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INTRODUCTION & HISTORY OF
PSYCHOLOGY
Mr. Narayan K Ghorpade
Asst.prof
Bharati Vidyapeeth University
College of Nursing Sangli
Maharashtra (India)
Introduction to Psychology
 Psychology comes from a Greek word Psychology
 Psyche: Mind
 Logos: Knowledge or study
 Definition: The scientific study of behavior and
mental processes
 Behavior: Overt (i.e., can be directly observed, as with crying)
 Mental Processes: Covert (i.e., cannot be directly observed, as
with remembering)
Psychology in ancient days
Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental
processes. In other words, psychologists use scientific
methods to study the way that people think, feel, and
behave.
For much of human history, people have been asking the
same questions about human nature that psychologists do
today. In the past, however, scientific methods were not
always used to find answers. Rather, other methods, such
as philosophy or religion, were used to explore the
questions that people had about humanity. These other
disciplines comprise the pre-scientific roots of psychology.
In order to see how psychology developed into the
discipline it is today, we will first examine these
precursors to psychology.
History of Psychology: Beginnings
 Wilhelm Wundt: “Father” of psychology
 1879: Set up first lab to study conscious experience
 Introspection: Looking inward (i.e., examining and reporting
your thoughts, feelings, etc.)
p. 22
Wilhelm Wundt, 1832–1920.
Wundt is credited with
making psychology an
independent science,
separate from philosophy.
Wundt’s original training
was in medicine, but he
became deeply interested in
psychology. In his
laboratory, Wundt
investigated how
sensations, images, and
feelings combine to make up
personal experience.
Defining Psychology
 Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and
mental processes and how they are affected by an
organism’s physical state, mental state, and
external environment.
BRANCHES/SUB-FIELDS OF
PSYCHOLOGY
 Psychology is divided in to many branches.
 Divisions are caused by differences of:
 Methods
Aspects of behavior to be studied
Objectives
Interest, training and background of
psychologist.
Branches of Psychology
 Some of the important branches of psychology for our
course are:
Developmental psychology
Personality psychology
Social psychology
Industrial /organizational psychology
Clinical and counseling psychology
Experimental and physiological psychology
Educational psychology
The scope of psychology
I. Research psychology
II. Applied psychology
I. Research psychology
 Abnormal psychology
 Biological psychology
 Cognitive psychology
 Comparative psychology
 Developmental psychology
 Personality psychology
 Quantitative psychology
 Social psychology
II. Applied psychology
 Clinical psychology
 Counseling psychology
 Educational psychology
 Psychology and Law
 Health psychology
 Human factors psychology
 Industrial and organizational psychology
 School psychology
Research psychology
 Abnormal psychology
Abnormal psychology is the study of abnormal
behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and
change abnormal patterns of functioning.
Abnormal psychology studies the nature of
psychopathology and its causes, and this
knowledge is applied in clinical psychology to
treating patients with psychological disorders.
Research psychology……
 Biological psychology
Biological psychology is the scientific
study of the biological bases of
behavior and mental states. Because
all behavior is controlled by the
central nervous system, it is sensible
to study how the brain functions in
order to understand behavior. This is
the approach taken in behavioral
neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience,
and neuropsychology.
Research psychology…..
 Cognitive psychology
The nature of thought is another
core interest in psychology.
Cognitive psychology studies
cognition, the mental processes
underlying behavior. It uses
information processing as a
framework for understanding the
mind. Perception, learning,
problem solving, memory,
attention, language and emotion
are all well researched areas.
Research psychology…..
 Comparative psychology
Comparative psychology refers to the study of the
behavior and mental life of animals other than human
beings.
 Development psychology
Mainly focusing on the development of the
human mind through the life span,
developmental psychology seeks to understand
how people come to perceive, understand, and
act within the world and how these processes
change as they age.
Research psychology……
 Personality psychology
Personality psychology studies enduring
psychological patterns of behavior, thought and
emotion, commonly called an individual's
personality.
extraversion—introversion
neuroticism—emotional stability
psychoticism.
Research psychology…..
 Quantitative psychology
Quantitative psychology involves the application of
statistical analysis to psychological research, and
the development of novel statistical approaches for
measuring and explaining human behavior. And it
is loosely comprised of the subfields psychometrics
and mathematical psychology.
Research psychology…..
 Social psychology
Social psychology is the study of the nature and
causes of human social behavior, with an emphasis
on how people think towards each other and how
they relate to each other.
II. Applied psychology
 Clinical psychology
Clinical psychology is the application of
psychological science and research to the
understanding, treatment, and assessment of
health problems, particularly emotional,
behavioral and mental health problems. It has
traditionally been associated with psychological
treatment and psychotherapy.
Applied psychology…..
The work performed by clinical psychologists tends to be done
inside various therapy models. A popular model is the
Cognitive-Behavioral therapy (CBT) framework. One of the most
famous CBT therapies is cognitive therapy.
※Cognitive therapy
focused on depression and developed a list of "errors"
in thinking that he proposed could cause or maintain
depression, including arbitrary inference, selective
abstraction, over-generalization, and magnification (of
negatives) and minimization (of positives). Cognitive
therapy seeks to identify and change "distorted" or
"unrealistic" ways of thinking, and therefore to
influence emotion and behavior.
Applied psychology….
 Counseling psychlogy
Counseling psychology differs from clinical
psychology in that it is focused more on normal
developmental issues and everyday stress rather
than psychopathology. Counseling psychologists
are employed in a variety of settings, including
universities, hospitals, schools, governmental
organizations, businesses, private practice, and
community mental health centers.
Applied psychology,…..
 Educational psychology
Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in
educational settings, the effectiveness of educational
interventions, the psychology of teaching.
 Psychology and law
Together, Forensic psychology and Legal
Psychology compose the area known as Psychology
and Law.
Applied psychology…..
※Forensic psychology
Forensic psychology is the application of
psychological principles and knowledge to various
legal activities. Typical issues include child custody
disputes, child abuse or neglect, assessing personal
capacity to manage one's affairs, matters of
competency to stand trial, criminal responsibility,
personal injury, and advising judges in matters
relating to sentencing regarding various mitigants
and the actuarial assessment of future risk.
Applied psychology…..
 Health psychology
Health psychology is the application of psychological theory
and research to health, illness and health care. Health
psychology is concerned with the psychology of a much
wider range of health-related behavior including healthy
eating, the doctor-patient relationship, a patient's
understanding of health information, and beliefs about
illness.
 Human factors psychology
Human factors psychology is the study of how cognitive and
psychological processes affect our interaction with tools
and objects in the environment.
Applied psychology….
 Industrial and organizational psychology
Industrial and organizational psychology (I/O) is
among the newest fields in psychology. Industrial
Psychology focuses on improving, evaluating, and
predicting job performance while Organizational
Psychology focuses on how organizations impact
and interact with individuals.
Applied psychology…..
 School psychology
School psychology is the area of discipline that is
dedicated to helping young people succeed
academically, socially, and emotionally. School
psychologists collaborate with educators, parents,
and other professionals to create safe, healthy, and
supportive learning environments for all students
that strengthen connections between home and
school.

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INTRODUCTION & HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY

  • 1. INTRODUCTION & HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY Mr. Narayan K Ghorpade Asst.prof Bharati Vidyapeeth University College of Nursing Sangli Maharashtra (India)
  • 2. Introduction to Psychology  Psychology comes from a Greek word Psychology  Psyche: Mind  Logos: Knowledge or study  Definition: The scientific study of behavior and mental processes  Behavior: Overt (i.e., can be directly observed, as with crying)  Mental Processes: Covert (i.e., cannot be directly observed, as with remembering)
  • 3. Psychology in ancient days Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. In other words, psychologists use scientific methods to study the way that people think, feel, and behave. For much of human history, people have been asking the same questions about human nature that psychologists do today. In the past, however, scientific methods were not always used to find answers. Rather, other methods, such as philosophy or religion, were used to explore the questions that people had about humanity. These other disciplines comprise the pre-scientific roots of psychology. In order to see how psychology developed into the discipline it is today, we will first examine these precursors to psychology.
  • 4. History of Psychology: Beginnings  Wilhelm Wundt: “Father” of psychology  1879: Set up first lab to study conscious experience  Introspection: Looking inward (i.e., examining and reporting your thoughts, feelings, etc.)
  • 5. p. 22 Wilhelm Wundt, 1832–1920. Wundt is credited with making psychology an independent science, separate from philosophy. Wundt’s original training was in medicine, but he became deeply interested in psychology. In his laboratory, Wundt investigated how sensations, images, and feelings combine to make up personal experience.
  • 6. Defining Psychology  Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state, and external environment.
  • 7. BRANCHES/SUB-FIELDS OF PSYCHOLOGY  Psychology is divided in to many branches.  Divisions are caused by differences of:  Methods Aspects of behavior to be studied Objectives Interest, training and background of psychologist.
  • 8. Branches of Psychology  Some of the important branches of psychology for our course are: Developmental psychology Personality psychology Social psychology Industrial /organizational psychology Clinical and counseling psychology Experimental and physiological psychology Educational psychology
  • 9. The scope of psychology I. Research psychology II. Applied psychology
  • 10. I. Research psychology  Abnormal psychology  Biological psychology  Cognitive psychology  Comparative psychology  Developmental psychology  Personality psychology  Quantitative psychology  Social psychology
  • 11. II. Applied psychology  Clinical psychology  Counseling psychology  Educational psychology  Psychology and Law  Health psychology  Human factors psychology  Industrial and organizational psychology  School psychology
  • 12. Research psychology  Abnormal psychology Abnormal psychology is the study of abnormal behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning. Abnormal psychology studies the nature of psychopathology and its causes, and this knowledge is applied in clinical psychology to treating patients with psychological disorders.
  • 13. Research psychology……  Biological psychology Biological psychology is the scientific study of the biological bases of behavior and mental states. Because all behavior is controlled by the central nervous system, it is sensible to study how the brain functions in order to understand behavior. This is the approach taken in behavioral neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience, and neuropsychology.
  • 14. Research psychology…..  Cognitive psychology The nature of thought is another core interest in psychology. Cognitive psychology studies cognition, the mental processes underlying behavior. It uses information processing as a framework for understanding the mind. Perception, learning, problem solving, memory, attention, language and emotion are all well researched areas.
  • 15. Research psychology…..  Comparative psychology Comparative psychology refers to the study of the behavior and mental life of animals other than human beings.  Development psychology Mainly focusing on the development of the human mind through the life span, developmental psychology seeks to understand how people come to perceive, understand, and act within the world and how these processes change as they age.
  • 16. Research psychology……  Personality psychology Personality psychology studies enduring psychological patterns of behavior, thought and emotion, commonly called an individual's personality. extraversion—introversion neuroticism—emotional stability psychoticism.
  • 17. Research psychology…..  Quantitative psychology Quantitative psychology involves the application of statistical analysis to psychological research, and the development of novel statistical approaches for measuring and explaining human behavior. And it is loosely comprised of the subfields psychometrics and mathematical psychology.
  • 18. Research psychology…..  Social psychology Social psychology is the study of the nature and causes of human social behavior, with an emphasis on how people think towards each other and how they relate to each other.
  • 19. II. Applied psychology  Clinical psychology Clinical psychology is the application of psychological science and research to the understanding, treatment, and assessment of health problems, particularly emotional, behavioral and mental health problems. It has traditionally been associated with psychological treatment and psychotherapy.
  • 20. Applied psychology….. The work performed by clinical psychologists tends to be done inside various therapy models. A popular model is the Cognitive-Behavioral therapy (CBT) framework. One of the most famous CBT therapies is cognitive therapy. ※Cognitive therapy focused on depression and developed a list of "errors" in thinking that he proposed could cause or maintain depression, including arbitrary inference, selective abstraction, over-generalization, and magnification (of negatives) and minimization (of positives). Cognitive therapy seeks to identify and change "distorted" or "unrealistic" ways of thinking, and therefore to influence emotion and behavior.
  • 21. Applied psychology….  Counseling psychlogy Counseling psychology differs from clinical psychology in that it is focused more on normal developmental issues and everyday stress rather than psychopathology. Counseling psychologists are employed in a variety of settings, including universities, hospitals, schools, governmental organizations, businesses, private practice, and community mental health centers.
  • 22. Applied psychology,…..  Educational psychology Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching.  Psychology and law Together, Forensic psychology and Legal Psychology compose the area known as Psychology and Law.
  • 23. Applied psychology….. ※Forensic psychology Forensic psychology is the application of psychological principles and knowledge to various legal activities. Typical issues include child custody disputes, child abuse or neglect, assessing personal capacity to manage one's affairs, matters of competency to stand trial, criminal responsibility, personal injury, and advising judges in matters relating to sentencing regarding various mitigants and the actuarial assessment of future risk.
  • 24. Applied psychology…..  Health psychology Health psychology is the application of psychological theory and research to health, illness and health care. Health psychology is concerned with the psychology of a much wider range of health-related behavior including healthy eating, the doctor-patient relationship, a patient's understanding of health information, and beliefs about illness.  Human factors psychology Human factors psychology is the study of how cognitive and psychological processes affect our interaction with tools and objects in the environment.
  • 25. Applied psychology….  Industrial and organizational psychology Industrial and organizational psychology (I/O) is among the newest fields in psychology. Industrial Psychology focuses on improving, evaluating, and predicting job performance while Organizational Psychology focuses on how organizations impact and interact with individuals.
  • 26. Applied psychology…..  School psychology School psychology is the area of discipline that is dedicated to helping young people succeed academically, socially, and emotionally. School psychologists collaborate with educators, parents, and other professionals to create safe, healthy, and supportive learning environments for all students that strengthen connections between home and school.