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Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
by Peter Martin
www.db8.nl / @pe7er Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
1.Networking
2.Internet
1.TCP/IP
2.OSI
3.Internet of people
1.Email, WWW
2.Web 1.0 / v2
3.Devices
4.Webservices
Internet of Things (IoT)
5.Internet of things
6.My Internet of things
7.The sandwich
Joomladagen 2015Joomladagen 2015
1. Networking
Sharing
● Computer power
– Mainframe + Terminals
● Equipment
– Printer
– Storage
● Information
– Documents
Sneakernet
Networking
Networking
Networking
Networking
Ethernet
Connecting...
Hello everyone!
I am new!
Hello new one!
I am 192.168.0.1
and your “gateway”
to the outside world
From now on you
are 192.168.0.42
You can look up
“IP addresses”
of domain names
at “DNS”
with IP 8.8.8.8
Let's use
Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol
(DHCP)
Oops...
Internet Protocol
is next item...
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
2. Internet
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Definition 1
Internet = Network between connected local networks;
“Inter-network”
Internet
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Definition 2
Internet = Packet Switching on
TCP/IP
Transmission
Control
Protocol
Internet
Protocol
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Packet Switching
● All transmitted data is divided into blocks,
“packets”
● Those “packets” can travel using different
routes
● The destination merges the packets
Sharing
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Internet Protocol
● Host addressing and identification
“who is who”
● Packet routing
“shortest route?”
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
TCP
Here's a
packet Thanks,
I got it!
Here's the
next packet
● Packets travel from router to router to router to
router to router to router to router to destination
● Quality Control?
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)!
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
DNS
What's DNS?
173.194.65.139
is your friend!
DNSGoogle.com?
173.194.65.139 !
Dear 173.194.65.139,
please give me index page
OSI
Joomladagen 2015Joomladagen 2015
3. Internet of People
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Email
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
● E-mail = text file
● E-mail Header: sender, IP address sender, receiver,
return address, message ID, all mail servers on route,
spam flags, etc.
● Peter @ db8.nl
– POP3 server (or IMAP) @db8.nl handles e-mail
– Stores it in text file for Peter
– Or replies with bounce message
E-mail
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Send E-mail
From: peter@db8.nl
To: bill.gates@microsoft.com
Message:
Dear Bill,
Almost 10 years I discovered Linux and now I am not fond of
Windows anymore. If I buy a PC for Linux, I still have to pay
license fees for Windows.
Could you please refund my money?
Kind regards,
Peter
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Receive E-mail
From: bill.gates@microsoft.com
To: peter@db8.nl
Message:
Dear Peter,
How are you doing?
Sorry to hear that you don’t like our Operating System any more.
Please keep in mind that our next Windows version will be much better!
Sorry, but we don’t have a refund policy.
Yours sincerely,
Bill Gates
PS: I noticed that your website runs on Joomla. That’s awesome!
BTW: Joomla also works on our products Windows IIS + MSSQL!
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Bounce Message
Undelivered Mail Returned to Sender
This is the mail system at host mail-out.microsoft.com. I'm sorry to have to inform you that your
message could not be delivered to one or more recipients. It's attached below.
For further assistance, please send mail to postmaster.
If you do so, please include this problem report. You can delete your own text from the attached
returned message.
The mail system
<bill.gates@microsoft.com>: host microsoft.com[134.170.188.221] said: 550 "Unknown User"
Reporting-MTA: dns; mail-out.s1.byte.nl
X-Postfix-Sender: rfc822;
Arrival-Date: Tue, 9 Sep 2014 11:09:20 +0200 (CEST)
Final-Recipient: rfc822; bill.gates@microsoft.com
Original-Recipient: rfc822; bill.gates@microsoft.com
Action: failed
Status: 5.0.0
Remote-MTA: dns; microsoft.com
Diagnostic-Code: smtp; 550 "Unknown User"
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
WWW
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
WWW
● World Wide Web = HyperText Transfer Protocol
WWW ≠ Internet !
● WWW = A collection of HTML documents
● HyperText Markup Language
– Text files with information linked to other text files
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
“Surfing”
Browsing on the WWW:
YOU ARE
NOT VISITING
A WEBSITE
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
HTTP(S)
● HTTP (port 80) – All traffic = plain text
● HTTPS (port 443) – All traffic via encrypted
connection
– protects your data on route
– No safeguard for data on unsafe server....
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
HTML
● Text file with markup
● Markup defines elements:
pagetitle, paragraph, heading,
hyperlink, image, CSS
● Hyperlink = created by browser
● Image = just reference, loaded by browser
● CSS = layout definition interpreted by browser
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Web v1
● Till 2004
– Few websites
– Mostly static HTML
– Purpose: display information
– Visitors are consumers
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Web v2
● > 2004 - Change in the way how Web pages
are made and used
– Huge increase in dynamic websites
– Visitors can also create content
● CMS, Blogging, Social Media, Youtube,
FaceBook, etc
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Devices
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Devices
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Devices
Joomladagen 2015Joomladagen 2015
4. Webservices
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Server vs service
● Webserver
– Mostly brower request
– page with HTML
markup
– via http(s)
● Webservice
– Mostly devices /
webservers request
– formatted data
– via http(s)
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
{
"results" : [
{
"formatted_address" : "Van Broeckhuysenstraat 46, 6511 PK Nijmegen,
Netherlands",
"geometry" : {
"location" : {
"lat" : 51.8438169,
"lng" : 5.865908399999999
},
"location_type" : "ROOFTOP",
"viewport" : {
"northeast" : {
"lat" : 51.8451658802915,
"lng" : 5.867257380291502
},
"southwest" : {
"lat" : 51.8424679197085,
"lng" : 5.864559419708497
}
}
},
"place_id" : "ChIJWQeYKkUIx0cRc87ZCaPbj0w",
"types" : [ "street_address" ]
}
],
"status" : "OK"
}
Browser:
https://www.google.nl/maps/place/Van
+Broeckhuysenstraat+46,+6511+PK+
Nijmegen
Webservice:
http://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/
geocode/json?sensor=false&address
=Van+Broeckhuysenstraat+46,+6511
+PK+Nijmegen
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Web services
design models
● XML RPC
– XML – Remote Procedure Call Protocol
● SOAP
– Simple Object Access Protocol
● REST
– REpresentational State Transfer
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
REST
● Architectural approach (not a protocol!)
● XML or JSON
● Via HTTP
● CRUD operation: GET, POST, PUT, DELETE
● URI design: directory like structure
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
URI design
URI HTTP
method
Action
/article/ GET Get all articles
/article/7 GET Get articles with id=7
/article/ POST Add new article
/article/7 PUT Edit article with id=7
/article/6 DELETE Delete article with id=6
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
HTTP Status
Normal http status
– 200 = ok
– 404 = not found
– 500 = internal server error
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
5. Internet of Things
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Internet of Things
● Devices connected to each other via internet
● Collect data
● Share data
● Autonomously
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Possible issues
● No universal language or protocol
● Privacy issues
● Security issues
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
6. My Internet of Things
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
ESP8266
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
ESP8266 versies
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Pins
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Flashing
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
NodeMCU
“Connect Things EASY - An open-source
firmware and development kit that helps you to
prototype your IOT product within a few Lua
script lines”
http://nodemcu.com/
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Lua
Lua (“moon” in Portuguese)
“lightweight multi-paradigm programming
language designed as a scripting language with
extensible semantics as a primary goal”
http://www.lua.org/
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Flashing firmware
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Thingspeak.com
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
48 hours later
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
7. The sandwich
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
My coworking
place
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Me working
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
My colleague
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Sandwich shop
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Raspberry Pi
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Rpi → webservice
● Raspberry Pi
– bash script collects MAC via arp-scan
– Posts array of MAC addresses to webservice
● Joomla Website
– Webservice receives array with MAC addresses &
stores in MySQL database table
● Slim Framework - php micro framework
http://www.slimframework.com/
– Joomla component lists members + “online” status
from MySQL database table
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
In action
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Connected to
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Website
● Webapplication
– Joomla + SLIM framework
● Mobile phone App
Conclusion
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Questions?
Peter Martin
e-mail: info at db8.nl
website: www.db8.nl
twitter: @pe7er
Presentation: http://www.db8.nl
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Used Photos
Title sheet:
●
Internet of Things
http://www.markethings.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/IoT-2.png
●
Sandwich Cheese Pesto Salad
http://www.foody.nl/P60669/614x412/broodje-kip-pesto.jpg
1. Networking
● Wm2005-hackday-guerilla-networking, Andrew Lih, 2005
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Wm2005-hackday-guerilla-networking.JPG
● IBM Electronic Data Processing Machine - GPN-2000-001881, NASA, 1957
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/20/IBM_Electronic_Data_Processing_Machine_-
_GPN-2000-001881.jpg
●
Floppy disk 2009 G1, George Chernilevsky, 2009
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Floppy_disk_2009_G1.jpg
●
SanDisk Cruzer Micro, Evan-Amos, 2011
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:SanDisk_Cruzer_Micro.png
●
CD-R Front, Stefan Kühn, 2003
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:CD-R_Front.jpg
●
Harddisk in USB external box, Vojtěch Brzek, 2011
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Harddisk_in_USB_external_box.jpg
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Used Photos
2. Internet
●
ARPANET as of Jun 30, 1982 - BBN map - DSC00123, BBN Technologies, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2013
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:ARPANET_as_of_Jun_30,_1982_-_BBN_map_-_DSC00123.JPG
●
Old Phonebooks at Salton Sea - Gentle, 2010
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Old_Phonebooks_at_Salton_Sea.jpg
●
OSIModel.jpg - MrsValdry, 2011
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:OSIModel.jpg
3. Internet of People
●
IoT-Graphic-540x247.png
http://numrush.nl/2015/03/13/amazon-neemt-startup-om-internet-things-platform-uit-te-bouwen/
●
Pigeon Messengers (Harper's Engraving), Harper's New Monthly Magazine, No. 275, April, 1873.
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pigeon_Messengers_(Harper's_Engraving).png
●
HypertextEditingSystemConsoleBrownUniv1969, Greg Lloyd, 1969
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:HypertextEditingSystemConsoleBrownUniv1969.jpg
●
tricorderunbox4, Bobbie Johnson, 2009
https://www.flickr.com/photos/bojo/4078685614/in/photostream/
●
Mobile-stats-vs-desktop-users-global-550x405.png
http://www.smartinsights.com/mobile-marketing/mobile-marketing-analytics/mobile-marketing-statistics/
●
Mobile-Internet-Trends-Mary-Meeker-2015-1-550x417.png
http://www.smartinsights.com/mobile-marketing/mobile-marketing-analytics/mobile-marketing-statistics/
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Used Photos
4. Webservices
●
Waiter pouring Zardetto sparkling Prosecco, Jeff Kubina, 2009
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Waiter_pouring_Zardetto_sparkling_Prosecco.jpg
5. Internet of Things
●
ioe_plaatje.jpg
http://hanswisbrun.nl/2015/09/21/verborgen-anonieme-zaken-in-amsterdam/ioe_plaatje/
6. My Internet of Things
● ESP8266
http://www.seeedstudio.com/depot/WiFi-Serial-Transceiver-Module-w-ESP8266-p-1994.html
●
ESP8266 overview
http://www.esp8266.com/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=3876
● ESP8266 Datasheet
http://www.electroschematics.com/11276/esp8266-datasheet/
●
Flashing ESP8266
https://importhack.wordpress.com/2014/11/22/how-to-use-ep8266-esp-01-as-a-sensor-web-
client/
Linux NijmegenLinux Nijmegen
Used Photos
7. The sandwich
●
Sandwich Cheese Pesto Salad
http://www.foody.nl/P60669/614x412/broodje-kip-pesto.jpg
●
Login screen
http://www.getyourwebpage.com/login-members.html
●
Card Swipe
http://www.multitechreps.com/line-card/kantech/
●
Harry Fain, coal loader, checks out in the afternoon after cleaning up after work. Inland Steel
Company, Wheelwright... - NARA - 541444 - U.S. National Archives and Records Administration,
1946
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8c/Harry_Fain,_coal_loader,_checks_out_in_
the_afternoon_after_cleaning_up_after_work._Inland_Steel_Company,_Wheelwright..._-
_NARA_-_541444.jpg
●
Still from “1984”
http://www.dagelijksestandaard.nl/2015/03/google-claimt-waarheidsmonopolie/
Conclusion
●
EquinoxeJuniorHighPac-Man - Equinoxe, 2012
http://www.c64-wiki.com/index.php/File:EquinoxeJuniorHighPac-Man.png

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Internet of Things - Linux Usergroup Nijmegen

Editor's Notes

  1. I am Peter Martin from Nijmegen in The Netherlands.
  2. In the next 45 minutes I hope to teach you something about IT. btw: does everybody know what IT means? IT = Information Technology. And is an integral part of our daily life. Nowadays everybody has at least a couple of computers: a PC, a smart phone, a tablet PC, a car navigation, a modern television. In this presentation I will start to explain what a Computer is, then I will work my way through different IT subjects and will end this journey with what Joomla is. My goal of this presentation is not to be 100% accurate. What I hope to accomplish is that in the future you’ll think about simple daily life concepts when you hear about technical IT terms.
  3. Why Networking? Sharing....computer power (mainframe)equipment (printer, storage)information (documents) The first and most primitive kind of network is...
  4. Sneakernet is a sort of network that works by transporting data on removable media. Anyone know why it&amp;apos;s called Sneakernet? You have to walk a lot from one computer to the other, so you&amp;apos;d better wear sneaker shoes.
  5. Instead of removable media, you can use a cable to connect one computer with the other.If you connect more then three, then you&amp;apos;ll see the problem. Every computer has to be connected to the other ones, because if it&amp;apos;s not the case and one computer is switched off, the network stops to function. Four computers and a printer becomes a huge lot of wires and complexity....
  6. Instead of removable media, you can use a cable to connect one computer with the other.If you connect more then three, then you&amp;apos;ll see the problem. Every computer has to be connected to the other ones, because if it&amp;apos;s not the case and one computer is switched off, the network stops to function. Four computers and a printer becomes a huge lot of wires and complexity....
  7. Instead of removable media, you can use a cable to connect one computer with the other.If you connect more then three, then you&amp;apos;ll see the problem. Every computer has to be connected to the other ones, because if it&amp;apos;s not the case and one computer is switched off, the network stops to function. Four computers and a printer becomes a huge lot of wires and complexity....
  8. Instead of removable media, you can use a cable to connect one computer with the other.If you connect more then three, then you&amp;apos;ll see the problem. Every computer has to be connected to the other ones, because if it&amp;apos;s not the case and one computer is switched off, the network stops to function. Four computers and a printer becomes a huge lot of wires and complexity....
  9. So someone, again at Xerox PARC, developed a new network protocol: Ethernet (1973 – 1976). All devices, computers, printers, storage devices are connected to one cable. Every computer has a network card with unique serial number: MAC address (media access control address). Communication from one computer to another will travel past all computers, but only the device addressed to, actually listens. That is if you don&amp;apos;t have a hacker using Network Sniffer software that catches all data in the network that passes their computer.
  10. So what happens if you connect a new computer to the Ethernet network? You can see that I am already talking about IP addresses, which belong to the part about Internet.The Internet got so popular that it&amp;apos;s protocol is also used on computers in an Ethernet network...
  11. If you read about Internet you read about ARPA net, the basis of what we now know as Internet. ARPA net was a network between the U.S. Department of Defence for use by its projects at universities and research laboratories in the US.
  12. I just talked about Ethernet. If you connect one Ethernet network to some other local area network, then you create a network between networks. Internet = network between networks, an inter-network
  13. So if you want to connect two local networks, you can use a long cable. In this case a very long cable. Expensive Not reliable because it can break. So another characteristic of Internet is...
  14. Internet = Packet Switching on TCP/IP. Not really helpful is it? Let me explain....
  15. On the Internet all data is chopped into tiny blocks which are called packets.
  16. So if you want to connect two local networks, you can use a long cable. In this case a very long cable. Expensive Not reliable because it can break. So another characteristic of Internet is...
  17. The Internet Protocol handles the addressing, with IP addresses,and the routing.Every router in the network will sent a packet to the next router in the network. It will choose a router that is closer to the final destination.
  18. Packets will travel from source to destination, using different routes, but how can you be sure that every packet arrives at the destination?By TCP, the Quality Control of the Internet. The destination acknowledges the receipt of every packet If the source does not receive an acknowledgement for a packet within certain time, it will send the packet again...
  19. Another thing, I just told you that on Internet every computer works with IP addresses. We humans do not like such IP addresses. We prefer names...
  20. LayerTCP/IP protocols No.Name 7. Application - DNS / FTP / HTTP / DHCP / SMTP 6. Presentation- MIME / SSL / TLS 5. Session - Sockets (session establishment in TCP / RTP / PPTP) 4. Transport - TCP 3. Network - IP
  21. Why Networking? Sharing....computer power (mainframe)equipment (printer, storage)information (documents) The first and most primitive kind of network is...
  22. In the past when people were working on the same mainframe computer, it was possible to send messages to other people who were online. Someone thought it would be practical to send messages to people who were offline, but store them until they came online again. Hence, email was born. E-mail is a text file with a header. When it passes a router, it will add It&amp;apos;s IP + time stamp to the header. You can use the header for debugging in case of errors. E-mail will be handled by the server specified behind the at-sign. It will determine if the account name before the at-sign exists
  23. To explain, I&amp;apos;ve send the following e-mail to Bill Gates. It will travel in tiny packets to the router of my Internet Provider, to a router in Amsterdam, to London, to New York, Chicago, and finally arrive at a server in Seattle. It will merge all packets into one, which is my e-mail with a header that contains the full route... By the way, the e-mail is not encrypted. Everyone, or every router on the way, is able to read the message. Think about sending a post card, the mail man can read it before they put it in the mailbox. If you don&amp;apos;t want that, you&amp;apos;ve to use an envelope. And with e-mail, encrypt the message...
  24. Knowing Bill, he will reply within a couple of hours. But only if he is not playing with his latest gadget, the Apple Watch. He might reply something like
  25. But I am afraid that his reply will be something like. Which means that the email address did not exist. Note that you will only get such a bounce message if the server is configured to send such messages. The can also just add it to a spam box or just remove it automatically.
  26. When you visit a website, you are not really visiting the website and reading something which is stored on that webserver. Actually the text file with HTML markup was transferred to your computer, temporarily stored in cache memory, so you are reading it on your own computer
  27. Lies, damned lies, and statistics
  28. In the next 45 minutes I hope to teach you something about IT. btw: does everybody know what IT means? IT = Information Technology. And is an integral part of our daily life. Nowadays everybody has at least a couple of computers: a PC, a smart phone, a tablet PC, a car navigation, a modern television. In this presentation I will start to explain what a Computer is, then I will work my way through different IT subjects and will end this journey with what Joomla is. My goal of this presentation is not to be 100% accurate. What I hope to accomplish is that in the future you’ll think about simple daily life concepts when you hear about technical IT terms.
  29. I hope that this overview on Information Technology gives you an idea about what actually happens when you use IT.