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Automotive Cluster : germanyGroup 1
Cluster: Stuttgart
Education & TechnologyFrom 19th century: government-financed system for education - focus on scientific researchBaden-Württemberg (Stuttgart region) : the most renowned universities in Germany9 state universities  - 3 privates - 22 public collegesTechnologically oriented - offer special courses for the automotive sector - more applied researchSupply automotive companies with well trained, practical specialistsGovernment-financed system for research in technology, science and businessScience-based firms with in-house R&D laboratories
Growth DriversDemandAfter WWII: Federal Republic Of Germany (West)1990: Germany reunification + 17 million people1992: Maastricht Treaty -  Creation of the European MarketGerman consumers’ behavior - demand for high quality products Engineering-driven concepts in Germany vs  consumer-driven convenience concepts in cars in the USGovernment Policy19th century : Abolishment of traditional restrictions on the freedom to engage in businessInfrastructure: launch of construction of roads and canals, encouragement of railway construction
Growth Drivers
Development  of the IndustryStuttgart region: development of the 1st  ever automobile in the 1887 by Carl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler Development of DaimlerChrysler, Porsche & Bosch1800s:import of  technical know-how from Britain and Belgium in machine-building, iron and steel industries1920s: Industry consisted of 150 small automotive/components producers 1934: Nazi government ordered the industry to standardize productionFormation of Automotive Industry Economic Group1930s: Nazi government initiatives – production going from 52,000 to 352,ooo unitsLate 1930s: 3rd largest automobile manufacturer in the world
Porter 5 ForcesBargaining Power of SupplierMedium(Switching Cost,  Product Quality & technology)Barriers to Entry (new entrants)High Capital
High R&D
Technical Expertise
Economies of Scale
Supply/dist. networkIntense Rivalry VW, M.Benz, Porsche, Opel(Innovation, Differentiation, Price, Volume, Technology)Threat of SubstitutesSMALL
Electric Cars*

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International Competitiveness Automobile Cluster In Germany