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Introducing GNSS/GPS backup as a service (GBaaS)
A whole new way for service providers to deliver critical timing services with integrated GNSS backup
June 2022
© 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved.
2
Why synchronization is needed in data centers
• Motivation: Improve data consistency management across distributed data centers
• Tight time synchronization reduces the probability of record inconsistency and reduces
the need to roll back unresolved records
• Common time across distributed data centers is achieved by using GNSS as common
reference + NTP/PTP within the data center
Data center - New York
GNSS
TC/BC
GM
Data center - San Francisco
TC/BC
GM
© 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved.
3
GNSS vulnerabilities and threats
GNSS for
timing
Jamming and
spoofing
Obstruction
Interference with
transmitters at
adjacent bands
Ionospheric
disturbance, solar
activity
• Feb 2016: GPS error caused satellites to
provide incorrect time information,
impacting operations of several
companies
• Nov 2018: during NATO military
exercises, airspace in Finland was
disturbed by GNSS jamming
• June 2019: Jamming caused
disturbances of operations at Israeli
airport, source unknown
• July 2019: “Ground infrastructure failure”
caused unavailability of Galileo for
several days
• March 2022: GNSS attacks on timing of
Ukrainian critical network infrastructure
Reported GNSS disturbances
© 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved.
4
Driven by US federal government’s Executive Order 13905 of Feb 2020
• Protect critical government and industry infrastructure against PNT
disruptions from GPS/GNSS jamming/spoofing and other cyberattacks
• Define critical infrastructure under national security threats
• Power grid
• Finance
• Transportation
• Communications (5G, broadcast, defense, etc.)
• Data centers
• Use published resilient PNT guidelines and standard in progress
• DHS Resilient PNT Conformance Framework
• NIST Cybersecurity Framework for PNT Profile
• IEEE P1952 Resilient PNT UE Standard working group
What is the resilient PNT mandate/standard?
© 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved.
5
Typical ePRTC implementation
ePRTC G.8272.1 :
Time error +/-30nsec vs UTC (locked)
Time error +/-100nsec vs UTC in 14
days of holdover (30->100ns)
GNSS Cs clock
Combiner
function of ePRTC
ePRC-A G.811.1
Cesium atomic clock
PTP packet master clock
ePRTC combiner + PTP grandmaster
© 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved.
6
ePRTC lock and holdover results
Full 65 days run
ePRTC
full lock
3 day
learning
Start
holdover
34 days
holdover
22 days
normal ePRTC operation
GNSS
reconnect
6 days
(normal op’)
TE within +/-20nsec in locked mode
50nsec of phase drift in 34 days of holdover
© 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved.
7
ePRTC site resiliency
GNSS
Receiver
Clock
Combiner PPS/PPS+ToD
GNSS antennas
Core redundant grandmaster
10 Mhz
BITS
SyncE
PTP
NTP
Clock
combiner
GNSS
receiver
Carrier-grade
fully redundant
hardware
Multi-band, multi-
constellation
GNSS
PTP+SyncE
Backup from
peer site
Peer core
site
ePRTC with
cesium
backups
Smart antenna
Sync and GNSS
assurance
Advanced
jamming and
spoofing
detection
ePRTC
ePRC cesium
clock
ePRC cesium
clock
© 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved.
8
Option 1: Self-provided ePRTC in the data center
Cesium atomic clock
ePRTC combiner + PTP GM
With HW redundancy
TC/BC TC/BC
TC/BC
TC/BC
PTP/NTP
PTP/NTP
PTP/NTP
+/-30nsec
+/-100nsec
© 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved.
9
Option 2: GNSS backup as a service (GBaaS)
Core time base network
Single-digit number of
locations, large operator
ePRTC enabled, TE ≤ ±30ns
Aggregation network
Hundreds of locations for large
network
PRTC enabled, TE ≤ ±100ns
Feeders to end application
Thousands of locations for large
network
TE ≤ ± 1100ns
Optical timing
channel (OTC) Optical timing channel
with PTP BC class D
70ns budget
ePRTC
30ns budget
OTC + BC
Data centers
Provider of
GBaaS
- CSP
- Metrology
GBaaS user
- Data center
- Energy
- Finance
- Others
© 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved.
10
Aggregation network: time distribution: 9x BC Class D
Test setup: 9x Class D BCs and 370km of fiber (single fiber)
Each BC class D (G.8273.2) adds up to 5nsec of max|TEL|
Single fiber
50 km
Tx: 1615
Rx: 1605
Rx: 1615
Tx: 1605
652.D
Rx: 1615
Tx: 1605
Rx: 1615
Tx: 1605
Rx: 1615
Tx: 1605
Tx: 1615
Rx: 1605
Tx: 1615
Rx: 1605
Tx: 1615
Rx: 1605
A3 A3 A4 A3 A4 A3 A4
50 km
652.D
45 km
652.D
50 km
652.D
45 km
652.D
50 km
652.D
40 km
652.D
40 km
652.D
N1 N2
N2
N1
N2 N1
A2 N1
A4
GNSS
antenna
2 m
Tx: 1615
Rx: 1605
Tx: 1615
Rx: 1605
Rx: 1615
Tx: 1605
Tx: 1615
Rx: 1605
Tx: 1615
Rx: 1605
Rx: 1615
Tx: 1605
Rx: 1615
Tx: 1605
Rx: 1615
Tx: 1605
G8275.1 + SyncE
A3
A1
P2 slave
2 m
P1 master
2 m
SFP/GRAY
SFP/GRAY
SFP/GRAY
High accuracy
Tester
SFP/GRAY
BC_1 BC_2 BC_3 BC_4
BC_5
BC_6
BC_7
BC_8
BC_9
© 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved.
11
Aggregation network: time distribution: 9x BC class D
Test results: 9x Class D BCs and 370km of fiber meets ITU-T G.8272 requirements for PRTC-A clock
TE +/-20nsec
MTIE TDEV
© 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved.
12
OTC
Aggregation network: timing over ...
Timing over ...
Optimization
methods
Time
error
Layer 3
(Routed)
Small packet size
High
(ms/µs)
Layer 2
(Switched)
VLAN with high
priority
Middle
(µs)
Layer 1
(OTN)
OTN buffer policing
or in-band
transmission
Low
(µs/ns)
Layer 1
(Transparent
WDM)
Single fiber working
Lowest
(ns)
Asymmetry
High
Low
© 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved.
13
Optical
line
system
Intermediate
site
Aggregation network: node without OTC
Terminal west Terminal east
Payload traffic
Line terminal
The extract length of each of
the fibers is unknown
The different between length of fibers can be tens of
meters over long-distance connections -> creating
significant asymmetry (~2.5nsec/m)
The in-line amplifiers are
directional and add unknow
delay, which varies between
generations of amplifiers,
types and suppliers
© 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved.
14
Optical
line
system
Intermediate
site
Node with OTC
Terminal west Terminal east
PTP over optical timing channel
Payload traffic
Timing device featuring
High-accuracy PTP
boundary clock type D
BiDi transceivers
OTC provides optical budget:
Up to 30dB between two BiDi transceivers
Line terminal
© 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved.
15
50KM_a
OSC OSC
OSC OSC OSC
Paragon Neo
OSA BC 5WCA
OTC
Patch-through
Master port Slave port
OSC
OTC accuracy measurment
3GU/1605L
GBE/1615V 3GU/1605L
SFP/GBE/1605V
GBE/1615V GBE/1615V
MALPB-OSC-C MTP-OSC-C MTPB-OSC-C MTPB-OSC-C MTP-OSC-C MTPB-OSC-C
50KM_b 65KM_a 65KM_b
OSA BC
GBE/1310
GBE/1310
210 cm
𝑐𝑇𝐸 ≈
100𝑘𝑚
2
∗ −10𝑛𝑚
18𝑝𝑠
𝑛𝑚 𝑘𝑚
= − 9000𝑝𝑠 = − 9𝑛𝑠 𝑐𝑇𝐸 ≈
130𝑘𝑚
2
∗ −10𝑛𝑚
18𝑝𝑠
𝑛𝑚 𝑘𝑚
= 11700𝑝𝑠 = −11.7𝑛𝑠
|TE| within 15nsec. |cTE| within 5nsec.
Known (fixed)
asymmetry is
configured
on the BC
port
© 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved.
16
Summary
• Data centers require stringent phase and time
synchronization
• Accurate synchronization reduce the probability of records
inconsistency and reduces the need to roll back unresolved
records
• “GNSS everywhere” is subject to GNSS vulnerabilities
(jamming, spoofing, etc)
• ePRTC’s can be used to mitigate these risks
• Sub-100nsec accuracy can be delivered from core ePRTC
sites to data center sites using optical timing channel
combined with BC class D
• Now service providers can offer GBaaS, enabling
organizations with strong PNT dependency to access ADVA’s
aPNT+™ protection as a subscription-based service
ePRTC and GBaaS enable robust synchronization in data centers
Thank you
IMPORTANT NOTICE
ADVA is the exclusive owner or licensee of the content, material, and information in this presentation. Any reproduction, publication or reprint, in whole or in part, is strictly prohibited.
The information in this presentation may not be accurate, complete or up to date, and is provided without warranties or representations of any kind, either express or implied. ADVA shall not be responsible for and disclaims any liability for any loss or damages, including without limitation, direct,
indirect, incidental, consequential and special damages, alleged to have been caused by or in connection with using and/or relying on the information contained in this presentation.
Copyright © for the entire content of this presentation: ADVA.
www.oscilloquartz.com | info@adva.com
© 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved.
18
GNSS vulnerabilities and threats
GNSS for
timing
Jamming and
spoofing
Obstruction
Interference with
transmitters at
adjacent bands
Ionospheric
disturbance, solar
activity
GNSS segment errors

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Introducing GNSS/GPS backup as a service (GBaaS)

  • 1. Introducing GNSS/GPS backup as a service (GBaaS) A whole new way for service providers to deliver critical timing services with integrated GNSS backup June 2022
  • 2. © 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved. 2 Why synchronization is needed in data centers • Motivation: Improve data consistency management across distributed data centers • Tight time synchronization reduces the probability of record inconsistency and reduces the need to roll back unresolved records • Common time across distributed data centers is achieved by using GNSS as common reference + NTP/PTP within the data center Data center - New York GNSS TC/BC GM Data center - San Francisco TC/BC GM
  • 3. © 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved. 3 GNSS vulnerabilities and threats GNSS for timing Jamming and spoofing Obstruction Interference with transmitters at adjacent bands Ionospheric disturbance, solar activity • Feb 2016: GPS error caused satellites to provide incorrect time information, impacting operations of several companies • Nov 2018: during NATO military exercises, airspace in Finland was disturbed by GNSS jamming • June 2019: Jamming caused disturbances of operations at Israeli airport, source unknown • July 2019: “Ground infrastructure failure” caused unavailability of Galileo for several days • March 2022: GNSS attacks on timing of Ukrainian critical network infrastructure Reported GNSS disturbances
  • 4. © 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved. 4 Driven by US federal government’s Executive Order 13905 of Feb 2020 • Protect critical government and industry infrastructure against PNT disruptions from GPS/GNSS jamming/spoofing and other cyberattacks • Define critical infrastructure under national security threats • Power grid • Finance • Transportation • Communications (5G, broadcast, defense, etc.) • Data centers • Use published resilient PNT guidelines and standard in progress • DHS Resilient PNT Conformance Framework • NIST Cybersecurity Framework for PNT Profile • IEEE P1952 Resilient PNT UE Standard working group What is the resilient PNT mandate/standard?
  • 5. © 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved. 5 Typical ePRTC implementation ePRTC G.8272.1 : Time error +/-30nsec vs UTC (locked) Time error +/-100nsec vs UTC in 14 days of holdover (30->100ns) GNSS Cs clock Combiner function of ePRTC ePRC-A G.811.1 Cesium atomic clock PTP packet master clock ePRTC combiner + PTP grandmaster
  • 6. © 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved. 6 ePRTC lock and holdover results Full 65 days run ePRTC full lock 3 day learning Start holdover 34 days holdover 22 days normal ePRTC operation GNSS reconnect 6 days (normal op’) TE within +/-20nsec in locked mode 50nsec of phase drift in 34 days of holdover
  • 7. © 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved. 7 ePRTC site resiliency GNSS Receiver Clock Combiner PPS/PPS+ToD GNSS antennas Core redundant grandmaster 10 Mhz BITS SyncE PTP NTP Clock combiner GNSS receiver Carrier-grade fully redundant hardware Multi-band, multi- constellation GNSS PTP+SyncE Backup from peer site Peer core site ePRTC with cesium backups Smart antenna Sync and GNSS assurance Advanced jamming and spoofing detection ePRTC ePRC cesium clock ePRC cesium clock
  • 8. © 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved. 8 Option 1: Self-provided ePRTC in the data center Cesium atomic clock ePRTC combiner + PTP GM With HW redundancy TC/BC TC/BC TC/BC TC/BC PTP/NTP PTP/NTP PTP/NTP +/-30nsec +/-100nsec
  • 9. © 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved. 9 Option 2: GNSS backup as a service (GBaaS) Core time base network Single-digit number of locations, large operator ePRTC enabled, TE ≤ ±30ns Aggregation network Hundreds of locations for large network PRTC enabled, TE ≤ ±100ns Feeders to end application Thousands of locations for large network TE ≤ ± 1100ns Optical timing channel (OTC) Optical timing channel with PTP BC class D 70ns budget ePRTC 30ns budget OTC + BC Data centers Provider of GBaaS - CSP - Metrology GBaaS user - Data center - Energy - Finance - Others
  • 10. © 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved. 10 Aggregation network: time distribution: 9x BC Class D Test setup: 9x Class D BCs and 370km of fiber (single fiber) Each BC class D (G.8273.2) adds up to 5nsec of max|TEL| Single fiber 50 km Tx: 1615 Rx: 1605 Rx: 1615 Tx: 1605 652.D Rx: 1615 Tx: 1605 Rx: 1615 Tx: 1605 Rx: 1615 Tx: 1605 Tx: 1615 Rx: 1605 Tx: 1615 Rx: 1605 Tx: 1615 Rx: 1605 A3 A3 A4 A3 A4 A3 A4 50 km 652.D 45 km 652.D 50 km 652.D 45 km 652.D 50 km 652.D 40 km 652.D 40 km 652.D N1 N2 N2 N1 N2 N1 A2 N1 A4 GNSS antenna 2 m Tx: 1615 Rx: 1605 Tx: 1615 Rx: 1605 Rx: 1615 Tx: 1605 Tx: 1615 Rx: 1605 Tx: 1615 Rx: 1605 Rx: 1615 Tx: 1605 Rx: 1615 Tx: 1605 Rx: 1615 Tx: 1605 G8275.1 + SyncE A3 A1 P2 slave 2 m P1 master 2 m SFP/GRAY SFP/GRAY SFP/GRAY High accuracy Tester SFP/GRAY BC_1 BC_2 BC_3 BC_4 BC_5 BC_6 BC_7 BC_8 BC_9
  • 11. © 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved. 11 Aggregation network: time distribution: 9x BC class D Test results: 9x Class D BCs and 370km of fiber meets ITU-T G.8272 requirements for PRTC-A clock TE +/-20nsec MTIE TDEV
  • 12. © 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved. 12 OTC Aggregation network: timing over ... Timing over ... Optimization methods Time error Layer 3 (Routed) Small packet size High (ms/µs) Layer 2 (Switched) VLAN with high priority Middle (µs) Layer 1 (OTN) OTN buffer policing or in-band transmission Low (µs/ns) Layer 1 (Transparent WDM) Single fiber working Lowest (ns) Asymmetry High Low
  • 13. © 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved. 13 Optical line system Intermediate site Aggregation network: node without OTC Terminal west Terminal east Payload traffic Line terminal The extract length of each of the fibers is unknown The different between length of fibers can be tens of meters over long-distance connections -> creating significant asymmetry (~2.5nsec/m) The in-line amplifiers are directional and add unknow delay, which varies between generations of amplifiers, types and suppliers
  • 14. © 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved. 14 Optical line system Intermediate site Node with OTC Terminal west Terminal east PTP over optical timing channel Payload traffic Timing device featuring High-accuracy PTP boundary clock type D BiDi transceivers OTC provides optical budget: Up to 30dB between two BiDi transceivers Line terminal
  • 15. © 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved. 15 50KM_a OSC OSC OSC OSC OSC Paragon Neo OSA BC 5WCA OTC Patch-through Master port Slave port OSC OTC accuracy measurment 3GU/1605L GBE/1615V 3GU/1605L SFP/GBE/1605V GBE/1615V GBE/1615V MALPB-OSC-C MTP-OSC-C MTPB-OSC-C MTPB-OSC-C MTP-OSC-C MTPB-OSC-C 50KM_b 65KM_a 65KM_b OSA BC GBE/1310 GBE/1310 210 cm 𝑐𝑇𝐸 ≈ 100𝑘𝑚 2 ∗ −10𝑛𝑚 18𝑝𝑠 𝑛𝑚 𝑘𝑚 = − 9000𝑝𝑠 = − 9𝑛𝑠 𝑐𝑇𝐸 ≈ 130𝑘𝑚 2 ∗ −10𝑛𝑚 18𝑝𝑠 𝑛𝑚 𝑘𝑚 = 11700𝑝𝑠 = −11.7𝑛𝑠 |TE| within 15nsec. |cTE| within 5nsec. Known (fixed) asymmetry is configured on the BC port
  • 16. © 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved. 16 Summary • Data centers require stringent phase and time synchronization • Accurate synchronization reduce the probability of records inconsistency and reduces the need to roll back unresolved records • “GNSS everywhere” is subject to GNSS vulnerabilities (jamming, spoofing, etc) • ePRTC’s can be used to mitigate these risks • Sub-100nsec accuracy can be delivered from core ePRTC sites to data center sites using optical timing channel combined with BC class D • Now service providers can offer GBaaS, enabling organizations with strong PNT dependency to access ADVA’s aPNT+™ protection as a subscription-based service ePRTC and GBaaS enable robust synchronization in data centers
  • 17. Thank you IMPORTANT NOTICE ADVA is the exclusive owner or licensee of the content, material, and information in this presentation. Any reproduction, publication or reprint, in whole or in part, is strictly prohibited. The information in this presentation may not be accurate, complete or up to date, and is provided without warranties or representations of any kind, either express or implied. ADVA shall not be responsible for and disclaims any liability for any loss or damages, including without limitation, direct, indirect, incidental, consequential and special damages, alleged to have been caused by or in connection with using and/or relying on the information contained in this presentation. Copyright © for the entire content of this presentation: ADVA. www.oscilloquartz.com | info@adva.com
  • 18. © 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved. 18 GNSS vulnerabilities and threats GNSS for timing Jamming and spoofing Obstruction Interference with transmitters at adjacent bands Ionospheric disturbance, solar activity GNSS segment errors