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Introducing Agile methodologies
Scrum, XP and Kanban
Kanban Board
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About Dimitri Ponomareff
Dimitri Ponomareff (www.linkedin.com/in/dimka5) is a Coach.
Whether it's a sports team, software products or entire
organizations, Dimitri has that ability to relate and energize
people. He is consistently recognized as a very passionate and
successful change agent, with an overwhelming capacity to
motivate and mobilize teams on their path to continuous
improvements. He is a master facilitator, as well as a captivating
speaker with consistent, positive feedback regarding his ability to
engage an audience.
www.torak.com
As a certified Coach, Project Manager and Facilitator of "The 7 Habits of Highly Effective
People", Dimitri brings a full spectrum of knowledge in his delivery of methodologies. Through
teaching by example, he is able to build teams of people who understand where to focus their work
to generate the most value.
He has coached and provided tailor-made services and training for a multitude of organizations.
The short list includes, American Express, Charles Schwab, Bank of America, Morgan
Stanley, Choice Hotels International, JDA Software, LifeLock, First Solar, Mayo Clinic and
Phoenix Children's Hospital. Dimitri enjoys his work, and does everything to ensure he shares his
knowledge with others who seek it.
Agile Overview
● Agile Manifesto
● Lean software development principles
● Flavors of Agile and timeline
● Prescriptive vs. Adaptive
● Sequential vs. Overlapping
● Envision / Explore cycles
● PDCA
www.torak.com
The Agile Manifesto
We are uncovering better ways of developing
software by doing it and helping others do it.
Individuals and interactions over processes and tools
Working software over comprehensive documentation
Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
Responding to change over following a plan
That is, while there is value in the items on
the right, we value the items on the left more.
Source: www.agilemanifesto.org
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12 Principles of Agile Software
1. Our highest priority is to satisfy the
customer through early and continuous delivery
of valuable software.
2. Welcome changing requirements, even late in
development. Agile processes harness change for
the customer's competitive advantage.
3. Deliver working software frequently, from a
couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a
preference to the shorter timescale.
4. Business people and developers must work
together daily throughout the project.
5. Build projects around motivated individuals.
Give them the environment and support they need,
and trust them to get the job done.
6. The most efficient and effective method
of conveying information to and within a
development team is face-to-face conversation.
7. Working software is the primary measure of
progress.
8. Agile processes promote sustainable
development. The sponsors, developers, and
users should be able to maintain a constant
pace indefinitely.
9. Continuous attention to technical
excellence and good design enhances agility.
10. Simplicity the art of maximizing the
amount of work not done--is essential.
11. The best architectures, requirements, and
designs emerge from self-organizing teams.
12. At regular intervals, the team reflects on
how to become more effective, then tunes and
adjusts its behavior accordingly.
Source: www.agilemanifesto.org
www.torak.com
Lean software development principles
1. Eliminate waste
2. Amplify learning
3. Decide as late as possible
4. Deliver as fast as possible
5. Empower the team
6. Build integrity in
7. See the whole
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Flavors of Agile
Dynamic System Development Method (DSDM)
Dane Faulkner
Extreme Programming (XP)
Kent Beck
Feature Driven Development (FDD)
Jeff DeLuca
Scrum
Ken Schwaber
Lean Software Development
Mary Poppendieck and Tom Poppendieck
Adaptive Software Development (ASD)
Jim Highsmith
Crystal Clear
Allistair Cockburn
Behavior driven development (BDD)
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Agile Timeline
1970 1980 1990 2000
Waterfall
Spiral, RAD, RUP
Scrum, XP
Predictive: phases, documentation-centric, functional handoffs, get it right the first time
Iterative: process framework, phases, tool driven, artifact heavy
Adaptive: iterative, self-organizing teams, value driven, transparent
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Prescriptive vs. Adaptive
120+
13 9 6 0
RUP XP Scrum Kanban Do
Whatever
More
Prescriptive
More
Adaptive
(roles, activities & artifacts)
Source: Kanban and Scrum, making the most of both. Henrik Kniberg & Mattias Skarin
www.torak.com
Prescriptive vs. Adaptive
Waterfall
Predictive Process
The plan creates cost and
schedule estimates
Constraints
Estimates
Scope
(requirements)
Cost Time
Plan
Driven
Agile
Adaptive Process
The vision creates feature
estimates
Cost Time
Scope
(features)
Value/Vision
Driven
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Sequential vs. Overlapping development
Requirements Design Code Test
Source: “The New New Product Development Game” by Takeuchi and Nonaka. Harvard Business Review, January 1986.
Rather than
doing all of one
thing at a time...
Agile teams do a
little of everything
all the time.
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Software development process
Time
Analysis
Design
Code
Test
Agile
Analysis
Design
Code
Test
Time
Traditional
50% complete?
0% usable
25% complete
100% usable
www.torak.com
Envision / Explore cycles
Constant User
Interactions
www.torak.com
PDCA - Plan, Do, Check, Act
ACT
PLAN DO
PDCA
Cycle
CHECK
Continuous Improvements
www.torak.com
Agile Methodologies
●Scrum
●XP - Extreme Programming
●Kanban
www.torak.com
Origins ...
Scrum
● 1986, Hirotaka Takeuchi and Ikujiro Nonaka described a new approach to commercial product development "holistic
or rugby approach"
● 1991, DeGrace and Stahl first referred to this as the scrum approach. Ken Schwaber used such an approach at his
company, Advanced Development Methods, and Jeff Sutherland, with John Scumniotales and Jeff McKenna,
developed a similar approach at Easel Corporation, and were the first to refer to it using the single word Scrum.
● 1995, Sutherland and Schwaber jointly presented a paper describing the Scrum methodology
● 2001, Ken Schwaber teamed up with Mike Beedle to describe the method in the book "Agile Software Development
with Scrum".
XP - Extreme Programming
● created by Kent Beck during his work on the Chrysler Comprehensive Compensation System (C3) payroll project,
who worked with Don Wells, Ron Jeffries, Martin Fowler and Chet Hendrickson
● takes software development "best practices" to extreme levels
Kanban for development
● Japanese for "signboard"
● Taiichi Onho developed 1940/1950 kanbans to control production between processes and to implement Just n Time
(JIT) manufacturing at Toyota manufacturing plants in Japan.
● 2003, David J. Anderson formulated the Kanban Method as an approach to incremental, evolutionary process and
systems change for organizations
www.torak.com
Scrum
Product
Backlog
(prioritized)
Sprint
Backlog
Sprint Planning
Sprint
Retrospective
Sprint Review
Daily Scrum
Product
Increment
Sprint
Task
Board
Sprint
Burndown
Scrum Master
Product Owner
Team
Stakeholders
Users
Roles
www.torak.com
Scrum
● focus on delivering the highest business value in the shortest time
● allows to rapidly and repeatedly inspect actual working software
● the business sets the priorities & teams self-organize to determine the
best way to deliver the work
● every sprint (1-4 weeks) anyone can see real working software and decide
to release it as is, or continue to enhance it for another sprint
www.torak.com
Scrum
1. Roles
● Product Owner
● Scrum Master
● Development Team
2. Ceremonies
● Daily Scrum
● Sprint Planning
● Sprint Review
● Sprint Retrospective
3. Artifacts
● Product backlog, sprint
backlog, user stories
● Burn-down chart
● Work increment
www.torak.com
XP - eXtreme Programming
● improve software quality and
responsiveness to changing
customer requirements
● frequent releases in short
development cycles
● improve productivity and
regular checkpoints with the
customer
● paired programming
www.torak.com
XP - eXtreme Programming
www.torak.com
www.torak.com
Kanban - 3 basic principles
1. Start with what you do now
● Kanban does not prescribe a specific set of roles
or process steps
2. Agree to pursue incremental, evolutionary change
● continuous small changes that stick vs. sweeping changes that fail due to resistance
and fear in the organization
3. Respect the current process, roles, responsibilities &
titles
● gain support, reduce fear/resistance to change and experience the benefits as a team
Kanban Board
www.torak.com
Kanban - 5 Core Properties
1. Visualize the workflow
● Kanban literally means "signboard" or "billboard"
2. Limit Work In Process (WIP)
● use a pull system - establish and respect your ideal
capacity
3. Manage Flow
● monitor, measure and report the flow of work through each state
4. Make Process Policies Explicit
● describe the process accurately in order to improve it
5. Improve Collaboratively
● using models & the scientific method (empirical) to implement continuous, incremental and
evolutionary changes
Kanban Board
www.torak.com
Kanban
source: http://finance.groups.yahoo.com/group/kanbandev/
www.torak.com
Kanban: Start 1
a
b
to do in process done
Start with a simple task board with 3 columns: to do, in process and done.
Each card represent a work item in the current scope. Names can be associated with
the cards.
The key is to setup an easy way to visualize the work, and create an area for social
interactions.
c
www.torak.com
Kanban: Start 2
a
b
to do in process done
Start with a simple task board with 3 columns: to do, in process and done.
Each card represent a work item in the current scope. Names can be associated with
the cards.
The key is to setup an easy way to visualize the work, and create an area for social
interactions.
b
a
to do in process done
A problem with such a simplistic board, is the lack of rules and the concept of time-
boxing.
A typical problem is accumulating too much work in progress (WIP).
Kanban is more than just adding work items on a board, it's also applying a PULL
process.
a
b a
b
a
c
c
c
a
c
www.torak.com
Kanban: Start 3
a
b
to do in process done
Start with a simple task board with 3 columns: to do, in process and done.
Each card represent a work item in the current scope. Names can be associated with
the cards.
The key is to setup an easy way to visualize the work, and create an area for social
interactions.
b
a
to do in process done
A problem with such a simplistic board, is the lack of rules and the concept of time-
boxing.
A typical problem is accumulating too much work in progress (WIP).
Kanban is more than just adding work items on a board, it's also applying a PULL
process.
a
b a
b
a
c
c
c
a
to do in process done
To truly embrace Kanban, we must regulate the volume of cards on the board. This
can easily be accomplished by identifying clear thresholds associated to better
defined stages of work (columns).
Another improvement is to set a multi-tasking limit per user (2) and using late binding
of tasks to owners. Note that not all team members must have 2 tasks with their
names, this is a maximum of 2.
b
c
a
ready
2 5
a
c
c
www.torak.com
Kanban: Mechanics
to do in process done
b
c
a
ready
2 5
a
c to do in process done
b
c
a
ready
2 5
a
c
to do in process done
b
c
a
ready
2 5
a
c
a
1. Team member A completes a card
and moves it to the "done" column.
2. Team member A pulls a new card
from the "ready" column and starts
working on it by placing it in the "in
process" column.
3. The team responds to the pull
event and selects the next priority
card by moving it to the "ready"
column.
www.torak.com
Scrumban: Flow
to do in process done
b
c
ready
2 5
a
c
b
to do specify done
b
c
ready
2 3
a
c
b
execute
2
Now that we have established our team capacity and we
have a pull system, we can streamline the ideal flow.
www.torak.com
Kanban: Flow
to do in process done
b
c
ready
2 5
a
c
b
to do specify done
b
c
ready
2 3
a
c
b
execute
2
Now that we have established our team capacity and we
have a pull system, we can streamline the ideal flow.
a
backlog specify done
b
ready
2 3
a
c
b
complete execute
3
c
8
www.torak.com
Highlights from each ...
Scrum
● ceremonies (daily scrum, review and retrospective)
● time-boxed work using sprints
● burn-down charts
XP - eXtreme Programming
● best practices
○ coding (standards, collective code ownership, simple design, metaphor)
○ continuous integration
○ test driven development (unit tests, automated testing, acceptance testing)
■ When a Bug is found tests are created before the bug is addressed (a bug is not
an error in logic, it is a test you forgot to write)
Kanban for development
● visual board
● pull system
● JIT backlog/work
● continuous flow
www.torak.com
Visualizing the work
www.torak.com
Scaled Agile Framework - Big Picture
www.torak.com
Resources
● http://www.extremeprogramming.org/
● http://xprogramming.com
● http://finance.groups.yahoo.com/group/kanbandev/
● Takeuchi, Hirotaka; Nonaka, Ikujiro. "The New New Product Development
Game". Harvard Business Review.
● DeGrace, Peter; Stahl, Leslie Hulet (1990-10-01). Wicked problems,
righteous solutions. Prentice Hall.
● Kanban: Successful Evolutionary Change for Your Technology Business by
David J. Anderson
● Agile Software Development with Scrum by Ken Schwaber and Mike
Beedle
● Mary Poppendieck, Tom Poppendieck (2003), "Lean Software
Development: An Agile Toolkit"
www.torak.com
Agile Coaching, Staffing and Training.
Learn more at www.torak.com
Learn more at www.AgileTestingFramework.com
Thank You
www.torak.com
This presentation was inspired by the work of many people and we have done our very best to
attribute all authors of texts and images, and recognize any copyrights. If you think that
anything in this presentation should be changed, added or removed, please contact us.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/
www.torak.com

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Introducing Agile Scrum XP and Kanban

  • 1. Introducing Agile methodologies Scrum, XP and Kanban Kanban Board www.torak.com
  • 2. About Dimitri Ponomareff Dimitri Ponomareff (www.linkedin.com/in/dimka5) is a Coach. Whether it's a sports team, software products or entire organizations, Dimitri has that ability to relate and energize people. He is consistently recognized as a very passionate and successful change agent, with an overwhelming capacity to motivate and mobilize teams on their path to continuous improvements. He is a master facilitator, as well as a captivating speaker with consistent, positive feedback regarding his ability to engage an audience. www.torak.com As a certified Coach, Project Manager and Facilitator of "The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People", Dimitri brings a full spectrum of knowledge in his delivery of methodologies. Through teaching by example, he is able to build teams of people who understand where to focus their work to generate the most value. He has coached and provided tailor-made services and training for a multitude of organizations. The short list includes, American Express, Charles Schwab, Bank of America, Morgan Stanley, Choice Hotels International, JDA Software, LifeLock, First Solar, Mayo Clinic and Phoenix Children's Hospital. Dimitri enjoys his work, and does everything to ensure he shares his knowledge with others who seek it.
  • 3. Agile Overview ● Agile Manifesto ● Lean software development principles ● Flavors of Agile and timeline ● Prescriptive vs. Adaptive ● Sequential vs. Overlapping ● Envision / Explore cycles ● PDCA www.torak.com
  • 4. The Agile Manifesto We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it. Individuals and interactions over processes and tools Working software over comprehensive documentation Customer collaboration over contract negotiation Responding to change over following a plan That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more. Source: www.agilemanifesto.org www.torak.com
  • 5. 12 Principles of Agile Software 1. Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software. 2. Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer's competitive advantage. 3. Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale. 4. Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project. 5. Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done. 6. The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation. 7. Working software is the primary measure of progress. 8. Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely. 9. Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility. 10. Simplicity the art of maximizing the amount of work not done--is essential. 11. The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams. 12. At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly. Source: www.agilemanifesto.org www.torak.com
  • 6. Lean software development principles 1. Eliminate waste 2. Amplify learning 3. Decide as late as possible 4. Deliver as fast as possible 5. Empower the team 6. Build integrity in 7. See the whole www.torak.com
  • 7. Flavors of Agile Dynamic System Development Method (DSDM) Dane Faulkner Extreme Programming (XP) Kent Beck Feature Driven Development (FDD) Jeff DeLuca Scrum Ken Schwaber Lean Software Development Mary Poppendieck and Tom Poppendieck Adaptive Software Development (ASD) Jim Highsmith Crystal Clear Allistair Cockburn Behavior driven development (BDD) www.torak.com
  • 8. Agile Timeline 1970 1980 1990 2000 Waterfall Spiral, RAD, RUP Scrum, XP Predictive: phases, documentation-centric, functional handoffs, get it right the first time Iterative: process framework, phases, tool driven, artifact heavy Adaptive: iterative, self-organizing teams, value driven, transparent www.torak.com
  • 9. Prescriptive vs. Adaptive 120+ 13 9 6 0 RUP XP Scrum Kanban Do Whatever More Prescriptive More Adaptive (roles, activities & artifacts) Source: Kanban and Scrum, making the most of both. Henrik Kniberg & Mattias Skarin www.torak.com
  • 10. Prescriptive vs. Adaptive Waterfall Predictive Process The plan creates cost and schedule estimates Constraints Estimates Scope (requirements) Cost Time Plan Driven Agile Adaptive Process The vision creates feature estimates Cost Time Scope (features) Value/Vision Driven www.torak.com
  • 11. Sequential vs. Overlapping development Requirements Design Code Test Source: “The New New Product Development Game” by Takeuchi and Nonaka. Harvard Business Review, January 1986. Rather than doing all of one thing at a time... Agile teams do a little of everything all the time. www.torak.com
  • 13. Envision / Explore cycles Constant User Interactions www.torak.com
  • 14. PDCA - Plan, Do, Check, Act ACT PLAN DO PDCA Cycle CHECK Continuous Improvements www.torak.com
  • 15. Agile Methodologies ●Scrum ●XP - Extreme Programming ●Kanban www.torak.com
  • 16. Origins ... Scrum ● 1986, Hirotaka Takeuchi and Ikujiro Nonaka described a new approach to commercial product development "holistic or rugby approach" ● 1991, DeGrace and Stahl first referred to this as the scrum approach. Ken Schwaber used such an approach at his company, Advanced Development Methods, and Jeff Sutherland, with John Scumniotales and Jeff McKenna, developed a similar approach at Easel Corporation, and were the first to refer to it using the single word Scrum. ● 1995, Sutherland and Schwaber jointly presented a paper describing the Scrum methodology ● 2001, Ken Schwaber teamed up with Mike Beedle to describe the method in the book "Agile Software Development with Scrum". XP - Extreme Programming ● created by Kent Beck during his work on the Chrysler Comprehensive Compensation System (C3) payroll project, who worked with Don Wells, Ron Jeffries, Martin Fowler and Chet Hendrickson ● takes software development "best practices" to extreme levels Kanban for development ● Japanese for "signboard" ● Taiichi Onho developed 1940/1950 kanbans to control production between processes and to implement Just n Time (JIT) manufacturing at Toyota manufacturing plants in Japan. ● 2003, David J. Anderson formulated the Kanban Method as an approach to incremental, evolutionary process and systems change for organizations www.torak.com
  • 17. Scrum Product Backlog (prioritized) Sprint Backlog Sprint Planning Sprint Retrospective Sprint Review Daily Scrum Product Increment Sprint Task Board Sprint Burndown Scrum Master Product Owner Team Stakeholders Users Roles www.torak.com
  • 18. Scrum ● focus on delivering the highest business value in the shortest time ● allows to rapidly and repeatedly inspect actual working software ● the business sets the priorities & teams self-organize to determine the best way to deliver the work ● every sprint (1-4 weeks) anyone can see real working software and decide to release it as is, or continue to enhance it for another sprint www.torak.com
  • 19. Scrum 1. Roles ● Product Owner ● Scrum Master ● Development Team 2. Ceremonies ● Daily Scrum ● Sprint Planning ● Sprint Review ● Sprint Retrospective 3. Artifacts ● Product backlog, sprint backlog, user stories ● Burn-down chart ● Work increment www.torak.com
  • 20. XP - eXtreme Programming ● improve software quality and responsiveness to changing customer requirements ● frequent releases in short development cycles ● improve productivity and regular checkpoints with the customer ● paired programming www.torak.com
  • 21. XP - eXtreme Programming www.torak.com
  • 23. Kanban - 3 basic principles 1. Start with what you do now ● Kanban does not prescribe a specific set of roles or process steps 2. Agree to pursue incremental, evolutionary change ● continuous small changes that stick vs. sweeping changes that fail due to resistance and fear in the organization 3. Respect the current process, roles, responsibilities & titles ● gain support, reduce fear/resistance to change and experience the benefits as a team Kanban Board www.torak.com
  • 24. Kanban - 5 Core Properties 1. Visualize the workflow ● Kanban literally means "signboard" or "billboard" 2. Limit Work In Process (WIP) ● use a pull system - establish and respect your ideal capacity 3. Manage Flow ● monitor, measure and report the flow of work through each state 4. Make Process Policies Explicit ● describe the process accurately in order to improve it 5. Improve Collaboratively ● using models & the scientific method (empirical) to implement continuous, incremental and evolutionary changes Kanban Board www.torak.com
  • 26. Kanban: Start 1 a b to do in process done Start with a simple task board with 3 columns: to do, in process and done. Each card represent a work item in the current scope. Names can be associated with the cards. The key is to setup an easy way to visualize the work, and create an area for social interactions. c www.torak.com
  • 27. Kanban: Start 2 a b to do in process done Start with a simple task board with 3 columns: to do, in process and done. Each card represent a work item in the current scope. Names can be associated with the cards. The key is to setup an easy way to visualize the work, and create an area for social interactions. b a to do in process done A problem with such a simplistic board, is the lack of rules and the concept of time- boxing. A typical problem is accumulating too much work in progress (WIP). Kanban is more than just adding work items on a board, it's also applying a PULL process. a b a b a c c c a c www.torak.com
  • 28. Kanban: Start 3 a b to do in process done Start with a simple task board with 3 columns: to do, in process and done. Each card represent a work item in the current scope. Names can be associated with the cards. The key is to setup an easy way to visualize the work, and create an area for social interactions. b a to do in process done A problem with such a simplistic board, is the lack of rules and the concept of time- boxing. A typical problem is accumulating too much work in progress (WIP). Kanban is more than just adding work items on a board, it's also applying a PULL process. a b a b a c c c a to do in process done To truly embrace Kanban, we must regulate the volume of cards on the board. This can easily be accomplished by identifying clear thresholds associated to better defined stages of work (columns). Another improvement is to set a multi-tasking limit per user (2) and using late binding of tasks to owners. Note that not all team members must have 2 tasks with their names, this is a maximum of 2. b c a ready 2 5 a c c www.torak.com
  • 29. Kanban: Mechanics to do in process done b c a ready 2 5 a c to do in process done b c a ready 2 5 a c to do in process done b c a ready 2 5 a c a 1. Team member A completes a card and moves it to the "done" column. 2. Team member A pulls a new card from the "ready" column and starts working on it by placing it in the "in process" column. 3. The team responds to the pull event and selects the next priority card by moving it to the "ready" column. www.torak.com
  • 30. Scrumban: Flow to do in process done b c ready 2 5 a c b to do specify done b c ready 2 3 a c b execute 2 Now that we have established our team capacity and we have a pull system, we can streamline the ideal flow. www.torak.com
  • 31. Kanban: Flow to do in process done b c ready 2 5 a c b to do specify done b c ready 2 3 a c b execute 2 Now that we have established our team capacity and we have a pull system, we can streamline the ideal flow. a backlog specify done b ready 2 3 a c b complete execute 3 c 8 www.torak.com
  • 32. Highlights from each ... Scrum ● ceremonies (daily scrum, review and retrospective) ● time-boxed work using sprints ● burn-down charts XP - eXtreme Programming ● best practices ○ coding (standards, collective code ownership, simple design, metaphor) ○ continuous integration ○ test driven development (unit tests, automated testing, acceptance testing) ■ When a Bug is found tests are created before the bug is addressed (a bug is not an error in logic, it is a test you forgot to write) Kanban for development ● visual board ● pull system ● JIT backlog/work ● continuous flow www.torak.com
  • 34. Scaled Agile Framework - Big Picture www.torak.com
  • 35. Resources ● http://www.extremeprogramming.org/ ● http://xprogramming.com ● http://finance.groups.yahoo.com/group/kanbandev/ ● Takeuchi, Hirotaka; Nonaka, Ikujiro. "The New New Product Development Game". Harvard Business Review. ● DeGrace, Peter; Stahl, Leslie Hulet (1990-10-01). Wicked problems, righteous solutions. Prentice Hall. ● Kanban: Successful Evolutionary Change for Your Technology Business by David J. Anderson ● Agile Software Development with Scrum by Ken Schwaber and Mike Beedle ● Mary Poppendieck, Tom Poppendieck (2003), "Lean Software Development: An Agile Toolkit" www.torak.com
  • 36. Agile Coaching, Staffing and Training. Learn more at www.torak.com Learn more at www.AgileTestingFramework.com
  • 38. This presentation was inspired by the work of many people and we have done our very best to attribute all authors of texts and images, and recognize any copyrights. If you think that anything in this presentation should be changed, added or removed, please contact us. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/ www.torak.com