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GIS
Chapter 1
Learning Objectives
At the end of this chapter you will :
 Know definitions of the terms used throughout the book,
including GIS itself;
 Be familiar with a brief history of GIS;
 Recognize the sometimes invisible roles of GIS in everyday
life, and the roles of GIS in business;
 Understand the significance of geographic information science,
and how it relates to geographic information systems;
 Understand the many impacts GIS is having on society, and
the need to study those impact
:
Introduction
Geographic information systems GIS are a special class of
information systems that keep track not only of events,
activities, and things, but also of where these events,
activities, and things happen or exist , because location is
so important .
Knowing where something happens is of critical importance
if we want to go there ourselves or send someone there, to
find other information about the same place, or to inform
people who live nearby.
Introduction:
Geographic databases are often transactional ,
meaning that they are constantly being updated
as new information arrives, unlike maps, which
stay the same once printed.
Data, information, evidence, knowledge,
wisdom
 Data clearly refers to the most
mundane kind of information, and
wisdom to the most substantive.
 Information is data serving some
purpose, or data that have been
given some degree of
interpretation.
 GIS does a better job of sharing
data and information than
knowledge, which is more difficult
to detach from the knower.
Data:
raw facts, neutral, context-free
Information:
refined data, some degree of
pre-processing and
interpretation on data
Knowledge:
interpretation on info.
based on context,
experience, purpose
Wisdom:
for decision
making or advice
given
Data, information, evidence, knowledge,
wisdom
 It is important to distinguish two types of knowledge: codified
and tacit.
 Knowledge is codifiable if it can be written down and
transferred relatively easily to others.
 Tacit knowledge is often slow to acquire and much more
difficult to transfer. (e.g. familiarity with using a particular
technology or language)
 Evidence is considered a half way house between information
and knowledge.
 Wisdom is even more elusive to define than the other terms
GIS:
A GIS is a mechanized inventory of geographically
distributed features and facilities.
A GIS is a tool for performing operations on geographic
data that are too tedious or expensive or inaccurate if
performed by hand.
A brief history of GIS
 The first GIS was the Canada Geographic Information
System (CGIS) , designed in the mid-1960s as a
computerized map measuring system.
 CGIS was planned and developed as a measuring tool,
a producer of tabular information, rather than as a
mapping tool.
 The first automated cartography developments
occurred in the 1960s s, and by the late 1970s most
major cartographic agencies were already
computerized to some degree.
A brief history of GIS
 Remote sensing also played a part in the development
of GIS, as a source of technology as well as a source of
data.
The Six components of the GIS anatomy:
The Six components of the GIS anatomy:
The Network:
 without network no rapid communication or sharing of
digital information could occur.
 Users connected to the Internet could zoom in to parts of
the map, or pan to other parts, using simple mouse clicks
without ever needing to install specialized software
or download large amounts of data.
 Hardware: is the device that the user interacts with directly in
carrying out GIS operations, by typing, pointing, clicking, or
speaking, and which returns information by displaying it on the
device’s screen.
 Database: consists of a digital representation of selected
aspects of some specific area of the Earth’s surface or near-
surface, built to serve some problem solving or scientific
purpose.
 GIS databases can range in size from a megabyte
to a petabyte.
The Six components of the GIS anatomy:
Geographic Information Science
 GISystems are only one part of the GI whole, which also
includes the fundamental issues of GIScience.
 GIScience should study the fundamental issues arising
from geographic information.
 Other terms have much the same meaning: geomatics and
geoinformatics, spatial information science,
geoinformation engineering. All suggest a scientific
approach to the fundamental issues raised by the use of
GIS and related technologies,

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University of New South Wales degree offer diploma Transcript
 

intro to gis

  • 2. Learning Objectives At the end of this chapter you will :  Know definitions of the terms used throughout the book, including GIS itself;  Be familiar with a brief history of GIS;  Recognize the sometimes invisible roles of GIS in everyday life, and the roles of GIS in business;  Understand the significance of geographic information science, and how it relates to geographic information systems;  Understand the many impacts GIS is having on society, and the need to study those impact
  • 3. : Introduction Geographic information systems GIS are a special class of information systems that keep track not only of events, activities, and things, but also of where these events, activities, and things happen or exist , because location is so important . Knowing where something happens is of critical importance if we want to go there ourselves or send someone there, to find other information about the same place, or to inform people who live nearby.
  • 4. Introduction: Geographic databases are often transactional , meaning that they are constantly being updated as new information arrives, unlike maps, which stay the same once printed.
  • 5. Data, information, evidence, knowledge, wisdom  Data clearly refers to the most mundane kind of information, and wisdom to the most substantive.  Information is data serving some purpose, or data that have been given some degree of interpretation.  GIS does a better job of sharing data and information than knowledge, which is more difficult to detach from the knower. Data: raw facts, neutral, context-free Information: refined data, some degree of pre-processing and interpretation on data Knowledge: interpretation on info. based on context, experience, purpose Wisdom: for decision making or advice given
  • 6. Data, information, evidence, knowledge, wisdom  It is important to distinguish two types of knowledge: codified and tacit.  Knowledge is codifiable if it can be written down and transferred relatively easily to others.  Tacit knowledge is often slow to acquire and much more difficult to transfer. (e.g. familiarity with using a particular technology or language)  Evidence is considered a half way house between information and knowledge.  Wisdom is even more elusive to define than the other terms
  • 7. GIS: A GIS is a mechanized inventory of geographically distributed features and facilities. A GIS is a tool for performing operations on geographic data that are too tedious or expensive or inaccurate if performed by hand.
  • 8. A brief history of GIS  The first GIS was the Canada Geographic Information System (CGIS) , designed in the mid-1960s as a computerized map measuring system.  CGIS was planned and developed as a measuring tool, a producer of tabular information, rather than as a mapping tool.  The first automated cartography developments occurred in the 1960s s, and by the late 1970s most major cartographic agencies were already computerized to some degree.
  • 9. A brief history of GIS  Remote sensing also played a part in the development of GIS, as a source of technology as well as a source of data.
  • 10. The Six components of the GIS anatomy:
  • 11. The Six components of the GIS anatomy: The Network:  without network no rapid communication or sharing of digital information could occur.  Users connected to the Internet could zoom in to parts of the map, or pan to other parts, using simple mouse clicks without ever needing to install specialized software or download large amounts of data.
  • 12.  Hardware: is the device that the user interacts with directly in carrying out GIS operations, by typing, pointing, clicking, or speaking, and which returns information by displaying it on the device’s screen.  Database: consists of a digital representation of selected aspects of some specific area of the Earth’s surface or near- surface, built to serve some problem solving or scientific purpose.  GIS databases can range in size from a megabyte to a petabyte. The Six components of the GIS anatomy:
  • 13. Geographic Information Science  GISystems are only one part of the GI whole, which also includes the fundamental issues of GIScience.  GIScience should study the fundamental issues arising from geographic information.  Other terms have much the same meaning: geomatics and geoinformatics, spatial information science, geoinformation engineering. All suggest a scientific approach to the fundamental issues raised by the use of GIS and related technologies,