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Introduction to MySQL
2
Road Map
 Introduction to MySQL
 Connecting and Disconnecting
 Entering Basic Queries
 Creating and Using a Database
3
Attribution
 Most of these slides are based directly
on the MySQL Documentation.
 Most information comes from Chapter
3, MySQL Tutorial:
 http://www.mysql.com/documentation/mysq
4
MySQL
 MySQL is a very popular, open source database.
 Officially pronounced “my Ess Que Ell” (not my
sequel).
 Handles very large databases; very fast
performance.
 Why are we using MySQL?
 Free (much cheaper than Oracle!)
 Each student can install MySQL locally.
 Easy to use Shell for creating tables, querying tables, etc.
 Easy to use with Java JDBC
5
Crash Course Fundamentals
 In order to use JDBC, you need:
 a database.
 basic understand of SQL (Structured Query
Language)
 Some students may have database
backgrounds; others may not.
 The purpose of this lecture is to get all
students up to speed on database
fundamentals.
6
Connecting to MySQL
 MySQL provides an interactive shell for
creating tables, inserting data, etc.
 On Windows, just go to c:mysqlbin,
and type:
 mysql
 Or, click on the Windows icon
7
Sample Session
 For example:
Enter password: *****
Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or g.
Your MySQL connection id is 241 to server version: 3.23.49
Type 'help;' or 'h' for help. Type 'c' to clear the buffer.
mysql>
 To exit the MySQL Shell, just type QUIT or EXIT:
mysql> QUIT
mysql> exit
8
Basic Queries
 Once logged in, you can try some simple queries.
 For example:
mysql> SELECT VERSION(), CURRENT_DATE;
+-----------+--------------+
| VERSION() | CURRENT_DATE |
+-----------+--------------+
| 3.23.49 | 2002-05-26 |
+-----------+--------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
 Note that most MySQL commands end with a semicolon (;)
 MySQL returns the total number of rows found, and the total
time to execute the query.
9
Basic Queries
 Keywords may be entered in any lettercase.
 The following queries are equivalent:
mysql> SELECT VERSION(), CURRENT_DATE;
mysql> select version(), current_date;
mysql> SeLeCt vErSiOn(), current_DATE;
10
Basic Queries
 Here's another query. It demonstrates that
you can use mysql as a simple calculator:
mysql> SELECT SIN(PI()/4), (4+1)*5;
+-------------+---------+
| SIN(PI()/4) | (4+1)*5 |
+-------------+---------+
| 0.707107 | 25 |
+-------------+---------+
11
Basic Queries
 You can also enter multiple statements on a single
line. Just end each one with a semicolon:
mysql> SELECT VERSION(); SELECT NOW();
+--------------+
| VERSION() |
+--------------+
| 3.22.20a-log |
+--------------+
+---------------------+
| NOW() |
+---------------------+
| 2004 00:15:33 |
+---------------------+
12
Multi-Line Commands
 mysql determines where your statement ends
by looking for the terminating semicolon, not
by looking for the end of the input line.
 Here's a simple multiple-line statement:
mysql> SELECT
-> USER()
-> ,
-> CURRENT_DATE;
+--------------------+--------------+
| USER() | CURRENT_DATE |
+--------------------+--------------+
| joesmith@localhost | 1999-03-18 |
+--------------------+--------------+
13
Canceling a Command
 If you decide you don't want to execute
a command that you are in the process
of entering, cancel it by typing c
mysql> SELECT
-> USER()
-> c
mysql>
14
Using a Database
 To get started on your own database, first check
which databases currently exist.
 Use the SHOW statement to find out which
databases currently exist on the server:
mysql> show databases;
+----------+
| Database |
+----------+
| mysql |
| test |
+----------+
2 rows in set (0.01 sec)
15
Using a Database
 To create a new database, issue the
“create database” command:
 mysql> create database webdb;
 To the select a database, issue the
“use” command:
 mysql> use webdb;
16
Creating a Table
 Once you have selected a database,
you can view all database tables:
mysql> show tables;
Empty set (0.02 sec)
 An empty set indicates that I have not
created any tables yet.
17
Creating a Table
 Let’s create a table for storing pets.
 Table: pets
name: VARCHAR(20)
owner: VARCHAR(20)
species: VARCHAR(20)
sex: CHAR(1)
birth: DATE
date: DATE
VARCHAR is
usually used
to store string
data.
18
Creating a Table
 To create a table, use the CREATE TABLE
command:
mysql> CREATE TABLE pet (
-> name VARCHAR(20),
-> owner VARCHAR(20),
-> species VARCHAR(20),
-> sex CHAR(1),
-> birth DATE, death DATE);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.04 sec)
19
Showing Tables
 To verify that the table has been created:
mysql> show tables;
+------------------+
| Tables_in_test |
+------------------+
| pet |
+------------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)
20
Describing Tables
 To view a table structure, use the DESCRIBE
command:
mysql> describe pet;
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field | Type | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| name | varchar(20) | YES | | NULL | |
| owner | varchar(20) | YES | | NULL | |
| species | varchar(20) | YES | | NULL | |
| sex | char(1) | YES | | NULL | |
| birth | date | YES | | NULL | |
| death | date | YES | | NULL | |
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
6 rows in set (0.02 sec)
21
Deleting a Table
 To delete an entire table, use the
DROP TABLE command:
mysql> drop table pet;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)
22
Loading Data
 Use the INSERT statement to enter data into
a table.
 For example:
INSERT INTO pet VALUES
('Fluffy','Harold','cat','f',
'1999-02-04',NULL);
 The next slide shows a full set of sample
data.
23
More data…
name owner species sex birth death
Fluffy Harold cat f 1993-02-04
Claws Gwen cat m 1994-03-17
Buffy Harold dog f 1989-05-13
Fang Benny dog m 1990-08-27
Bowser Diane dog m 1998-08-31 1995-07-29
Chirpy Gwen bird f 1998-09-11
Whistler Gwen bird 1997-12-09
Slim Benny snake m 1996-04-29
24
Loading Sample Data
 You could create a text file `pet.txt'
containing one record per line.
 Values must be separated by tabs, and
given in the order in which the columns
were listed in the CREATE TABLE
statement.
 Then load the data via the LOAD DATA
Command.
25
Sample Data File
Fluffy Harold cat f 1993-02-04 N
Claws Gwen cat m 1994-03-17 N
Buffy Harold dog f 1989-05-13 N
Fang Benny dog m 1990-08-27 N
Bowser Diane dog m 1979-08-31 1995-07-29
Chirpy Gwen bird f 1998-09-11 N
WhistlerGwen bird N 1997-12-09 N
Slim Benny snake m 1996-04-29 N
To Load pet.txt:
mysql> LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE "pet.txt" INTO TABLE pet;
26
For each of the examples,
assume the following set of data.
name owner species sex birth death
Fluffy Harold cat f 1993-02-04
Claws Gwen cat m 1994-03-17
Buffy Harold dog f 1989-05-13
Fang Benny dog m 1990-08-27
Bowser Diane dog m 1998-08-31 1995-07-29
Chirpy Gwen bird f 1998-09-11
Whistler Gwen bird 1997-12-09
Slim Benny snake m 1996-04-29
27
SQL Select
 The SELECT statement is used to pull
information from a table.
 The general format is:
SELECT what_to_select
FROM which_table
WHERE conditions_to_satisfy
28
Selecting All Data
 The simplest form of SELECT retrieves everything
from a table
mysql> select * from pet;
+----------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| name | owner | species | sex | birth | death |
+----------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| Fluffy | Harold | cat | f | 1999-02-04 | NULL |
| Claws | Gwen | cat | f | 1994-03-17 | NULL |
| Buffy | Harold | dog | f | 1989-05-13 | NULL |
| Fang | Benny | dog | m | 1999-08-27 | NULL |
| Bowser | Diane | dog | m | 1998-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |
| Chirpy | Gwen | bird | f | 1998-09-11 | NULL |
| Whistler | Gwen | bird | | 1997-12-09 | NULL |
| Slim | Benny | snake | m | 1996-04-29 | NULL |
+----------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
8 rows in set (0.00 sec)
29
Selecting Particular Rows
 You can select only particular rows from your
table.
 For example, if you want to verify the change
that you made to Bowser's birth date, select
Bowser's record like this:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name = "Bowser";
+--------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| name | owner | species | sex | birth | death |
+--------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| Bowser | Diane | dog | m | 1998-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |
+--------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
30
Selecting Particular Rows
 To find all animals born after 1998
SELECT * FROM pet WHERE birth >= "1998-1-1";
 To find all female dogs, use a logical AND
SELECT * FROM pet WHERE species = "dog" AND sex = "f";
 To find all snakes or birds, use a logical OR
SELECT * FROM pet WHERE species = "snake"
OR species = "bird";
31
Selecting Particular Columns
 If you don’t want to see entire rows from
your table, just name the columns in
which you are interested, separated by
commas.
 For example, if you want to know when
your pets were born, select the name
and birth columns.
 (see example next slide.)
32
Selecting Particular Columns
mysql> select name, birth from pet;
+----------+------------+
| name | birth |
+----------+------------+
| Fluffy | 1999-02-04 |
| Claws | 1994-03-17 |
| Buffy | 1989-05-13 |
| Fang | 1999-08-27 |
| Bowser | 1998-08-31 |
| Chirpy | 1998-09-11 |
| Whistler | 1997-12-09 |
| Slim | 1996-04-29 |
+----------+------------+
8 rows in set (0.01 sec)
33
Sorting Data
 To sort a result, use an ORDER BY clause.
 For example, to view animal birthdays, sorted by
date:
mysql> SELECT name, birth FROM pet ORDER BY birth;
+----------+------------+
| name | birth |
+----------+------------+
| Buffy | 1989-05-13 |
| Claws | 1994-03-17 |
| Slim | 1996-04-29 |
| Whistler | 1997-12-09 |
| Bowser | 1998-08-31 |
| Chirpy | 1998-09-11 |
| Fluffy | 1999-02-04 |
| Fang | 1999-08-27 |
+----------+------------+
8 rows in set (0.02 sec)
34
Sorting Data
 To sort in reverse order, add the DESC
(descending keyword)
mysql> SELECT name, birth FROM pet ORDER BY birth DESC;
+----------+------------+
| name | birth |
+----------+------------+
| Fang | 1999-08-27 |
| Fluffy | 1999-02-04 |
| Chirpy | 1998-09-11 |
| Bowser | 1998-08-31 |
| Whistler | 1997-12-09 |
| Slim | 1996-04-29 |
| Claws | 1994-03-17 |
| Buffy | 1989-05-13 |
+----------+------------+
8 rows in set (0.02 sec)
35
Working with NULLs
 NULL means missing value or unknown
value.
 To test for NULL, you cannot use the
arithmetic comparison operators, such
as =, < or <>.
 Rather, you must use the IS NULL and
IS NOT NULL operators instead.
36
Working with NULLs
 For example, to find all your dead pets (what a
morbid example!)
mysql> select name from pet where death
>IS NOT NULL;
+--------+
| name |
+--------+
| Bowser |
+--------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)
37
Pattern Matching
 MySQL provides:
 standard SQL pattern matching; and
 regular expression pattern matching, similar to those used
by Unix utilities such as vi, grep and sed.
 SQL Pattern matching:
 To perform pattern matching, use the LIKE or NOT LIKE
comparison operators
 By default, patterns are case insensitive.
 Special Characters:
 _ Used to match any single character.
 % Used to match an arbitrary number of characters.
38
Pattern Matching Example
 To find names beginning with ‘b’:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name LIKE "b%";
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| name | owner | species | sex | birth | death |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| Buffy | Harold | dog | f | 1989-05-13 | NULL |
| Bowser | Diane | dog | m | 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
39
Pattern Matching Example
 To find names ending with `fy':
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name LIKE "%fy";
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name | owner | species | sex | birth | death |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Fluffy | Harold | cat | f | 1993-02-04 | NULL |
| Buffy | Harold | dog | f | 1989-05-13 | NULL |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
40
Pattern Matching Example
 To find names containing a ‘w’:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name LIKE "%w%";
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| name | owner | species | sex | birth | death |
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| Claws | Gwen | cat | m | 1994-03-17 | NULL |
| Bowser | Diane | dog | m | 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |
| Whistler | Gwen | bird | NULL | 1997-12-09 | NULL |
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
41
Pattern Matching Example
 To find names containing exactly five characters, use the _
pattern character:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name LIKE "_____";
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name | owner | species | sex | birth | death |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Claws | Gwen | cat | m | 1994-03-17 | NULL |
| Buffy | Harold | dog | f | 1989-05-13 | NULL |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
42
Regular Expression Matching
 The other type of pattern matching
provided by MySQL uses extended
regular expressions.
 When you test for a match for this type
of pattern, use the REGEXP and NOT
REGEXP operators (or RLIKE and NOT
RLIKE, which are synonyms).
43
Regular Expressions
 Some characteristics of extended regular
expressions are:
 . matches any single character.
 A character class [...] matches any character within the
brackets. For example, [abc] matches a, b, or c. To name a
range of characters, use a dash. [a-z] matches any
lowercase letter, whereas [0-9] matches any digit.
 * matches zero or more instances of the thing preceding it.
For example, x* matches any number of x characters, [0-9]*
matches any number of digits, and .* matches any number
of anything.
 To anchor a pattern so that it must match the beginning or
end of the value being tested, use ^ at the beginning or $ at
the end of the pattern.
44
Reg Ex Example
 To find names beginning with b, use ^ to match the
beginning of the name:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP "^b";
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| name | owner | species | sex | birth | death |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| Buffy | Harold | dog | f | 1989-05-13 | NULL |
| Bowser | Diane | dog | m | 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
45
Reg Ex Example
 To find names ending with `fy', use `$' to match the
end of the name:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP "fy$";
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name | owner | species | sex | birth | death |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Fluffy | Harold | cat | f | 1993-02-04 | NULL |
| Buffy | Harold | dog | f | 1989-05-13 | NULL |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
46
Counting Rows
 Databases are often used to answer the question,
"How often does a certain type of data occur in a
table?"
 For example, you might want to know how many pets
you have, or how many pets each owner has.
 Counting the total number of animals you have is the
same question as “How many rows are in the pet
table?” because there is one record per pet.
 The COUNT() function counts the number of non-
NULL results.
47
Counting Rows Example
 A query to determine total number of pets:
mysql> SELECT COUNT(*) FROM pet;
+----------+
| COUNT(*) |
+----------+
| 9 |
+----------+
48
Batch Mode
 In the previous sections, you used
mysql interactively to enter queries and
view the results.
 You can also run mysql in batch mode.
To do this, put the commands you want
to run in a file, then tell mysql to read its
input from the file:
 shell> mysql < batch-file
49
Is that all there is to MySQL?
 Of course not!
 Understanding databases and MySQL
could take us several weeks (perhaps
months!)
 For now, focus on:
 using the MySQL shell
 creating tables
 creating basic SQL queries
50
Summary
 SQL provides a structured language for
querying/updating multiple databases.
 The more you know SQL, the better.
 The most important part of SQL is learning to
retrieve data.
 selecting rows, columns, boolean operators,
pattern matching, etc.
 Keep playing around in the MySQL Shell.

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Intro to my sql

  • 2. 2 Road Map  Introduction to MySQL  Connecting and Disconnecting  Entering Basic Queries  Creating and Using a Database
  • 3. 3 Attribution  Most of these slides are based directly on the MySQL Documentation.  Most information comes from Chapter 3, MySQL Tutorial:  http://www.mysql.com/documentation/mysq
  • 4. 4 MySQL  MySQL is a very popular, open source database.  Officially pronounced “my Ess Que Ell” (not my sequel).  Handles very large databases; very fast performance.  Why are we using MySQL?  Free (much cheaper than Oracle!)  Each student can install MySQL locally.  Easy to use Shell for creating tables, querying tables, etc.  Easy to use with Java JDBC
  • 5. 5 Crash Course Fundamentals  In order to use JDBC, you need:  a database.  basic understand of SQL (Structured Query Language)  Some students may have database backgrounds; others may not.  The purpose of this lecture is to get all students up to speed on database fundamentals.
  • 6. 6 Connecting to MySQL  MySQL provides an interactive shell for creating tables, inserting data, etc.  On Windows, just go to c:mysqlbin, and type:  mysql  Or, click on the Windows icon
  • 7. 7 Sample Session  For example: Enter password: ***** Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or g. Your MySQL connection id is 241 to server version: 3.23.49 Type 'help;' or 'h' for help. Type 'c' to clear the buffer. mysql>  To exit the MySQL Shell, just type QUIT or EXIT: mysql> QUIT mysql> exit
  • 8. 8 Basic Queries  Once logged in, you can try some simple queries.  For example: mysql> SELECT VERSION(), CURRENT_DATE; +-----------+--------------+ | VERSION() | CURRENT_DATE | +-----------+--------------+ | 3.23.49 | 2002-05-26 | +-----------+--------------+ 1 row in set (0.00 sec)  Note that most MySQL commands end with a semicolon (;)  MySQL returns the total number of rows found, and the total time to execute the query.
  • 9. 9 Basic Queries  Keywords may be entered in any lettercase.  The following queries are equivalent: mysql> SELECT VERSION(), CURRENT_DATE; mysql> select version(), current_date; mysql> SeLeCt vErSiOn(), current_DATE;
  • 10. 10 Basic Queries  Here's another query. It demonstrates that you can use mysql as a simple calculator: mysql> SELECT SIN(PI()/4), (4+1)*5; +-------------+---------+ | SIN(PI()/4) | (4+1)*5 | +-------------+---------+ | 0.707107 | 25 | +-------------+---------+
  • 11. 11 Basic Queries  You can also enter multiple statements on a single line. Just end each one with a semicolon: mysql> SELECT VERSION(); SELECT NOW(); +--------------+ | VERSION() | +--------------+ | 3.22.20a-log | +--------------+ +---------------------+ | NOW() | +---------------------+ | 2004 00:15:33 | +---------------------+
  • 12. 12 Multi-Line Commands  mysql determines where your statement ends by looking for the terminating semicolon, not by looking for the end of the input line.  Here's a simple multiple-line statement: mysql> SELECT -> USER() -> , -> CURRENT_DATE; +--------------------+--------------+ | USER() | CURRENT_DATE | +--------------------+--------------+ | joesmith@localhost | 1999-03-18 | +--------------------+--------------+
  • 13. 13 Canceling a Command  If you decide you don't want to execute a command that you are in the process of entering, cancel it by typing c mysql> SELECT -> USER() -> c mysql>
  • 14. 14 Using a Database  To get started on your own database, first check which databases currently exist.  Use the SHOW statement to find out which databases currently exist on the server: mysql> show databases; +----------+ | Database | +----------+ | mysql | | test | +----------+ 2 rows in set (0.01 sec)
  • 15. 15 Using a Database  To create a new database, issue the “create database” command:  mysql> create database webdb;  To the select a database, issue the “use” command:  mysql> use webdb;
  • 16. 16 Creating a Table  Once you have selected a database, you can view all database tables: mysql> show tables; Empty set (0.02 sec)  An empty set indicates that I have not created any tables yet.
  • 17. 17 Creating a Table  Let’s create a table for storing pets.  Table: pets name: VARCHAR(20) owner: VARCHAR(20) species: VARCHAR(20) sex: CHAR(1) birth: DATE date: DATE VARCHAR is usually used to store string data.
  • 18. 18 Creating a Table  To create a table, use the CREATE TABLE command: mysql> CREATE TABLE pet ( -> name VARCHAR(20), -> owner VARCHAR(20), -> species VARCHAR(20), -> sex CHAR(1), -> birth DATE, death DATE); Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.04 sec)
  • 19. 19 Showing Tables  To verify that the table has been created: mysql> show tables; +------------------+ | Tables_in_test | +------------------+ | pet | +------------------+ 1 row in set (0.01 sec)
  • 20. 20 Describing Tables  To view a table structure, use the DESCRIBE command: mysql> describe pet; +---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+ | Field | Type | Null | Key | Default | Extra | +---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+ | name | varchar(20) | YES | | NULL | | | owner | varchar(20) | YES | | NULL | | | species | varchar(20) | YES | | NULL | | | sex | char(1) | YES | | NULL | | | birth | date | YES | | NULL | | | death | date | YES | | NULL | | +---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+ 6 rows in set (0.02 sec)
  • 21. 21 Deleting a Table  To delete an entire table, use the DROP TABLE command: mysql> drop table pet; Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)
  • 22. 22 Loading Data  Use the INSERT statement to enter data into a table.  For example: INSERT INTO pet VALUES ('Fluffy','Harold','cat','f', '1999-02-04',NULL);  The next slide shows a full set of sample data.
  • 23. 23 More data… name owner species sex birth death Fluffy Harold cat f 1993-02-04 Claws Gwen cat m 1994-03-17 Buffy Harold dog f 1989-05-13 Fang Benny dog m 1990-08-27 Bowser Diane dog m 1998-08-31 1995-07-29 Chirpy Gwen bird f 1998-09-11 Whistler Gwen bird 1997-12-09 Slim Benny snake m 1996-04-29
  • 24. 24 Loading Sample Data  You could create a text file `pet.txt' containing one record per line.  Values must be separated by tabs, and given in the order in which the columns were listed in the CREATE TABLE statement.  Then load the data via the LOAD DATA Command.
  • 25. 25 Sample Data File Fluffy Harold cat f 1993-02-04 N Claws Gwen cat m 1994-03-17 N Buffy Harold dog f 1989-05-13 N Fang Benny dog m 1990-08-27 N Bowser Diane dog m 1979-08-31 1995-07-29 Chirpy Gwen bird f 1998-09-11 N WhistlerGwen bird N 1997-12-09 N Slim Benny snake m 1996-04-29 N To Load pet.txt: mysql> LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE "pet.txt" INTO TABLE pet;
  • 26. 26 For each of the examples, assume the following set of data. name owner species sex birth death Fluffy Harold cat f 1993-02-04 Claws Gwen cat m 1994-03-17 Buffy Harold dog f 1989-05-13 Fang Benny dog m 1990-08-27 Bowser Diane dog m 1998-08-31 1995-07-29 Chirpy Gwen bird f 1998-09-11 Whistler Gwen bird 1997-12-09 Slim Benny snake m 1996-04-29
  • 27. 27 SQL Select  The SELECT statement is used to pull information from a table.  The general format is: SELECT what_to_select FROM which_table WHERE conditions_to_satisfy
  • 28. 28 Selecting All Data  The simplest form of SELECT retrieves everything from a table mysql> select * from pet; +----------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+ | name | owner | species | sex | birth | death | +----------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+ | Fluffy | Harold | cat | f | 1999-02-04 | NULL | | Claws | Gwen | cat | f | 1994-03-17 | NULL | | Buffy | Harold | dog | f | 1989-05-13 | NULL | | Fang | Benny | dog | m | 1999-08-27 | NULL | | Bowser | Diane | dog | m | 1998-08-31 | 1995-07-29 | | Chirpy | Gwen | bird | f | 1998-09-11 | NULL | | Whistler | Gwen | bird | | 1997-12-09 | NULL | | Slim | Benny | snake | m | 1996-04-29 | NULL | +----------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+ 8 rows in set (0.00 sec)
  • 29. 29 Selecting Particular Rows  You can select only particular rows from your table.  For example, if you want to verify the change that you made to Bowser's birth date, select Bowser's record like this: mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name = "Bowser"; +--------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+ | name | owner | species | sex | birth | death | +--------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+ | Bowser | Diane | dog | m | 1998-08-31 | 1995-07-29 | +--------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+ 1 row in set (0.00 sec)
  • 30. 30 Selecting Particular Rows  To find all animals born after 1998 SELECT * FROM pet WHERE birth >= "1998-1-1";  To find all female dogs, use a logical AND SELECT * FROM pet WHERE species = "dog" AND sex = "f";  To find all snakes or birds, use a logical OR SELECT * FROM pet WHERE species = "snake" OR species = "bird";
  • 31. 31 Selecting Particular Columns  If you don’t want to see entire rows from your table, just name the columns in which you are interested, separated by commas.  For example, if you want to know when your pets were born, select the name and birth columns.  (see example next slide.)
  • 32. 32 Selecting Particular Columns mysql> select name, birth from pet; +----------+------------+ | name | birth | +----------+------------+ | Fluffy | 1999-02-04 | | Claws | 1994-03-17 | | Buffy | 1989-05-13 | | Fang | 1999-08-27 | | Bowser | 1998-08-31 | | Chirpy | 1998-09-11 | | Whistler | 1997-12-09 | | Slim | 1996-04-29 | +----------+------------+ 8 rows in set (0.01 sec)
  • 33. 33 Sorting Data  To sort a result, use an ORDER BY clause.  For example, to view animal birthdays, sorted by date: mysql> SELECT name, birth FROM pet ORDER BY birth; +----------+------------+ | name | birth | +----------+------------+ | Buffy | 1989-05-13 | | Claws | 1994-03-17 | | Slim | 1996-04-29 | | Whistler | 1997-12-09 | | Bowser | 1998-08-31 | | Chirpy | 1998-09-11 | | Fluffy | 1999-02-04 | | Fang | 1999-08-27 | +----------+------------+ 8 rows in set (0.02 sec)
  • 34. 34 Sorting Data  To sort in reverse order, add the DESC (descending keyword) mysql> SELECT name, birth FROM pet ORDER BY birth DESC; +----------+------------+ | name | birth | +----------+------------+ | Fang | 1999-08-27 | | Fluffy | 1999-02-04 | | Chirpy | 1998-09-11 | | Bowser | 1998-08-31 | | Whistler | 1997-12-09 | | Slim | 1996-04-29 | | Claws | 1994-03-17 | | Buffy | 1989-05-13 | +----------+------------+ 8 rows in set (0.02 sec)
  • 35. 35 Working with NULLs  NULL means missing value or unknown value.  To test for NULL, you cannot use the arithmetic comparison operators, such as =, < or <>.  Rather, you must use the IS NULL and IS NOT NULL operators instead.
  • 36. 36 Working with NULLs  For example, to find all your dead pets (what a morbid example!) mysql> select name from pet where death >IS NOT NULL; +--------+ | name | +--------+ | Bowser | +--------+ 1 row in set (0.01 sec)
  • 37. 37 Pattern Matching  MySQL provides:  standard SQL pattern matching; and  regular expression pattern matching, similar to those used by Unix utilities such as vi, grep and sed.  SQL Pattern matching:  To perform pattern matching, use the LIKE or NOT LIKE comparison operators  By default, patterns are case insensitive.  Special Characters:  _ Used to match any single character.  % Used to match an arbitrary number of characters.
  • 38. 38 Pattern Matching Example  To find names beginning with ‘b’: mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name LIKE "b%"; +--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+ | name | owner | species | sex | birth | death | +--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+ | Buffy | Harold | dog | f | 1989-05-13 | NULL | | Bowser | Diane | dog | m | 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 | +--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
  • 39. 39 Pattern Matching Example  To find names ending with `fy': mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name LIKE "%fy"; +--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+ | name | owner | species | sex | birth | death | +--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+ | Fluffy | Harold | cat | f | 1993-02-04 | NULL | | Buffy | Harold | dog | f | 1989-05-13 | NULL | +--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
  • 40. 40 Pattern Matching Example  To find names containing a ‘w’: mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name LIKE "%w%"; +----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+ | name | owner | species | sex | birth | death | +----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+ | Claws | Gwen | cat | m | 1994-03-17 | NULL | | Bowser | Diane | dog | m | 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 | | Whistler | Gwen | bird | NULL | 1997-12-09 | NULL | +----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
  • 41. 41 Pattern Matching Example  To find names containing exactly five characters, use the _ pattern character: mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name LIKE "_____"; +-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+ | name | owner | species | sex | birth | death | +-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+ | Claws | Gwen | cat | m | 1994-03-17 | NULL | | Buffy | Harold | dog | f | 1989-05-13 | NULL | +-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
  • 42. 42 Regular Expression Matching  The other type of pattern matching provided by MySQL uses extended regular expressions.  When you test for a match for this type of pattern, use the REGEXP and NOT REGEXP operators (or RLIKE and NOT RLIKE, which are synonyms).
  • 43. 43 Regular Expressions  Some characteristics of extended regular expressions are:  . matches any single character.  A character class [...] matches any character within the brackets. For example, [abc] matches a, b, or c. To name a range of characters, use a dash. [a-z] matches any lowercase letter, whereas [0-9] matches any digit.  * matches zero or more instances of the thing preceding it. For example, x* matches any number of x characters, [0-9]* matches any number of digits, and .* matches any number of anything.  To anchor a pattern so that it must match the beginning or end of the value being tested, use ^ at the beginning or $ at the end of the pattern.
  • 44. 44 Reg Ex Example  To find names beginning with b, use ^ to match the beginning of the name: mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP "^b"; +--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+ | name | owner | species | sex | birth | death | +--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+ | Buffy | Harold | dog | f | 1989-05-13 | NULL | | Bowser | Diane | dog | m | 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 | +--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
  • 45. 45 Reg Ex Example  To find names ending with `fy', use `$' to match the end of the name: mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP "fy$"; +--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+ | name | owner | species | sex | birth | death | +--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+ | Fluffy | Harold | cat | f | 1993-02-04 | NULL | | Buffy | Harold | dog | f | 1989-05-13 | NULL | +--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
  • 46. 46 Counting Rows  Databases are often used to answer the question, "How often does a certain type of data occur in a table?"  For example, you might want to know how many pets you have, or how many pets each owner has.  Counting the total number of animals you have is the same question as “How many rows are in the pet table?” because there is one record per pet.  The COUNT() function counts the number of non- NULL results.
  • 47. 47 Counting Rows Example  A query to determine total number of pets: mysql> SELECT COUNT(*) FROM pet; +----------+ | COUNT(*) | +----------+ | 9 | +----------+
  • 48. 48 Batch Mode  In the previous sections, you used mysql interactively to enter queries and view the results.  You can also run mysql in batch mode. To do this, put the commands you want to run in a file, then tell mysql to read its input from the file:  shell> mysql < batch-file
  • 49. 49 Is that all there is to MySQL?  Of course not!  Understanding databases and MySQL could take us several weeks (perhaps months!)  For now, focus on:  using the MySQL shell  creating tables  creating basic SQL queries
  • 50. 50 Summary  SQL provides a structured language for querying/updating multiple databases.  The more you know SQL, the better.  The most important part of SQL is learning to retrieve data.  selecting rows, columns, boolean operators, pattern matching, etc.  Keep playing around in the MySQL Shell.