emerging stage ICTs
 Teacher Education programs and stakeholders encourage
students to teach with technology
There are relatively sufficient indications to conclude that:
 Pre-service teachers’ ability to pedagogically integrate
technology in secondary mathematics classroom, in the
Emerging stage, is moderate.
 Pre-service teachers might face difficulty to teach with
technology as per the national educational strategy.
 Pre-service teachers might need more practice to become
confident in their teaching with technology.
 Student teachers expect more ICT pedagogy-based
knowledge and practice (Proactive strategies)
Introduction

Number of Slides

2

Review of
Literature

3

Theoretical
Framework

7

ICT
Taxonomy

2

Findings
Methodology

2

&
Conclusions

5

22
Recommendations & Suggestions for Future Research
Relevant to Secondary Mathematics Pre-service Teacher Education

Findings
&
Conclusions

Slide 4 of 5

The research suggests:
 Collaboration to meet the national
educational strategy (Collaborated
efforts)

Issues that may be important for future research.
 To what extent pre-service teachers are applying their
ICT pedagogy based knowledge as they become novice
teachers? If gaps exist, how can they be fulfilled?

 Richer student teachers’ ICT
pedagogical knowledge and
practices (Digital age teachers)

 At the practicum level, examine student teachers’
pedagogical ICT practices and knowledge (Linkage
between theory and practice)

 Interrelate pedagogical ICT
knowledge with all sciences of
education (Interdisciplinary mode)

 How should teacher education program be designed in
ways that scaffold building pre-service teachers
interdisciplinary based knowledge including ICT?

 Teachers are to be ready to teach
with technology in the classrooms
of today and tomorrow (proactive
mode).

 What are the faculties of education proactive policies
to meet MEHE national educational technology
strategic plan?

Introduction

Number of Slides

2

 Development of TPACK-XL and extend it to other
academic disciplines
Review of
Literature

3

Theoretical
Framework

7

ICT
Taxonomy

2

Findings
Methodology

2

&
Conclusions

5

23
Thank You

Q&A
The important thing in science is not so much
to obtain new facts as to discover new ways of
thinking about them.
—Sir William Henry Bragg
Nobel Prize for Physics, 1915

A knowledge base for teaching
is not fixed and final.
...We may be able to offer a
compelling argument for the
broad outlines and categories of
the knowledge base for teaching.
It will, however, become
abundantly clear that much, if
not most, of the proposed
knowledge base remains to be
discovered, invented, and
refined.
— Lee Shulman, 1987

24

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Introduction of TPACK-XL: Building Future Teachers' Knowledge Base to Teach in the Digital Age.

  • 1. UNIVERSITÉ SAINT-JOSEPH FACULTÉ DES SCIENCES DE L'ÉDUCATION Information and Communication Technology in Building Prospective Teachers’ Knowledge Base: Cohort of Secondary Mathematics Pre-service Teachers in Lebanon A Doctoral Dissertation in Sciences of Education Prepared By Milad Mikhael Saad Thesis Director: Dr. Aziz M. Barbar Thesis Co-director: Dr. Suzanne A.R. AbouRjeily Beirut, 10/1/2014
  • 2. Information and Communication Technology in Building Prospective Teachers’ Knowledge Base: Cohort of Secondary Mathematics Pre-service Teachers in Lebanon Pages = 631 / Words = 127,290 / References = 260 / Tables = 103/ Figures = 74 / Working hours ≃ 5,500 hrs. + tons of stress Findings Introduction Number of Slides Review of Literature Theoretical Framework ICT Taxonomy Methodology & Conclusions 2 3 7 2 2 5 Total 21 slides Milad Mikhael Saad 2
  • 3. Reality & Expectations in Pre-service Teacher Education! Introduction Slide 1 of 2 What is? “Lebanon’s overall educational technology efforts may best be categorized within the emerging category of nations in terms of the overall educational technology efforts.” (Burns, 2012, p.12) http://www.mehe.gov.lb/Uploads/file/TTLA.pdf Lack of research evidence to describe the status-quo What should be? Lebanon’s National Educational Technology Strategic Plan. “ MEHE, CERD, and Faculties of Education should use this strategic plan as an opportunity to review and improve recruiting, preparing, supporting, and compensating teachers on the preservice front end rather than fixing issues of poor-quality instruction on the in-service back end” (MEHE, 2012, p. 83). http://www.mehe.gov.lb/Uploads/file/TLSP.pdf Introduction Number of Slides 2 Review of Literature 3 Theoretical Framework 7 ICT Taxonomy 2 Findings Methodology 2 & Conclusions 5 3
  • 4. Research Questions … Introduction In Simple Words Slide 2 of 2 Are prospective secondary mathematics teachers ready, willing, and able to teach with technology in the digital age within the Lebanese educational context?  What is the nature of pre-service teachers’ knowledge that enables them to teach mathematics with technology, and how it can be built during their reparation?  And, based on what theoretical model?  What types of ICTs should they learn about?  And, how far are pre-service teachers of the faculties of education in Lebanon are capable of integrating technology in teaching secondary mathematics? Introduction Number of Slides 2 Review of Literature 3 Theoretical Framework 7 ICT Taxonomy 2 Findings Methodology 2 & Conclusions 5 4
  • 5. Review of Literature Teachers’ Pedagogical ICT Knowledge: A Quick Review Review of Literature Slide 1 of 3 Common themes in international research  Pre-service teacher preparation  Complex and resistant to standardization  Ill-structured, dynamic environment  Situated and Contextual  ICTs in pre-service teacher preparation  Ever-Changing  Stand-alone technology courses are not sufficient  Infusion into all aspects is risky  Pedagogical use of ICTs is the result of the interrelation of ICT knowledge with other sciences of education (Recommended but not well shaped) Number of Slides Interdisciplinarity of teacher’s knowledge describes the argument that teacher’s knowledge is an integrated knowledge that synthesizes/blends the knowledge drawn from different disciplinary knowledge constructs to form a coherent unified whole knowledge for teaching (Lattuca, 2001). Introduction 2 Review of Literature 3 Theoretical Framework 7 ICT Taxonomy 2 Findings Methodology 2 & Conclusions 5 5
  • 6. Review of Literature: Example of ICTs Interrelation with Pedagogy and Didactics The use of technology affordances to support learning ought to be viewed with respect to its functional connection to a pedagogical and didactical philosophy (Atkinson, 1997). ICTs Educational Technology Pedagogy & Didactics Behaviorism Programmed Instruction Social learning theory ICTs to foster modeling Cognitivism ICTs fostering differentiated learning Constructivism ICTs enhancing discovery, sharing and collaboration Connectivism diverse knowledge sources (Internet networks and resources)  These philosophies will necessarily characterize the ways in which ICT is incorporated into a school. (Anderson & van Weert, 2002, p.23) Introduction Number of Slides 2 Review of Literature 3 Theoretical Framework 7 ICT Taxonomy 2 Review of Literature Slide 2 of 3 “If technology is truly to be beneficial to education, the power and potential of educational technology must be acknowledged to reside within educators and not within objects (p.52). .. a way of looking at educational technology that goes beyond continuously "chasing" the latest and greatest innovation.” (Mishra, Koehler, & Kereluik, 2009, p. 50) Findings Methodology 2 & Conclusions 5 6
  • 7. Review of Literature: Summary Review of Literature Slide 3 of 3 Review of literature highly indicates that ICT knowledge is situated and synthesized with and within other knowledge domains to form pre-service teacher’s knowledge base that:  is broad, multifaceted, and is informed by many different disciplines.  interrelates and integrates several disciplinary knowledge domains that enable future teachers to render this integrated coherent unified whole knowledge into conscious decisions in their future teaching of secondary mathematics in ICT-rich /enhanced teaching learning environments. But, what theoretical model would enable me to detect this knowledge domains amalgam in my research? The interdisciplinarity of pre-service teachers’ professional knowledge base is essential for these teachers to become capable of analyzing, evaluating, and synthesizing information from multiple disciplines in order to make meaningful connections and to integrate the various disciplines and render them into reasoned decisions, while utilizing ICTs in their secondary mathematics teaching. Introduction Number of Slides 2 Review of Literature 3 Theoretical Framework 7 ICT Taxonomy 2 Findings Methodology 2 & Conclusionss 5 7
  • 8. Theoretical Framework Evolution of Prominent Frameworks in Teacher Education Theoretical Framework Slide 1 of 7 Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (PCK) http://www.leeshulman.net/domains-pedagogical-content-knowledge.html Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) http://www.tpack.org/ ICT-TPCK as a strand of Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) http://teaching.cycu.edu.tw/pdf/2009_TPCK.pdf Visit page 159 This and the coming 3 slides are the core content of our (the authors listed below) published article. Saad, M., Barbar, A. M., & Abourjelli, S. A. R. (2012). Introduction of TPACK-XL: A Transformative View of ICT-TPCK for Building Pre-service Teacher Knowledge Base. Turkish Journal of Teacher Education, 1(2), 41-60. http://tujted.com/index.php/tujted/article/view/6 Introduction Number of Slides 2 Review of Literature 3 Theoretical Framework 7 ICT Taxonomy 2 Findings Methodology 2 & Conclusions 5 8
  • 9. Elaboration of ICT-TPCK Constructs Theoretical Framework Slide 2 of 7 Introduction Number of Slides 2 Review of Literature 3 Theoretical Framework 7 ICT Taxonomy 2 Findings Methodology 2 & Conclusions 5 9
  • 10. Introduction of TPACK-XL Theoretical Framework Slide 3 of 7 That's an impressive looking a diagram - I bet it was a feat just to figure out how to represent all of that! In general, I see the temptation to add more realms of knowledge (in this case, X and L). We originally had four, for example (we used to have an R). While these representations probably capture more depth they sacrifice parsimony and the ability to communicate with teachers and teacher educators. That is, there's a lot to be said for parsimony (M. Koehler, personal communication, August 8, 2012). Introduction Number of Slides 2 Review of Literature 3 Theoretical Framework 7 ICT Taxonomy 2 Findings Methodology 2 & Conclusions 5 10
  • 11. Technology Interdisciplinary Knowledge (TIK) Framework within TPACK-XL Theoretical Framework Slide 4 of 7 TIK = {(T, TX), (TP, TPX), (TC, TX), (T, TCX), (TL, TLX), (TPC, TPCX), (TCL, TCLX), (TPCL, TPCLX)} Seek generalizations, relish them, challenge then, and take them as far as you can. Seek particularizations, collect them, explore them, and build local neighborhoods of understanding from them. And let those generalizations and particularizations interact and engage with each other, for only in that manner will our capacities for engaging in the practical work of teaching and learning flourish. (Shulman, 2002, p. ix) Thus,TIK is a composite function represented as: 𝑇𝐼𝐾 = 𝐿○𝐺(𝑇, 𝑃, 𝐶, 𝐿, 𝑋) But, Where does this knowledge grow? Introduction Number of Slides 2 Review of Literature 3 Theoretical Framework 7 ICT Taxonomy 2 Findings Methodology 2 & Conclusions 5 11
  • 12. Pre-service Teachers Learning Communities and Contexts: Elaboration of A Theoretical Model Theoretical Framework Slide 5 of 7 Contextually-situated and inquiryframed TPACK model. (Adopted from Pierson & Borthwick, 2010, p.130) Introduction Number of Slides 2 Review of Literature 3 Contextually-Situated and InquiryFramed TPACK-XL modified model Theoretical Framework 7 ICT Taxonomy 2 Findings Methodology 2 & Conclusions 5 12
  • 13. Conceptualizing Teacher Learning and Development Within Communities and Contexts Theoretical Framework Slide 6 of 7 Shulman and Shulman (2004) theoretical framework that embeds “universal features of accomplished teaching and its development’ (p.7) Introduction Number of Slides 2 Review of Literature 3 Theoretical Framework 7 ICT Taxonomy 2 Findings Methodology 2 & Conclusions 5 13
  • 14. Research Theoretical Model Theoretical Framework Slide 7 of 7 Introduction Number of Slides 2 Review of Literature 3 Theoretical Framework 7 ICT Taxonomy 2 Findings Methodology 2 & Conclusions 5 14
  • 15. Taxonomy of ICTs for the Emerging Stage ICT Taxonomy Slide 1 of 2 Identify ICTs types and their educational affordances in secondary mathematics Blending ICTs affordances knowledge with other sciences of education knowledge to augment teaching through pedagogy-based ICT integration Classification is based on:  Availability  Commonalities  Affordances supported by research evidence  International and local trends in using ICTs for secondary mathematics education in the “emerging stage” Grounded on 5 years of literature review and the researcher’s 30 years of knowledge and experience in the field of education and ICTs in secondary mathematics education, the  TIK framework of TPACK-XL,  Taxonomy of Current ICTs and their pedagogical affordances  Shulman & Shulman framework of teaching and learning communities, All form the researcher’s lenses and cognitive tool kit to explore the research ground. Introduction Number of Slides 2 Review of Literature 3 Theoretical Framework 7 ICT Taxonomy 2 Findings Methodology 2 & Conclusions 5 15
  • 16. Taxonomy of ICTs for the Emerging Stage ICT Taxonomy Slide 2 of 2 ICTs in Mathematics Education Taxonomies construct the ways in which we organize knowledge and education. However, they are neither permanent nor complete and their boundaries change. (Klein, 2010, p.15) 2 5 4 Common Productivity Software Applications Database Management systems d 1 c Mathematics Instructional Software Mathematics Productivity Software Applications f d 3 c Statistical Analysis Software e d b b Presentation Software a Math Open Courseware and other Online Math 6 Resources c Graph Plotting Software a Math Videos b a Math Applets Spreadsheets Geometry Dynamic Software Math Simulators Word processors Math Drill and Practice Software Computer Algebra Systems Learning Management Systems (LMS) Math Tutorials Emailing ICT Hardware c b a b Web 2.0 and Social Networking Computer Laboratory e d a Web Searching c Hand-held Digital Devices Online publishing d Interactive White Boards Computers & Multimedia Projectors Online communicating e Online Resources Access, Communication & Collaboration Scientific & Graphing Calculators 16 Number of Slides 2 3 7 2 2 5
  • 17. Methodology Methodology How do pre-service teachers assess their knowledge related to technology integration in secondary mathematics teaching? How do they assess the role of the faculty of education in building that knowledge? This research study combines the techniques of survey and descriptive studies Data were collected from 4 prominent Lebanese Universities and two MEHE consultants MEHE Consultants Views Slide 1 of 2 • MEHE ICT in PTE Policy Consultants Views (n = 2) • Interviews Policy Courses Educators Views • ICTs in the SMPTE Courses Profiles (n = 10) • Document Analysis Educator Course Descriptors Content • SMPTE ICT-Teachers’ Educators Views (n = 8 ) • Interviews and open-ended survey Mentor • ICT development and Support Experts Views (n = 3) • Interviews Student ICT Support Experts Views • SMPTE Teachers’ Mentors Views (n = 5 ) • Interviews Support Mentors Views • SMPT (tier 1, n =43; tier 2, n = 32) • Tier 1: Close-ended survey; Tier 2: Open-ended Survey Students Views Introduction Number of Slides 2 Review of Literature 3 Theoretical Framework 7 ICT Taxonomy 2 Findings Methodology 2 & Conclusions 5 17
  • 18. Methodology Methodology Slide 2 of 2 Student Teachers Close-Ended Survey-English Version http://ifteachersmatter.com/survey_en.html Open-Ended Survey Educators Version https://docs.google.com/forms/d/19I8liW5hzD8notJcwXukjyCUYVKa v2-qeXt4jygz3J8/viewform Student Teachers Version https://docs.google.com/forms/d/15KA4TVDoxBij2ZL98cSs d9j4nSFEq50H9rdt6P7LGl0/viewform Introduction Number of Slides 2 Review of Literature 3 Theoretical Framework 7 ICT Taxonomy 2 Findings Methodology 2 & Conclusions 5 18
  • 19. Findings Related to Student Teachers’ TIK Findings & Conclusions Slide 1 of 5 Technological Knowledge – Software Internal Consistency (alpha) 0.786 Average Percent of familiarity 63.5% N = 20 I am familiar with Percent 95.3% Word processing (e.g., Microsoft word, iWork Pages, etc.) Spreadsheets (e.g., Microsoft Excel, iWork Numbers, etc.). 90.7% Presentation software (e.g., Microsoft PowerPoint, iWork Keynote, etc.) 95.3% Database management systems (e.g., Microsoft Access, FileMaker, etc.). 30.2% Learning (or course) management systems (e.g., Blackboard, Moodle, etc.). 41.9% Computer Algebra Systems (e.g., DERIVE, Mathcad, etc.). 46.5% Geometry Dynamic Software (e.g., Cabri Geometry, GeoGebra, etc.). 55.8% Graph Plotting Software (e.g., Graphmatica, DPlot, etc.). 30.2% Statistical Analysis Software (e.g., SPSS, STAT, etc.). 46.5% Math tutorials. 72.0% Math Drill and Practice Software. 55.8% Math Simulators. 39.5% Math Applets. 27.9% Math videos. 46.5% Math open courseware and other online math resources. 41.9% Emailing (e.g., Microsoft Outlook, Gmail, Hotmail, your university mail, etc.). 97.7% Web searching (e.g., Google, Yahoo, etc.). 100 % Web 2.0 and social networking (e.g. Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, YouTube, etc.). 95.3% Online publishing (e.g., Blogging, Podcasts, and YouTube). 67.4% Online communicating (e.g., Skype, WebEx, MSN, Viber, and Whatsapp). 93.0% Introduction Number of Slides 2 Review of Literature 3 Theoretical Framework 7 3.58 ICT Taxonomy 2 Findings Methodology 2 & Conclusions 5 19
  • 20. Findings Related to Student Teachers’ TIK Example of Technological Content Knowledge Findings & Conclusions Slide 2 of 5 Technological Content Knowledge (Mean 3.97) Internal Consistency (alpha) 0.878 Mean I am capable of using word processors to produce documents embedding math notations 4.26 using equation editor. I am capable of using word processors to create math instruction documents embedding 4.07 graphs, images, and tables. I am capable of using spreadsheets to perform math-specific calculations and data analysis. 3.81 I am capable of using spreadsheets to visualize data by different graphs and charts in math. 3.84 I am capable of using presentation software to create presentations that contain math 3.86 notations using equation editor. [ ] ... search online for mathematics resources. 4.16 [ ] ... identify suitable web-based resources for teaching specific math topics. 3.79 TC Scale Summary Item Statistics TC Knowledge (Mean 3.97) Maximum / Mean Item Means Minimum Maximum Range Minimum Variance N of Items 3.970 3.791 4.256 .465 1.123 .036 7 3.97 TC Scale Statistics Mean 27.79 Variance Std. Deviation N of Items 47.693 6.906 7 Introduction Number of Slides 2 Review of Literature 3 Theoretical Framework 7 ICT Taxonomy 2 Findings Methodology 2 & Conclusions 5 20
  • 21. Response Frequency Percent 17 40% 26 60% Sample Findings Related to Teacher Education Programs Teacher education courses Not sole source of knowledge NO knowledge 0 0% Total 43 100.0 Findings & Conclusions Slide 3 of 5 Item 4.5 (TE) I gained most of my knowledge of mathematics productivity software applications, through my: Response Teacher education courses Not sole source of knowledge Frequency Percent 17 40% 21 49% NO knowledge 5 11% Total 43 100% Item 5.5 (TE) I gained most of my knowledge of mathematics instructional software, through my: Response Frequency Percent 11 25.6% 23 53.5% NO knowledge 9 20.9% Total 43 100% Teacher education courses Not sole source of knowledge Introduction Number of Slides 2 Review of Literature 3 Theoretical Framework 7 ICT Taxonomy 2 Findings Methodology 2 & Conclusions 5 21
  • 22. Findings & Conclusions Conclusions Slide 4 of 5 There are good indications that:  Teacher Education are exposing pre-service teachers to most Emerging stage ICTs  Most ICT-standalone courses content are fit to universal standards of the Emerging stage ICTs  Teacher Education programs and stakeholders encourage students to teach with technology There are relatively sufficient indications to conclude that:  Pre-service teachers’ ability to pedagogically integrate technology in secondary mathematics classroom, in the Emerging stage, is moderate.  Pre-service teachers might face difficulty to teach with technology as per the national educational strategy.  Pre-service teachers might need more practice to become confident in their teaching with technology.  Student teachers expect more ICT pedagogy-based knowledge and practice (Proactive strategies) Introduction Number of Slides 2 Review of Literature 3 Theoretical Framework 7 ICT Taxonomy 2 Findings Methodology 2 & Conclusions 5 22
  • 23. Recommendations & Suggestions for Future Research Relevant to Secondary Mathematics Pre-service Teacher Education Findings & Conclusions Slide 4 of 5 The research suggests:  Collaboration to meet the national educational strategy (Collaborated efforts) Issues that may be important for future research.  To what extent pre-service teachers are applying their ICT pedagogy based knowledge as they become novice teachers? If gaps exist, how can they be fulfilled?  Richer student teachers’ ICT pedagogical knowledge and practices (Digital age teachers)  At the practicum level, examine student teachers’ pedagogical ICT practices and knowledge (Linkage between theory and practice)  Interrelate pedagogical ICT knowledge with all sciences of education (Interdisciplinary mode)  How should teacher education program be designed in ways that scaffold building pre-service teachers interdisciplinary based knowledge including ICT?  Teachers are to be ready to teach with technology in the classrooms of today and tomorrow (proactive mode).  What are the faculties of education proactive policies to meet MEHE national educational technology strategic plan? Introduction Number of Slides 2  Development of TPACK-XL and extend it to other academic disciplines Review of Literature 3 Theoretical Framework 7 ICT Taxonomy 2 Findings Methodology 2 & Conclusions 5 23
  • 24. Thank You Q&A The important thing in science is not so much to obtain new facts as to discover new ways of thinking about them. —Sir William Henry Bragg Nobel Prize for Physics, 1915 A knowledge base for teaching is not fixed and final. ...We may be able to offer a compelling argument for the broad outlines and categories of the knowledge base for teaching. It will, however, become abundantly clear that much, if not most, of the proposed knowledge base remains to be discovered, invented, and refined. — Lee Shulman, 1987 24